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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532535/-tumor-associated-fibroblasts-promote-pd-l1-expression-in-lung-cancer-cells
#1
Haiyang He, Luyu Qi, Yongsheng Xiao, Yiling Hou
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) is an important part of TME, which inhibits the function of immune cells. CD8+ T cells play a significant role in tumor immunity. T-cell membrane possesses a distinct type of molecule with a negative regulatory function. Upon interaction with its corresponding ligand [programmed death factor ligand 1 (PD-L1)], programmed death factor 1 (PD-1) is activated and thus inhibits the kinase activity of T cells. This study aims to explore the possible effects of TAF on PD-L1 expression in lung cancer cells...
May 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529947/immune-checkpoint-blockade-for-hematologic-malignancies-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Matthew J Pianko, Yuzhou Liu, Srishti Bagchi, Alexander M Lesokhin
Immune checkpoint blockade has revolutionized the treatment of cancer, with impressive responses seen in a broad variety of tumor types. Blockade of immune checkpoints and immune signaling antibodies has shown promise in multiple types of hematologic malignancies (HMs), with dramatic single agent responses for pembrolizumab and nivolumab in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). In this review, we outline the current state of immune checkpoint blockade drug development in HMs, and discuss mechanisms of activity and resistance, and highlight potential targets in the immune tumor microenvironment (TME)...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521292/tumor-infiltrating-immune-cells-and-prognosis-in-gastric-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Wen Jiang, Ke Liu, Qing Guo, Ji Cheng, Liming Shen, Yinghao Cao, Jing Wu, Jianguo Shi, Heng Cao, Bo Liu, Kaixiong Tao, Guobin Wang, Kailin Cai
Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are a pivotal component of the tumor microenvironment (TME), but their indicative role remains poorly defined. A meta-analysis was performed to reveal the prognostic efficiency of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in gastric cancer (GC). By searching PubMed and Embase, we identified a total of 35 eligible articles that involved 4888 patients. Random or fixed effect models were employed to extract pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our results indicated that high CD3+ lymphocyte infiltration in all the locations (AG), the tumor nest (TN), and the tumor stroma (TS) predicted better overall survival (OS) (HR=0...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514763/the-value-of-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-in-assessing-pathological-complete-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemoradiation-therapy-in-rectal-cancer-a-comparison-with-conventional-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#4
Feixiang Hu, Wei Tang, Yiqun Sun, Dang Wan, Sanjun Cai, Zhen Zhang, Robert Grimm, Xu Yan, Caixia Fu, Tong Tong, Weijun Peng
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to comprehensively evaluate the advantage of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in distinguishing pathological complete response (pCR) from non-pCR patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in comparison to conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-six consecutive patients diagnosed with LARC were prospectively enrolled and underwent pre- and post-CRT MRI on a 3...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511988/exploring-the-potential-of-nanotherapeutics-in-targeting-tumor-microenvironment-for-cancer-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Eameema Muntimadugu, Nagavendra Kommineni, Wahid Khan
Advanced research in the field of cancer biology clearly demonstrated the key role of tumor microenvironment (TME) in cancer development and metastasis particularly in solid tumors. Components of TME, being non-neoplastic in nature provide supportive and permissive conditions for the growth of cancer cells. Hence it is important to modify TME in cancer therapy and this would be achieved by better understanding of TME morphological features and functioning of stromal components. Nanotechnology based drug delivery offers various advantages such as prolonged circulation time, delivery of cargo at desired site, improved bioavailability, reduced toxicity etc...
May 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507455/neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-of-the-rectal-carcinoma-the-correlation-between-the-findings-on-the-restaging-multiparametric-3t-mri-scanning-and-the-surgical-findings
#6
Radovan Vojtíšek, Eva Korčáková, Jan Mařan, Ondřej Šorejs, Jindřich Fínek
AIM: To figure out how to correlate the findings on functional MRI and carried out after neoadjuvant CRT of rectal carcinoma with final histology after surgery. BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant CRT is the standard treatment of locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Its use leads to the downstaging of the disease and in 15-42% of patients even to the detection of pCR after TME. The use of functional MRI improves the sensitivity and specificity of pCR detection up to 52-64% and 89-98%, respectively...
July 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506743/peptide-modified-nanomedicines-for-targeting-cells-at-the-tumor-microenvironment
#7
Ayelet David
Since their initial discovery more than 30 years ago, tumor-homing peptides have become an increasingly useful tool for targeted delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents into tumors. Today, it is well accepted that cells at tumor microenvironment (TME) contributes in many ways to cancer development and progression. Tumor-homing peptide are highly suitable ligands to actively target cells at the TME owing to their small size, low immunogenicity, stability, easy manufacturing and low cost. When conjugated to nanosized medicines (nanomedicines) these ligands can interact specifically with surface receptors expressed on cells in the heterogeneous TME, improve cellular uptake of nanomedicines by target cells, and potentially impair tumor growth and progression...
