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Altruistic Donor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939572/understanding-barriers-and-outcomes-of-unspecified-non-directed-altruistic-kidney-donation-from-both-professional-s-and-patient-s-perspectives-research-protocol-for-a-national-multicentre-mixed-methods-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Rebecca Gare, Petrut Gogalniceanu, Hannah Maple, Lisa Burnapp, Alexis Clarke, Lynsey Williams, Sam Norton, Joseph Chilcot, Paul Gibbs, Annie Mitchell, Paul McCrone, Heather Draper, Nizam Mamode
INTRODUCTION: Living donation accounts for over one-third of all kidney transplants taking place in the UK. (1) The concept of anonymously donating a kidney to a stranger (non-directed altruistic or unspecified kidney donation (UKD)) remains uncomfortable for some clinicians, principally due to concerns about the motivations and long-term physical and psychological outcomes in this donor group. AIMS: The research programme aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of the unspecified donor programme in the UK...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924465/brain-dead-donation-rate-in-month-of-ramadan-and-the-other-months-2005-2014
#2
M Aghighi, M Mahdavi-Mazdeh, M Saberi Isfeedvajani, S A Tavakoli, N Tirgar, A Heidary Rouchi
Regardless of the level of development, religion and beliefs have crucial impact on people's attitude towards organ donation. Although organ donation in Islam is obviously appraised, mainly due to lack of an appropriate infrastructure, post-mortem donation rate in Islamic countries is not comparable to successful settings. We conducted this study to assess the extent of contribution of factors that reduce the level of effectiveness, and also to determine the impact of altruistic feelings in the month of Ramadan on family refusal as the leading modifiable contributor to organ donation rate...
2017: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922903/banking-on-living-kidney-donors-a-new-way-to-facilitate-donation-without-compromising-on-ethical-values
#3
Dominique E Martin, Gabriel M Danovitch
Public surveys conducted in many countries report widespread willingness of individuals to donate a kidney while alive to a family member or close friend, yet thousands suffer and many die each year while waiting for a kidney transplant. Advocates of financial incentive programs or "regulated markets" in kidneys present the problem of the kidney shortage as one of insufficient public motivation to donate, arguing that incentives will increase the number of donors. Others believe the solutions lie-at least in part-in facilitating so-called "altruistic donation;" harnessing the willingness of relatives and friends to donate by addressing the many barriers which serve as disincentives to living donation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865553/motivations-and-attitudes-of-candidate-sperm-donors-in-belgium
#4
Annelies Thijssen, Veerle Provoost, Eva Vandormael, Nathalie Dhont, Guido Pennings, Willem Ombelet
OBJECTIVE: To study the motivation and attitudes of a candidate sperm donor population in Belgium. DESIGN: Anonymous survey. SETTING: Tertiary referral infertility center. PATIENT(S): One hundred candidate sperm donors applying to the center for a first semen analysis between April 2013 and March 2016. INTERVENTION(S): Invitation to complete an anonymous questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Demographic characteristics, recruitment methods, motivations and attitudes toward payment, donor anonymity, disclosure to offspring, donation to lesbian couples and single women, views on the donor children and social aspects of sperm donation...
September 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857843/altruistic-nondirected-kidney-donation-attitudes-characteristics-and-ethical-implications
#5
Maja Ehlers, Frank Vitinius, Michael Langenbach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Altruistic nondirected kidney donation involves a person donating one of their kidneys to an unknown recipient. The donor's mental health and motives are frequently questioned. We want to highlight this topic and also encourage discussions about ethical implications. RECENT FINDINGS: The main topics are the mental health of altruistic nondirected kidney donors and the general attitude towards the practice of this form of donation as well as the willingness of the public to donate this way...
August 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817238/stakeholders-in-psychiatry-and-their-attitudes-toward-receiving-pertinent-and-incident-findings-in-genomic-research
#6
Anna Sundby, Merete W Boolsen, Kristoffer S Burgdorf, Henrik Ullum, Thomas F Hansen, Anna Middleton, Ole Mors
Increasingly more psychiatric research studies use whole genome sequencing or whole exome sequencing. Consequently, researchers face difficult questions, such as which genomic findings to return to research participants and how. This study aims to gain more knowledge on the attitudes among potential research participants and health professionals toward receiving pertinent and incidental findings. A cross-sectional online survey was developed to investigate the attitudes among research participants toward receiving genomic findings...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741700/financial-aspects-of-organ-procurement-from-deceased-donors-in-the-usa-relevance-to-xenotransplantation
#7
REVIEW
Ryan J Saari, David K C Cooper
When clinical xenotransplantation is introduced, the costs associated with acquisition of a genetically engineered pig organ are as yet unknown. How will these costs compare with those currently associated with the acquisition of deceased human organs? An understanding of the financial aspects of deceased organ and tissue procurement in the USA is therefore worthwhile. We have therefore attempted to review certain economic aspects of non-profit and for-profit organizations that provide cadaveric organs and/or tissues for purposes of transplantation into patients with end-stage organ failure, cellular deficiencies, or in need of reconstructive procedures...
