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Altruistic Donor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724118/perceptions-motivations-and-concerns-about-living-organ-donation-among-people-living-with-hiv
#1
Sarah E Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Macey L Henderson, Juli Bollinger, Shanti Seaman, Diane Brown, Christine M Durand, Dorry L Segev, Jeremy Sugarman
Recent changes to United States law now permit people living with HIV (PLWH) to donate organs to HIV-infected (HIV+) recipients under research protocols. PLWH may have unique motivations for and concerns about living donation and understanding them is critical to ensuring the integrity of this novel approach to organ transplantation. We conducted in-depth interviews with PLWH from an urban HIV clinic who had previously indicated their willingness to be a living donor. Interviews elicited information on their motivations, perceived benefits, and concerns regarding living donation...
May 3, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687570/should-we-formulate-an-incentivized-model-facilitating-kidney-donation-from-living-donors-a-focus-on-turkey-s-current-system
#2
Ercan Avci
Kidney transplantation is a lifesaving medical treatment. However, very high demand for kidneys with low kidney donation causes a black market that exploits patients' desperation and donors' vulnerability. The current kidney donation programs fail to produce promising results to avoid illegal and unethical kidney trafficking and commercialism. Even though the primary goal of kidney donation is to increase the number of deceased organ donations, in some countries, like Turkey, due to religious or cultural concerns, it is impossible to supply adequate deceased kidney donations...
April 23, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686986/blood-and-blood-components-from-similarities-to-differences
#3
REVIEW
Olivier Garraud, Jean-Daniel Tissot
Blood transfusion is made possible because, in most countries and organizations, altruistic individuals voluntarily, anonymously, and generously donate (without compensation) either whole blood or separated components that are then processed and distributed by professionals, prior to being allocated to recipients in need. Being part of modern medicine, blood transfusion uses so-called standard blood components when relative to cellular fractions and fresh plasma. However, as will be discussed in this paper, strictly speaking, such so-called labile blood components are not completely standard...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575738/first-live-birth-after-uterus-transplantation-in-the-united-states
#4
G Testa, G J McKenna, R T Gunby, T Anthony, E C Koon, A M Warren, J M Putman, L Zhang, G dePrisco, J M Mitchell, K Wallis, G B Klintmalm, M Olausson, L Johannesson
Uterus transplantation has proven to be a successful treatment for women with absolute uterine infertility, caused either by the absence of a uterus or the presence of a nonfunctioning uterus. We report the first birth of a healthy child following uterus transplantation in the United States, from a recipient of a uterus allograft procured from an altruistic living donor. Two major modifications from the previously reported live births characterized this uterus transplant. First, the transplanted uterus relied upon and sustained the pregnancy while having only the utero-ovarian vein as venous outflow...
March 25, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573423/toxic-money-or-paid-altruism-the-meaning-of-payments-for-identity-release-gamete-donors
#5
Leah Gilman
Public discourses commonly frame gamete, organ and other forms of bodily donation as altruistic 'gifts'. However, despite on-going debates about the ethics of payments to donors, few studies have examined the views of donors themselves regarding the meaning of payments and their compatibility (or not) with understandings of these practices as gifts. This article addresses this issue, analysing 24 in-depth interviews with UK identity-release gamete donors. It was crucial to all participants that their donation be viewed as fundamentally other-oriented, motivated by the desire to help others...
March 24, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542172/empathy-social-media-and-directed-altruistic-living-organ-donation
#6
Greg Moorlock, Heather Draper
In this article we explore some of the ethical dimensions of using social media to increase the number of living kidney donors. Social media provides a platform for changing non-identifiable 'statistical victims' into 'real people' with whom we can identify and feel empathy: the so-called 'identifiable victim effect', which prompts charitable action. We examine three approaches to promoting kidney donation using social media which could take advantages of the identifiable victim effect: (a) institutionally organized campaigns based on historical cases aimed at promoting non-directed altruistic donation; (b) personal case-based campaigns organized by individuals aimed at promoting themselves/or someone with whom they are in a relationship as a recipient of directed donation; (c) institutionally organized personal case-based campaigns aimed at promoting specific recipients for directed donation...