May 12, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502421/is-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-always-necessary-for-mid-high-local-advanced-rectal-cancer-a-comparative-analysis-after-propensity-score-matching
#8
Y Zhang, Y Sun, Z Xu, P Chi, X Lu
AIM: This study was aimed to compare perioperative and oncological outcomes of mid/high locally advanced midrectal cancer (LARC) treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) vs. surgery alone, and to identify risk factors for local recurrence in mid/high LARC. METHOD: A total of 471 mid/high LARC patients treated with surgery alone or NCRT (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions) with concurrent FOLFOX/XELOX followed by TME in 6-8 weeks from 2008 to 2014 were matched 1:1 by using propensity score analysis...
May 4, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501940/common-extracellular-matrix-regulation-of-myeloid-cell-activity-in-the-bone-marrow-and-tumor-microenvironments
#9
REVIEW
Sabina Sangaletti, Claudia Chiodoni, Claudio Tripodo, Mario P Colombo
The complex interaction between cells undergoing transformation and the various stromal and immunological cell components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) crucially influences cancer progression and diversification, as well as endowing clinical and prognostic significance. The immunosuppression characterizing the TME depends on the recruitment and activation of different cell types including regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and tumor-associated macrophages. Less considered is the non-cellular component of the TME...
May 13, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501517/nanoparticles-for-modulating-tumor-microenvironment-to-improve-drug-delivery-and-tumor-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Shu Yang, Huile Gao
Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a critical role in tumorigenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. TME is composed of stroma, endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and immune cells, which is characterized by hypoxia, acidosis, and high interstitial fluid pressure. Due to the important role of TME, we firstly reviewed the composition of TME and discussed the impact of TME on tumor progression, drug and nanoparticle delivery. Next, we reviewed current strategies developed to modulate TME, including modulating tumor vasculature permeability, tumor associated macrophage phenotypes, tumor associated fibroblasts, tumor stroma components, tumor hypoxia, and multiple interventions simultaneously...
May 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492519/theranostic-probes-for-targeting-tumor-microenvironment-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
Musafar Gani Sikkandhar, Anu Maashaa Nedumaran, Roopa Ravichandar, Satnam Singh, Induja Santhakumar, Zheng Cong Goh, Sachin Mishra, Govindaraju Archunan, Balázs Gulyás, Parasuraman Padmanabhan
Long gone is the time when tumors were thought to be insular masses of cells, residing independently at specific sites in an organ. Now, researchers gradually realize that tumors interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM), blood vessels, connective tissues, and immune cells in their environment, which is now known as the tumor microenvironment (TME). It has been found that the interactions between tumors and their surrounds promote tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. The dynamics and diversity of TME cause the tumors to be heterogeneous and thus pose a challenge for cancer diagnosis, drug design, and therapy...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483787/a-sting-agonist-given-with-ox40-receptor-and-pd-l1-modulators-primes-immunity-and-reduces-tumor-growth-in-tolerized-mice
#12
Jeremy B Foote, Marleen Kok, James M Leatherman, Todd D Armstrong, Bridget C Marcinkowski, Laureen S Ojalvo, David B Kanne, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Thomas W Dubensky, Leisha A Emens
STING signaling induces interferon-β (IFNβ) production by intratumoral dendritic cells (DCs), driving T-cell priming and recruitment into the tumor microenvironment (TME). We examined to what extent pre-existing antigen tolerance influenced the efficacy of in situ delivery of a potent STING-activating cyclic dinucleotide (CDN), ADU S-100, against established HER-2(+) breast tumors. ADU S-100 induced HER-2-specific CD8(+) T-cell priming and durable tumor clearance in 100% of nontolerant parental FVB/N mice...
May 8, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476941/systemic-chemotherapy-as-salvage-treatment-for-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-patients-who-fail-to-respond-to-standard-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy
#13
Francesco Sclafani, Gina Brown, David Cunningham, Sheela Rao, Paris Tekkis, Diana Tait, Federica Morano, Chiara Baratelli, Eleftheria Kalaitzaki, Shahnawaz Rasheed, David Watkins, Naureen Starling, Andrew Wotherspoon, Ian Chau
BACKGROUND: The potential of chemotherapy as salvage treatment after failure of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) has never been explored. We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis to address this question. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed LARC who were inoperable or candidates for extensive (i.e., beyond total mesorectal excision [TME]) surgery after long-course chemoradiotherapy and who received salvage chemotherapy were included...