July 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610845/hemochromatosis-and-blood-donation
#8
REVIEW
Turid Aarhus Braseth, Tor Hervig, Anne Synnove Rosvik
The voluntary, unpaid, altruistic blood donor is a cornerstone of current transfusion medicine. The complexity of medical and ethical issues related to blood donation and hemochromatosis has led to a large number of studies related to the safety of the hemochromatosis donor and the quality of the blood components produced from these donations. The issue of accepting persons with HC as blood donors is diverting, both in Europe and worldwide and without joint guidelines. A questionnaire-based study was performed and mailed to all 25 blood bank leaders in Norway...
June 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596416/a-kidney-graft-survival-calculator-that-accounts-for-mismatches-in-age-sex-hla-and-body-size
#9
Valarie B Ashby, Alan B Leichtman, Michael A Rees, Peter X-K Song, Mathieu Bray, Wen Wang, John D Kalbfleisch
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Outcomes for transplants from living unrelated donors are of particular interest in kidney paired donation (KPD) programs where exchanges can be arranged between incompatible donor-recipient pairs or chains created from nondirected/altruistic donors. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, we analyzed 232,705 recipients of kidney-alone transplants from 1998 to 2012. Graft failure rates were estimated using Cox models for recipients of kidney transplants from living unrelated, living related, and deceased donors...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579040/autonomy-and-self-esteem-of-women-who-donate-to-an-oocyte-cryopreservation-bank-in-the-netherlands
#10
Marjolein R Bakker, Joyce Maas, Marrie H Bekker, Annelien L Bredenoord, Bart C Fauser, Annelies M Bos
Worldwide, oocyte donors donate voluntarily or receive varying amounts of money for donation. This raises ethical questions regarding the appropriateness of financial compensation, and the possibility of undue inducement and exploitation of oocyte donors. Are these donors capable of making an independent, well-considered decision? Regarding this matter, it is important to examine aspects such as autonomy-connectedness and self-esteem. In this cross-sectional study, demographic characteristics and donation motivations were assessed in 92 women who attended the University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht as potential oocyte donors between June 2012 and July 2016...
May 17, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574902/advanced-donation-programs-and-deceased-donor-initiated-chains-2-innovations-in-kidney-paired-donation
#11
Anji E Wall, Jeffrey L Veale, Marc L Melcher
Kidney paired donation strategies have facilitated compatible living-donor kidney transplants for end stage renal disease patients with willing but incompatible living donors. Success has inspired further innovations that expand opportunities for kidney-paired donation. Two such innovations are the advanced donation strategy in which a donor provides a kidney before their recipient is matched, or even in need of, a kidney transplant, and deceased donor initiated chains in which chains are started with deceased donors rather than altruistic living donors...
June 1, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507916/past-present-and-future-of-kidney-paired-donation-transplantation-in-india
#12
REVIEW
Vivek B Kute, Himanshu V Patel, Pankaj R Shah, Pranjal R Modi, Veena R Shah, Sayyed J Rizvi, Bipin C Pal, Manisha P Modi, Priya S Shah, Umesh T Varyani, Pavan S Wakhare, Saiprasad G Shinde, Vijay A Ghodela, Minaxi H Patel, Varsha B Trivedi, Hargovind L Trivedi
One third of healthy willing living kidney donors are rejected due to ABO blood group incompatibility and donor specific antibody. This increases pre-transplant dialysis duration leading to increased morbidity and mortality on the kidney transplantation waiting list. Over the last decade kidney paired donation is most rapidly increased source of living kidney donors. In a kidney transplantation program dominated by living donor kidney transplantation, kidney paired donation is a legal and valid alternative strategy to increase living donor kidney transplantation...
April 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486981/patients-willingness-to-pay-for-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis-in-nigeria-exploring-own-use-and-altruism
#13
Ogbonnia G Ochonma, Obinna E Onwujekwe
BACKGROUND: Although, current treatment services for Tuberculosis (TB) in Nigeria are provided free of charge in public facilities, the benefits (value) that patients attach to such service is not known. In addition, the prices that could be charged for treatment in case government and its partners withdraw from the provision of free services or inclusion of the services in health insurance plans are not known. Hence, there is a need to elicit the maximum amounts that patients are willing to pay for TB treatment services, both for themselves and for the very poor patients that may not be able to pay if some user fees are introduced (altruistic willingness to pay)...
