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brain stem

Sarah Löw, Tracy T Batchelor
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma limited to the brain, spinal cord, leptomeninges, and eyes. The majority of patients are immunocompetent, with a median age of 65 years at diagnosis. Historically, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) was the first and sole treatment for PCNSL. Today, due to the recognized neurotoxicity of WBRT, this modality is usually avoided in the treatment. Most chemotherapy regimens are based on high-dose methotrexate plus the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, leading to high response rates, but 5-year survival is still poor at approximately 30% compared with other extranodal lymphomas...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
K Ganapathy
Until six decades ago, death was considered to be a specific point in time, referring to the moment at which life ends. With the availability of ventilators, even determining when death has occurred is becoming difficult, as cessation of life functions is often not simultaneous across organ systems. With increasing accessibility to intensive care units (ICUs) even in Tier II and Tier III cities, and the government making it mandatory to notify brain death to facilitate cadaveric organ transplants, it behooves the neurosurgeon and neurologist to totally understand the minutiae of brain death...
March 2018: Neurology India
Ke-Wei Tian, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Hong Jiang, Shu Han
The placenta has emerged as an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) because of the absence of ethical issues, non-invasive access, and abundant yield. However, inflammatory cell invasion into grafts negatively impacts the survival and efficacy of transplanted cells. Previous studies have shown that synthetic C16 peptide can competitively block the transmigration of leukocytes into the central nerve system, while angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) can inhibit inflammation-induced blood vessel leakage and inflammatory cell infiltration in rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
J D Santoro, N D Forkert, Q-Z Yang, S Pavitt, S J MacEachern, M E Moseley, K W Yeom
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tension-type and migraine-type headaches are the most common chronic paroxysmal disorders of childhood. The goal of this study was to compare regional cerebral volumes and diffusion in tension-type and migraine-type headaches against published controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients evaluated for tension-type or migraine-type headache without aura from May 2014 to July 2016 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-two patients with tension-type headache and 23 with migraine-type headache at an average of 4 months after diagnosis were enrolled...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Rajani Singh, Rajnish Arora, Raj Kumar
Chiari malformations (CMs) are variant structural setup of cerebellum and brain stem at the craniovertebral junction. Normally the cerebellum and parts of the brain stem lie above the foramen magnum. When the part of the cerebellum and/or brainstem protrudes into the upper spinal canal through foramen magnum, it is defined as CM. Chiari malformations may develop when part of the skull is smaller than normal or misshapen, due to which the cerebellum herniates into spinal canal through foramen magnum. This compresses the cerebellum and brainstem affecting functions controlled by these parts and blocks the flow of cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Bárbara da Silva, Ryan K Mathew, Euan S Polson, Jennifer Williams, Heiko Wurdak
Organoid methodology provides a platform for the ex vivo investigation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying brain development and disease. The high-grade brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is considered a cancer of unmet clinical need, in part due to GBM cell infiltration into healthy brain parenchyma, making complete surgical resection improbable. Modeling the process of GBM invasion in real time is challenging as it requires both tumor and neural tissue compartments. Here, we demonstrate that human GBM spheroids possess the ability to spontaneously infiltrate early-stage cerebral organoids (eCOs)...