May 5, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475599/susd2-promotes-tumor-associated-macrophage-recruitment-by-increasing-levels-of-mcp-1-in-breast-cancer
#14
Elizabeth M Hultgren, Mitch E Patrick, Rick L Evans, Catherine T Stoos, Kristi A Egland
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a role in tumor angiogenesis and are recruited into the tumor microenvironment (TME) by secreted chemokines, including Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2). Angiogenesis is required to sustain proliferation and enable metastasis of breast cancer (BCa) cells. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of TAM recruitment would allow for the identification of desperately needed novel drug targets. Sushi Domain Containing 2 (SUSD2), a transmembrane protein on BCa cells, was previously shown to promote tumor angiogenesis in a murine model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471401/nanomedicine-strategies-to-target-tumor-associated-macrophages
#15
REVIEW
Karin Binnemars-Postma, Gert Storm, Jai Prakash
In recent years, the influence of the tumor microenvironment (TME) on cancer progression has been better understood. Macrophages, one of the most important cell types in the TME, exist in different subtypes, each of which has a different function. While classically activated M1 macrophages are involved in inflammatory and malignant processes, activated M2 macrophages are more involved in the wound-healing processes occurring in tumors. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) display M2 macrophage characteristics and support tumor growth and metastasis by matrix remodeling, neo-angiogenesis, and suppressing local immunity...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471108/dna-methylation-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#16
Meng-Wen Zhang, Kenji Fujiwara, Xu Che, Shu Zheng, Lei Zheng
The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in supporting cancer progression. The TME is composed of tumor cells, the surrounding tumor-associated stromal cells, and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Crosstalk between the TME components contributes to tumorigenesis. Recently, one of our studies showed that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells can induce DNA methylation in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), thereby modifying tumor-stromal interactions in the TME, and subsequently creating a TME that supports tumor growth...
May 2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470365/objective-assessment-of-minimally-invasive-total-mesorectal-excision-performance-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
N J Curtis, J Davids, J D Foster, N K Francis
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopy is widely used in colorectal practice, but recent trial results have questioned its use in rectal cancer resections. Patient outcomes are directly linked to the quality of total mesorectal excision (TME) specimen. Objective assessment of intraoperative performance could help ensure competence and delivery of optimal outcomes. Objective tools may also contribute to TME intervention trials, but their nature, structure and utilisation is unknown. AIM: To systemically review the available literature to report on the available tools for the objective assessment of minimally invasive TME operative performance and their use within multicentre laparoscopic TME randomised controlled trials...
April 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461570/type-1-immune-mechanisms-driven-by-the-response-to-infection-with-attenuated-rabies-virus-result-in-changes-in-the-immune-bias-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-necrosis-of-mouse-gl261-brain-tumors
#18
Emily K Bongiorno, Samantha A Garcia, Sami Sauma, D Craig Hooper
Immunotherapeutic strategies for malignant glioma have to overcome the immunomodulatory activities of M2 monocytes that appear in the circulation and as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). M2 cell products contribute to the growth-promoting attributes of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and bias immunity toward type 2, away from the type 1 mechanisms with antitumor properties. To drive type 1 immunity in CNS tissues, we infected GL261 tumor-bearing mice with attenuated rabies virus (RABV). These neurotropic viruses spread to CNS tissues trans-axonally, where they induce a strong type 1 immune response that involves Th1, CD8, and B cell entry across the blood-brain barrier and virus clearance in the absence of overt sequelae...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452087/cytotoxic-cd8-t-cells-ablation-enhances-the-capacity-of-regulatory-t-cells-to-delay-viral-elimination-in-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis
#19
Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Vanessa Herder, Muhammad Akram Khan, Ann-Kathrin Uhde, René Teich, Stephan Floess, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Jochen Huehn, Andreas Beineke
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) of susceptible mouse strains is a commonly used infectious animal model for multiple sclerosis. The study aim was to test the hypothesis whether cytotoxic T cell responses account for the limited impact of regulatory T cells on antiviral immunity in TME virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) resistant C57BL/6 mice. TME virus-infected C57BL/6 mice were treated with (i) interleukin-2/-anti-interleukin-2-antibody-complexes to expand regulatory T cells ('Treg-expansion'), (ii) anti-CD8-antibodies to deplete cytotoxic T cells ('CD8-depletion') or (iii) with a combination of Treg-expansion and CD8-depletion ('combined treatment') prior to infection...
April 27, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450700/sensitization-of-glioblastoma-tumor-micro-environment-to-chemo-and-immunotherapy-by-galectin-1-intranasal-knock-down-strategy
#20
Matthias Van Woensel, Thomas Mathivet, Nathalie Wauthoz, Rémi Rosière, Abhishek D Garg, Patrizia Agostinis, Véronique Mathieu, Robert Kiss, Florence Lefranc, Louis Boon, Jochen Belmans, Stefaan W Van Gool, Holger Gerhardt, Karim Amighi, Steven De Vleeschouwer
In this study, we evaluated the consequences of reducing Galectin-1 (Gal-1) in the tumor micro-environment (TME) of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), via nose-to-brain transport. Gal-1 is overexpressed in GBM and drives chemo- and immunotherapy resistance. To promote nose-to-brain transport, we designed siRNA targeting Gal-1 (siGal-1) loaded chitosan nanoparticles that silence Gal-1 in the TME. Intranasal siGal-1 delivery induces a remarkable switch in the TME composition, with reduced myeloid suppressor cells and regulatory T cells, and increased CD4+ and CD8+ T cells...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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