March 15, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530381/commercialization-altruism-clinical-practice-seeking-explanation-for-similarities-and-differences-in-californian-and-canadian-gestational-surrogacy-outcomes
#7
Pamela M White
BACKGROUND: Surrogacy is growing worldwide. Although recently some countries have sought to ban it, between 2010 and 2014 the number of babies born to gestational surrogates having in vitro fertilization treatment in California doubled, and in Canada it grew by 35%. This work seeks to fill identified knowledge gaps about the similarities and differences in the practices and outcomes of gestational surrogacy, which in California operates on a commercial basis, whereas in Canada it is illegal to pay a surrogate...
May 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528665/norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus-communicate-need-which-elicits-donation-of-food
#8
Manon K Schweinfurth, Michael Taborsky
Reciprocal cooperation has been observed in a wide range of taxa, but the proximate mechanisms underlying the exchange of help are yet unclear. Norway rats reciprocate help received from partners in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game. For donors, this involves accepting own costs to the benefit of a partner, without obtaining immediate benefits in return. We studied whether such altruistic acts are conditional on the communication of the recipient's need. Our results show that in a 2-player mutual food-provisioning task, prospective recipients show a behavioral cascade reflecting increasing intensity...
May 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502760/mental-health-assessment-of-altruistic-non-directed-kidney-donors-an-eapm-consensus-statement
#9
Stephen Potts, Frank Vitinius, Yesim Erim, Gabor Gazdag, Robert Gribble, S Y Sohal Ismail, Emma K Massey, Jose Maldonado, Istvan Mucsi, Marta Novak, Shehzad Khan Niazi, Terry D Schneekloth, Markos Syngelakis, Paula Zimbrean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369383/effective-altruists-ought-to-be-allowed-to-sell-their-kidneys
#10
Ryan Tonkens
Effective altruists aim to do the most good that they can do with the resources available to them, without causing themselves or their dependents significant harm thereby. The argument presented in this paper demonstrates that there are no morally relevant dissimilarities between living kidney donation and living kidney selling for effective altruistic reasons. Thus, since the former is allowed, the latter ought to be allowed as well. And, there are important moral differences between living kidney selling for effective altruistic reasons and other reasons for kidney vending (e...
January 25, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274383/human-body-donation-in-thailand-donors-at-khon-kaen-university
#11
N Techataweewan, C Panthongviriyakul, Y Toomsan, W Mothong, P Kanla, A Chaichun, P Amarttayakong, N Tayles
BACKGROUND: Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. METHODS: Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies...
March 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243539/the-influence-of-neighbor-effect-and-urbanization-toward-organ-donation-in-thailand
#12
Kua Wongboonsin, Pavitra Jindahra, Surat Teerakapibal
INTRODUCTION: Toward population wellness, an extreme scarcity of organ supply is proven to be an enormous hindrance. Preferences toward organ donation are vital to raise the organ donation rate. Notably, the area people live in can address the social influence on individual preference toward organ donation. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: This article studies the impact of the neighbor effect on organ donation decisions, addressing the social influence of urbanization on preferences...
January 1, 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225712/a-look-ahead-strategy-for-non-directed-donors-in-kidney-paired-donation
#13
Wen Wang, Mathieu Bray, Peter X-K Song, John D Kalbfleisch
While there is a growing need for kidney transplants to treat end stage kidney disease, the supply of transplantable kidneys is in serious shortage. Kidney paired donation (KPD) programs serve as platforms for candidates with willing but incompatible donors to assess the possibility of exchanging donors, thus opening up new transplant opportunities for these candidates. In recent years, non-directed (or altruistic) donors (NDDs) have been incorporated into KPD programs beginning chains of transplants that benefit many candidates...
December 2017: Statistics in Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208647/cell-type-transcriptomes-of-the-multicellular-green-alga-volvox-carteri-yield-insights-into-the-evolutionary-origins-of-germ-and-somatic-differentiation-programs
#14
Gavriel Y Matt, James G Umen
Germ-soma differentiation is a hallmark of complex multicellular organisms, yet its origins are not well understood. Volvox carteri is a simple multicellular green alga that has recently evolved a simple germ-soma dichotomy with only two cell-types: large germ cells called gonidia and small terminally differentiated somatic cells. Here, we provide a comprehensive characterization of the gonidial and somatic transcriptomes of V. carteri to uncover fundamental differences between the molecular and metabolic programming of these cell-types...