March 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Furkan Diren, Serra Sencer, Tayfun Hakan
Objective: Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is the most common form of intracranial vascular malformations in adults. Intracranial pediatric AVMs are rare. AVM located in the vicinity of the brain stem in children are even more rare. Case report: This study reports a rare case of acute obstructive hydrocephalus following aqueductal stenosis caused by an unruptured grade IV perimesencephalic arteriovenous malformation. An 11-year-old boy admitted to the hospital with progressive headache, nausea and vomiting throughout a month...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Daniel Pedziwiatr, Monika Cymer, Magda Kucia, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Jerzy Samochowiec
Evidence has accumulated that the occurrence of psychiatric disorders is related to chronic inflammation. In support of this linkage, changes in the levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the peripheral blood (PB) of psychiatric patients as well as correlations between chronic inflammatory processes and psychiatric disorders have been described. Furthermore, an inflammatory process known as "sterile inflammation" when initiated directly in brain tissue may trigger the onset of psychoses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Vicente Perez-Garcia, Elena Fineberg, Robert Wilson, Alexander Murray, Cecilia Icoresi Mazzeo, Catherine Tudor, Arnold Sienerth, Jacqueline K White, Elizabeth Tuck, Edward J Ryder, Diane Gleeson, Emma Siragher, Hannah Wardle-Jones, Nicole Staudt, Neha Wali, John Collins, Stefan Geyer, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, Antonella Galli, James C Smith, Elizabeth Robertson, David J Adams, Wolfgang J Weninger, Timothy Mohun, Myriam Hemberger
Large-scale phenotyping efforts have demonstrated that approximately 25-30% of mouse gene knockouts cause intrauterine lethality. Analysis of these mutants has largely focused on the embryo and not the placenta, despite the crucial role of this extraembryonic organ for developmental progression. Here we screened 103 embryonic lethal and sub-viable mouse knockout lines from the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders program for placental phenotypes. We found that 68% of knockout lines that are lethal at or after mid-gestation exhibited placental dysmorphologies...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Nathália Kersting, Bárbara Kunzler Souza, Igor Araujo Vieira, Rafael Pereira Dos Santos, Danielly Brufatto Olguins, Lauro José Gregianin, André Tesainer Brunetto, Algemir Lunardi Brunetto, Rafael Roesler, Caroline Brunetto de Farias, Gilberto Schwartsmann
OBJECTIVE: Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a type of childhood cancer probably arising from stem mesenchymal or neural crest cells. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) acts as a driver oncogene in many types of solid tumors. However, its involvement in ES remains poorly understood. METHODS: Human SK-ES-1 and RD-ES ES cells were treated with EGF, the EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin (AG1478), or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) inhibitors...
March 14, 2018: Oncology
Wataro Tsuruta, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Go Ikeda, Masayuki Sato, Yoshiro Ito, Tomoji Takigawa, Aiki Marushima, Yasunobu Nakai, Yuji Matsumaru, Akira Matsumura
BACKGROUND: Endovascular surgery for vertebral artery dissections (VADs) carries the risk of spinal cord infarction (SCI). Although SCI in the region of the anterior spinal artery (ASA) has been reported, SCI in the region of the posterior spinal artery (PSA) is rare. OBJECTIVE: To investigate PSA infarction after endovascular surgery for VAD. METHODS: Infarction in the region of the PSA after endovascular surgery for VADs carried out in consecutive 21 cases was investigated...
March 9, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Kazunari Ikeda
If a representation of an auditory attention channel was present in the auditory cortices but not in the subcortical structures, it would be predicted that the early event-related brain potential (ERP) would disagree with the late ERP in selective attention effects. To examine this idea, the present study recorded the auditory brain stem response (ABR) as an early ERP and also the negative difference, the processing negativity and the irrelevant positive difference waves as late ERPs during dichotic listening...
March 13, 2018: Neuroreport
Hitomi Aoki
Rest is a regulator of neuronal development and has been suggested to function in maintaining the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs); however, this remains controversial. Since Rest null mice show embryonic lethality, we herein generated conditional Rest knockout (CKO) models to investigate Rest functions in more detail. Our results revealed that Rest was not necessary for maintaining the pluripotency of ESCs and instead promoted primitive endoderm differentiation. In contrast to the repressive role of Rest in vitro, including ESCs, neural stem cells, and fibroblasts, on the expression of target neural genes, Rest CKO did not affect the in vivo development of brain tissue...
