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Altruistic Donor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202136/foreign-aid-allocation-from-a-network-perspective-the-effect-of-global-ties
#1
Liam Swiss
This article examines competing explanations for foreign aid allocation on the global level and argues for a new approach to understanding aid from an institutionalist perspective. Using network data on all official bilateral aid relationships between countries in the period from 1975 through 2006 and data on recipient country ties to world society, the article offers an alternative explanation for the allocation of global foreign aid. Fixed effects negative binomial regression models on a panel sample of 117 developing countries reveal that global ties to world society in the form of non-governmental memberships and treaty ratifications are strong determinants of the network centrality of recipient countries in the global foreign aid network...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136000/altruism-or-obligation-the-motivations-and-experience-of-women-who-donate-oocytes-to-known-recipients-in-assisted-conception-treatment-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis-study
#2
Santanu Acharya, Louise Bryant, Maureen Twiddy
INTRODUCTION: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the motivations and experience of oocyte donors donating to women known to them. METHODS: Three women who donated oocytes to a close relative were interviewed and data were analysed using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach. RESULTS: The two key elements noted were "motivations for donation" and "coping with the consequences of oocyte donation". The motivation for donation was influenced by the familial bond that was strengthened by the donation process in some cases...
March 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088240/feasibility-of-an-altruistic-sperm-donation-program-in-canada-results-from-a-population-based-model
#3
Daria O'Reilly, James M Bowen, Kuhan Perampaladas, Riaz Qureshi, Feng Xie, Edward Hughes
BACKGROUND: Stringent donor-screening criteria and legislation prohibiting payment for donor gametes have contributed to the radical decline of donor insemination (DI) using sperm provided by Canadian men. Thus, many individuals rely on imported sperm. This paper examines the feasibility of an altruistic sperm donation (ASD) program to meet the needs of Canadians. METHODS: Using Canadian census data, published literature and expert opinions, two population-based, top-down mathematical models were developed to estimate the supply and demand for donor sperm and the feasibility of an ASD program...
January 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079112/microbes-can-help-explain-the-evolution-of-host-altruism
#4
Ohad Lewin-Epstein, Ranit Aharonov, Lilach Hadany
The evolution of altruistic behaviour, which is costly to the donor but beneficial for the recipient, is among the most intriguing questions in evolutionary biology. Several theories have been proposed to explain it, including kin selection, group selection and reciprocity. Here we propose that microbes that manipulate their hosts to act altruistically could be favoured by selection, and may play a role in the widespread occurrence of altruism. Using computational models, we find that microbe-induced altruism can explain the evolution of host altruistic behaviour under wider conditions than host-centred theories, including in a fully mixed host population, without repeating interactions or individual recognition...
January 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854130/donor-insemination-israel-as-a-representative-case-of-a-competitive-market-examining-the-possibility-of-policy-reform
#5
Limor D Gonen
AIM: To measure the private and social benefits of donor insemination (DI). METHODS: An empirical model investigates the general public and DI clients' willingness to pay (WTP) for DI, and the willingness of potential donors to become altruistic or paid sperm donors. RESULTS: The general public and DI clients value DI and have a positive WTP for it, whereas willingness to donate, altruistically or for payment, is either low or very low. CONCLUSION: The general public's and DI clients' WTP for DI is in average above actual cost, so the government should consider funding or subsidizing DI...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570751/impact-of-donor-source-on-the-outcome-of-live-donor-kidney-transplantation-a-single-center-experience
#6
Yasser Elsayed Matter, Ayman M Nagib, Omar E Lotfy, Ahmed Maher Alsayed, Ahmed F Donia, Ayman F Refaie, Ahmed I Akl, Mohamed Hamed Abbas, Mohammed M Abuelmagd, Hussein A Shaeashaa, Ahmed A Shokeir
BACKGROUND: Renal transplantation is the ideal method for management of end-stage renal disease. The use of living donors for renal transplantation was critical for early development in the field and preceded the use of cadaveric donors. Most donors are related genetically to the recipients, like a parent, a child, or a sibling of the recipient, but there are an increasing percentage of cases where donors are genetically unrelated like spouses, friends, or altruistic individuals. Donor shortages constitute the major barrier for kidney transplantation, and much effort has been made to increase the supply of living donors...