February 2, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190124/the-role-of-media-in-non-directed-altruistic-living-kidney-donation
#15
Eitan Novogrodsky, Alan Yaghoubian, Sarah E Connor, Elisabeth Hicks, Grecia B Vargas, Sima Nassiri, Ariella Maghen, Lorna Kwan, Amy D Waterman, Sally L Maliski, Jeffrey L Veale
This study seeks to characterize how non-directed living kidney donors use media and informational resources over the course of their kidney donation journey. We conducted semi-structured interviews with non-directed donors (NDDs) who initiated kidney transplant chains. Interview transcripts were reviewed and references to media or informational resources were classified by type and pattern of use. More than half (57%) of NDDs reported that an identifiable media or informational resource resulted in their initial interest in donation...
November 30, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098739/organ-donation-and-transplantation-awareness-and-roles-of-healthcare-professionals-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Oluwafunmilayo Jawoniyi, Kevin Gormley, Emma McGleenan, Helen Rose Noble
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of healthcare professionals in the organ donation and transplantation process. BACKGROUND: Globally, there remains a perennial disequilibrium between organ donation and organ transplantation. Several factors account for this disequilibrium; however, as healthcare professionals are not only strategically positioned as the primary intermediaries between organ donors and transplant recipients, but also professionally situated as the implementers of organ donation and transplantation processes, they are often blamed for the global organ shortage...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020785/-how-is-the-czech-oocyte-donor-the-analysis-of-their-profile
#17
T Rumpíková, I Oborná, S Bělašková, D Rumpík
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate (a) the basic socio-demographic characteristics of Czech oocytes donors, (b) their attitudes towards anonymous or nonanonymous donation and (c) their motivations to donate oocytes. DESIGN: Original article. SETTING: Clinic of Reproductive Medicine and Gynecology Zlin. METHODS: A total of 215 oocytes donors participated in this study, which was undertaken in years 2015-2016...
2017: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939572/understanding-barriers-and-outcomes-of-unspecified-non-directed-altruistic-kidney-donation-from-both-professional-s-and-patient-s-perspectives-research-protocol-for-a-national-multicentre-mixed-methods-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Rebecca Gare, Petrut Gogalniceanu, Hannah Maple, Lisa Burnapp, Alexis Clarke, Lynsey Williams, Sam Norton, Joseph Chilcot, Paul Gibbs, Annie Mitchell, Paul McCrone, Heather Draper, Nizam Mamode
INTRODUCTION: Living donation accounts for over one-third of all kidney transplants taking place in the UK. (1) The concept of anonymously donating a kidney to a stranger (non-directed altruistic or unspecified kidney donation (UKD)) remains uncomfortable for some clinicians, principally due to concerns about the motivations and long-term physical and psychological outcomes in this donor group. AIMS: The research programme aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of the unspecified donor programme in the UK...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924465/brain-dead-donation-rate-in-month-of-ramadan-and-the-other-months-2005-2014
#19
M Aghighi, M Mahdavi-Mazdeh, M Saberi Isfeedvajani, S A Tavakoli, N Tirgar, A Heidary Rouchi
Regardless of the level of development, religion and beliefs have crucial impact on people's attitude towards organ donation. Although organ donation in Islam is obviously appraised, mainly due to lack of an appropriate infrastructure, post-mortem donation rate in Islamic countries is not comparable to successful settings. We conducted this study to assess the extent of contribution of factors that reduce the level of effectiveness, and also to determine the impact of altruistic feelings in the month of Ramadan on family refusal as the leading modifiable contributor to organ donation rate...
2017: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922903/banking-on-living-kidney-donors-a-new-way-to-facilitate-donation-without-compromising-on-ethical-values
#20
Dominique E Martin, Gabriel M Danovitch
Public surveys conducted in many countries report widespread willingness of individuals to donate a kidney while alive to a family member or close friend, yet thousands suffer and many die each year while waiting for a kidney transplant. Advocates of financial incentive programs or "regulated markets" in kidneys present the problem of the kidney shortage as one of insufficient public motivation to donate, arguing that incentives will increase the number of donors. Others believe the solutions lie-at least in part-in facilitating so-called "altruistic donation;" harnessing the willingness of relatives and friends to donate by addressing the many barriers which serve as disincentives to living donation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
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