March 13, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Sandra Bien-Möller, Ellen Balz, Susann Herzog, Laura Plantera, Silke Vogelgesang, Kerstin Weitmann, Carolin Seifert, Matthias A Fink, Sascha Marx, Angela Bialke, Chitra Venugopal, Sheila K Singh, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Bernhard H Rauch, Henry W S Schroeder
Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are at high risk to develop a relapse despite multimodal therapy. Assumedly, glioma stem cells (GSCs) are responsible for treatment resistance of GBM. Identification of specific GSC markers may help to develop targeted therapies. Here, we performed expression analyses of stem cell (ABCG2, CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, and Nestin) as well as differentiation and microglia markers (GFAP, Iba1, and Sparc) in GBM compared to nonmalignant brain. Furthermore, the role of these proteins for patient survival and their expression in LN18 stem-like neurospheres was analyzed...
2018: Stem Cells International
Elizabeth Harford-Wright, Julie Gavard
Glioblastoma multiforme are mortifying brain tumors that contain a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem-like properties, termed as glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). These GSCs constitute an autonomous reservoir of aberrant cells able to initiate, maintain, and repopulate the tumor mass. A new therapeutic strategy would consist of targeting the GSC population. The GSCs are situated in perivascular niches, closely associated with brain microvascular endothelial cells thereby involved in bidirectional molecular and cellular interactions...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Chandrakanth Reddy Edamakanti, Jeehaeh Do, Alessandro Didonna, Marco Martina, Puneet Opal
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the protein ATXN1, which is involved in transcriptional regulation. Although symptoms appear relatively late in life, primarily from cerebellar dysfunction, pathogenesis begins early, with brain-wide transcriptional changes detectable as early as a week after birth in SCA1 knock-in mice. Given the importance of this postnatal period for cerebellar development, we asked whether this region might be developmentally altered by mutant ATXN1...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Liu-Lin Xiong, Yu Zou, Yu Shi, Piao Zhang, Rong-Ping Zhang, Xie-Jie Dai, Bin Liu, Ting-Hua Wang
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of implanted neural stem cells (NSCs) on the functional recovery of tree shrews (TSs) subjected to hemi‑sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI), and to investigate the possible mechanism involved. NSCs (passage 2), derived from the hippocampus of TSs (embryonic day 20), were labeled with Hoechst 33342 and transplanted intraspinally into the hSC of TSs at thoracic level 10 in the acute (immediately after injury) and chronic (day 9 post‑injury) stages...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Miranda Smit, Haike E Van Stralen, Bart Van den Munckhof, Tom J Snijders, Hendrik Christiaan Dijkerman
Reports on patients who lack ownership over their entire body are extremely rare. Here, we present patient SA who suffered from complete body disownership after a tumour resection in the right temporoparietal cortex. Neuropsychological assessment disclosed selective bilateral ownership problems, despite intact primary visual and somatosensory senses. SA's disownership seems to stem from a suboptimal multimodal integration, as shown by the rubber hand illusion and the beneficial effect during and after simple exercises aiming at multisensory recalibration...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Laura B Ngwenya, Sarmistha Mazumder, Zachary R Porter, Amy Minnema, Duane J Oswald, H Francis Farhadi
Cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are debilitating and contribute to the morbidity and loss of productivity of over 10 million people worldwide. Cell transplantation has been linked to enhanced cognitive function after experimental traumatic brain injury, yet the mechanism of recovery is poorly understood. Since the hippocampus is a critical structure for learning and memory, supports adult neurogenesis, and is particularly vulnerable after TBI, we hypothesized that stem cell transplantation after TBI enhances cognitive recovery by modulation of endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis...
2018: Stem Cells International
Mariia Karppinen, Atte Sjövall, Tuula Pelkonen, Luis Bernardino, Irmeli Roine, Anne Pitkäranta, Antti A Aarnisalo, Päivi Nevalainen, Leena Lauronen
Objective: To assess the role of single and repeated auditory brain stem response (ABR) in predicting mortality and severe neurological injury among children having bacterial meningitis (BM) in Luanda, Angola. Methods: The morphology of ABR traces of 221 children (aged 2 months to 12 years) from admission day was analyzed and compared with age-matched normative data. Absence and delay of traces were compared with mortality and mortality or severe neurological injury in subgroup analyses...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Ear, Nose and Throat
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