May 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412344/online-sperm-donation-a-survey-of-the-demographic-characteristics-motivations-preferences-and-experiences-of-sperm-donors-on-a-connection-website
#7
T Freeman, V Jadva, E Tranfield, S Golombok
STUDY QUESTION: What are the demographic characteristics, motivations, preferences and experiences of heterosexual, gay and bisexual sperm donors on a connection website (i.e. a website that facilitates direct contact between donors and recipients of gametes)? SUMMARY ANSWER: This demographically diverse group of men was donating for altruistic reasons and perceived the website as providing greater choice over donation arrangements: approximately one third favoured anonymous donation, most of whom were heterosexual, whilst gay and bisexual donors were more likely to be in contact with children conceived with their sperm...
September 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343721/medical-students-knowledge-familiarity-and-attitudes-towards-hematopoietic-stem-cell-donation-stem-cell-donation-behaviors
#8
Praveena Narayanan, Alexandra Wolanskyj, Shawna L Ehlers, Mark R Litzow, Mrinal S Patnaik, William J Hogan, Shahrukh K Hashmi
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with blood disorders and genetic diseases. Approximately 70% of the HSCTs currently performed in the United States use stems cells from an unrelated donor who donated voluntarily. Medical students (MS) are a young, diverse, influential population whose willingness to engage in altruistic acts, such as donating stem cells, may be correlated with knowledge on the topic. A literature gap exists in MS perspectives towards HSCT and the bone marrow registry (BMR) and prior studies suggest that misconceptions about donation deter MS from participation on the BMR, which may decrease opportunities to educate other potential donors...
September 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293985/motivating-factors-and-potential-deterrents-to-blood-donation-in-high-school-aged-blood-donors
#9
Rachel Finck, Alyssa Ziman, Matthew Hoffman, Michelle Phan-Tang, Shan Yuan
Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again...
2016: Journal of Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270455/indirect-fitness-benefits-enable-the-spread-of-host-genes-promoting-costly-transfer-of-beneficial-plasmids
#10
Tatiana Dimitriu, Dusan Misevic, Chantal Lotton, Sam P Brown, Ariel B Lindner, François Taddei
Bacterial genes that confer crucial phenotypes, such as antibiotic resistance, can spread horizontally by residing on mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Although many mobile genes provide strong benefits to their hosts, the fitness consequences of the process of transfer itself are less clear. In previous studies, transfer has been interpreted as a parasitic trait of the MGEs because of its costs to the host but also as a trait benefiting host populations through the sharing of a common gene pool. Here, we show that costly donation is an altruistic act when it spreads beneficial MGEs favoured when it increases the inclusive fitness of donor ability alleles...
June 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263265/bartering-for-a-compatible-kidney-using-your-incompatible-live-kidney-donor-legal-and-ethical-issues-related-to-kidney-chains
#11
Evelyn M Tenenbaum
Kidney chains are a recent and novel method of increasing the number of available kidneys for transplantation and have the potential to save thousands of lives. However, because they are novel, kidney chains do not fit neatly within existing legal and ethicalframeworks, raising potential barriers to their full implementation. Kidney chains are an extension of paired kidney donation, which began in the United States in 2000. Paired kidney donations allow kidney patients with willing, but incompatible, donors to swap donors to increase the number of donor/recipient pairs and consequently, the number of transplants...
2016: American Journal of Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263197/exploring-motivations-awareness-of-side-effects-and-attitudes-among-potential-egg-donors
#12
Lindsay B Gezinski, Sharvari Karandikar, James Carter, Melinda White
This research study surveyed prospective egg donors at orientation to (a) understand women's motivations to donate eggs, (b) assess awareness and knowledge of egg donation prior to entry into the egg donation program, and (c) explore attitudes toward egg donation. Ninety-two women completed the questionnaire at one fertility clinic located in the Midwest between August 2011 and August 2012. Descriptive and inferential statistics as well as textual analysis were used to analyze the data. Three themes emerged regarding participant motivations: (1) altruistic, (2) financial, and (3) desire to pass on genetic material...
May 2016: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136264/safety-of-living-donation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#13
Jeff Szer, Heidi Elmoazzen, Mirjam Fechter, William Hwang, Matti Korhonen, John Miller, Thilo Mengling, Bronwen Shaw, Jerry Stein
More than 12 000 volunteer unrelated hematopoietic stem cell donations are undertaken annually, and the World Marrow Donor Association established an expert committee to examine all reports of adverse events affecting donors globally, eventually making such reporting a necessary part of World Marrow Donor Association accreditation. The committee evaluates and responds to reported events in a nonpunitive confidential process designed to alert the community of rare events which might be missed by local follow-up...