May 10, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443056/concerns-mental-health-and-quality-of-life-in-living-kidney-donation-parent-donor-candidates-worry-less-about-themselves
#14
M Ángeles Pérez-San-Gregorio, Agustín Martín-Rodríguez, Asunción Luque-Budia, Rupert Conrad
Even though the majority of living kidney donor candidates appear in good mental health and show few concerns little is known concerning the influence of the type of donor-recipient relationship on donor candidates' specific concerns with regard to kidney donation. 136 donor candidates at Virgen del Rocío University Hospital of Seville filled in the Scale of Concerns Regarding Living Kidney Donation of whom 105 donor candidates and their corresponding recipients (105 patients with End-Stage Renal Disease) were further evaluated with regard to mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II) and quality of life (SF-36 Health Survey)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342273/characteristics-of-compatible-pair-participants-in-kidney-paired-donation-at-a-single-center
#15
Francis L Weng, Tracy Grogan, Anup M Patel, Shamkant Mulgaonkar, Marie M Morgievich
Compatible pairs of living kidney donors and their intended recipients can enter into kidney paired donation (KPD) and facilitate additional living donor kidney transplants (LDKTs). We examined 11 compatible pairs (the intended recipients and their intended, compatible donors) who participated in KPD, along with the recipients' 11 matched, exchange donors. The 11 pairs participated in 10 separate exchanges (three were multicenter exchanges) that included 33 total LDKTs (22 additional LDKTs). All the intended donors were blood group O and female, with a mean living kidney donor profile index (LKDPI) of 27...
March 25, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264142/using-body-donor-demographics-to-assist-the-implementation-of-donation-programs-in-brazil
#16
Andrea Oxley da Rocha, Deivis de Campos, Marco Aurélio Farina, Gabriel Sartori Pacini, Marina Cornelli Girotto, Arlete Hilbig
The use of human material in anatomy education depends upon the generosity of body donors. However, little is known regarding the demographics of body donors in Brazil, where voluntary body donation is a relatively rare phenomenon. Hence, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the demographic profile of applicants to the Body Donation Program (BDP) at the Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre in Brazil, as well as to assess whether the observed characteristics of body donors are unique to that sample, or if they merely reflect the characteristics of the regional population...
September 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202136/foreign-aid-allocation-from-a-network-perspective-the-effect-of-global-ties
#17
Liam Swiss
This article examines competing explanations for foreign aid allocation on the global level and argues for a new approach to understanding aid from an institutionalist perspective. Using network data on all official bilateral aid relationships between countries in the period from 1975 through 2006 and data on recipient country ties to world society, the article offers an alternative explanation for the allocation of global foreign aid. Fixed effects negative binomial regression models on a panel sample of 117 developing countries reveal that global ties to world society in the form of non-governmental memberships and treaty ratifications are strong determinants of the network centrality of recipient countries in the global foreign aid network...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136000/altruism-or-obligation-the-motivations-and-experience-of-women-who-donate-oocytes-to-known-recipients-in-assisted-conception-treatment-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis-study
#18
Santanu Acharya, Louise Bryant, Maureen Twiddy
INTRODUCTION: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the motivations and experience of oocyte donors donating to women known to them. METHODS: Three women who donated oocytes to a close relative were interviewed and data were analysed using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach. RESULTS: The two key elements noted were "motivations for donation" and "coping with the consequences of oocyte donation". The motivation for donation was influenced by the familial bond that was strengthened by the donation process in some cases...
March 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088240/feasibility-of-an-altruistic-sperm-donation-program-in-canada-results-from-a-population-based-model
#19
Daria O'Reilly, James M Bowen, Kuhan Perampaladas, Riaz Qureshi, Feng Xie, Edward Hughes
BACKGROUND: Stringent donor-screening criteria and legislation prohibiting payment for donor gametes have contributed to the radical decline of donor insemination (DI) using sperm provided by Canadian men. Thus, many individuals rely on imported sperm. This paper examines the feasibility of an altruistic sperm donation (ASD) program to meet the needs of Canadians. METHODS: Using Canadian census data, published literature and expert opinions, two population-based, top-down mathematical models were developed to estimate the supply and demand for donor sperm and the feasibility of an ASD program...
January 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079112/microbes-can-help-explain-the-evolution-of-host-altruism
#20
Ohad Lewin-Epstein, Ranit Aharonov, Lilach Hadany
The evolution of altruistic behaviour, which is costly to the donor but beneficial for the recipient, is among the most intriguing questions in evolutionary biology. Several theories have been proposed to explain it, including kin selection, group selection and reciprocity. Here we propose that microbes that manipulate their hosts to act altruistically could be favoured by selection, and may play a role in the widespread occurrence of altruism. Using computational models, we find that microbe-induced altruism can explain the evolution of host altruistic behaviour under wider conditions than host-centred theories, including in a fully mixed host population, without repeating interactions or individual recognition...
January 12, 2017: Nature Communications
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