June 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109945/patterns-of-personality-in-living-kidney-donors
#14
C De Pasquale, M Veroux, N Sinagra, A Sanfiorenzo, A Sanzone, C Trigona, A Giaquinta, P Veroux, M L Pistorio
BACKGROUND: The decision to undergo living donor transplantation determines a particular condition characterized by strong mental and emotional anguish, both for the patient and his family. Many recent studies showed the concern of living donors who, rather than being driven by altruistic reasons, meet the decision to donate with ambivalence, liabilities, and/or in response to family pressures. The aim of this study was to analyze the more frequently encountered personality variables in a sample of potential kidney living donors, together with any psychological variables that can express possible risks of an impulsive decision and/or poorly processed from a cognitive and emotional point of view...
March 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034659/assessment-of-potential-live-kidney-donors-and-computed-tomographic-renal-angiograms-at-christchurch-hospital
#15
Thamer Alsulaiman, Stephen Mark, Sarah Armstrong, David McGregor
Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD) assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT) renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms...
2016: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869348/living-donor-liver-transplantation-in-maple-syrup-urine-disease-case-series-and-world-s-youngest-domino-liver-donor-and-recipient
#16
N Mohan, S Karkra, A Rastogi, V Vohra, A S Soin
MSUD occurs due to deficiency of enzyme BCKAD required for metabolism of leucine, isoleucine, and valine leading to the accumulation of these and their ketoacids causing acute metabolic decompensation manifesting as encephalopathy or sudden death. The patient requires special protein-restricted diet to survive. As this enzyme is expressed in liver, liver transplantation has been successfully performed as a cure. We report two patients of MSUD who underwent LDLT while their livers were used as a domino graft for other biliary cirrhotic patients...
May 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26833680/utilization-of-deceased-donor-kidneys-to-initiate-living-donor-chains
#17
M L Melcher, J P Roberts, A B Leichtman, A E Roth, M A Rees
We propose that some deceased donor (DD) kidneys be allocated to initiate nonsimultaneous extended altruistic donor chains of living donor (LD) kidney transplants to address, in part, the huge disparity between patients on the DD kidney waitlist and available donors. The use of DD kidneys for this purpose would benefit waitlisted candidates in that most patients enrolled in kidney paired donation (KPD) systems are also waitlisted for a DD kidney transplant, and receiving a kidney through the mechanism of KPD will decrease pressure on the DD pool...
May 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26798480/reciprocating-living-kidney-donor-generosity-tax-credits-health-insurance-and-an-outcomes-registry
#18
Shivam Joshi, Sheela Joshi, Warren Kupin
Kidney transplantation significantly improves patient survival, and is the most cost effective renal replacement option compared with dialysis therapy. Living kidney donors provide a valuable societal gift, but face many formidable disincentive barriers that include not only short- and long-term health risks, but also concerns regarding financial expenditures and health insurance. Other than governmental coverage for their medical evaluation and surgical expenses, donors are often asked to personally bear a significant financial responsibility due to lost work wages and travel expenses...
February 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26653930/blood-donation-knowledge-and-attitudes-among-undergraduate-health-science-students-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Dimitrios Papagiannis, George Rachiotis, Emmanouil K Symvoulakis, Dimitrios Anyfantakis, Karolos Douvlataniotis, Christos Zilidis, Adelais Markaki, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Awareness towards blood donation can be empowered by health professionals' role-modelling. We aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes among Greek undergraduate medical laboratory students. A questionnaire was distributed to 330 students (response rate: 88.7%). Overall, 24% had donated blood at least once, with males 4.62 times more likely to be donors. Voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors were more likely to be repeaters. A quarter of all students were inclined to offer blood for monetary reward, with men more prone to accept payment...
April 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26458365/from-blood-donation-to-kidney-sales-the-gift-relationship-and-transplant-commercialism
#20
Julian J Koplin
In The Gift Relationship, Richard Titmuss argued that the practice of altruistic blood donation fosters social solidarity while markets in blood erode it. This paper considers the implications of this line of argument for the organ market debate. I defend Titmuss' arguments against a number of criticisms and respond to claims that Titmuss' work is not relevant to the context of live donor organ transplantation. I conclude that Titmuss' arguments are more resilient than many advocates of organ markets suggest, and more relevant to the debate than is commonly appreciated...
June 2015: Monash Bioethics Review
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