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Drug Overdose

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934186/opioid-overdose-outbreak-west-virginia-august-2016
#1
Joel Massey, Michael Kilkenny, Samantha Batdorf, Sarah K Sanders, Debra Ellison, John Halpin, R Matthew Gladden, Danae Bixler, Loretta Haddy, Rahul Gupta
On August 15, 2016, the Mayor's Office of Drug Control Policy in Huntington, West Virginia, notified the Cabell-Huntington Health Department (CHHD) of multiple calls regarding opioid overdose received by the emergency medical system (EMS) during 3 p.m.-8 p.m. that day. A public health investigation and response conducted by the West Virginia Bureau for Public Health (BPH) and CHHD identified 20 opioid overdose cases within a 53-hour period in Cabell County; all cases included emergency department (ED) encounters...
September 22, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933938/development-of-a-statewide-publicly-accessible-drug-overdose-surveillance-and-information-system
#2
Brandon D L Marshall, Jesse L Yedinak, Jonathan Goyer, Traci C Green, Jennifer A Koziol, Nicole Alexander-Scott
In response to Rhode Island's overdose epidemic, we developed a collaborative, statewide online "dashboard" to provide the public with timely overdose surveillance data. The Web site- www.PreventOverdoseRI.org (PORI)-offers user-friendly data visualizations, plain language education, and interactive resource maps. Development of the site has improved overdose data sharing and transparency in Rhode Island. Preliminary results suggest a successful site launch. Future research will evaluate the effectiveness of PORI in terms of informing strategic initiatives to reduce overdoses in affected communities...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923561/update-on-the-safety-of-phosphodiesterase-type-5-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-erectile-dysfunction
#3
REVIEW
Faysal A Yafi, Ira D Sharlip, Edgardo F Becher
INTRODUCTION: Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). Although historically found to have limited drug-related adverse events, emerging data have suggested that PDE5Is might be associated with melanoma or recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. AIM: To summarize the literature on the safety of PDE5Is. METHODS: A literature review was performed through PubMed from 1990 through 2016 regarding ED...
September 8, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921162/a-bionanohybrid-znal-nads-ecological-pesticide-as-a-treatment-for-soft-rot-disease-in-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l
#4
Erika Elizabeth Morales-Irigoyen, Yolanda de Las Mercedes Gómez-Y-Gómez, Jorge Luis Flores-Moreno, Marina Olivia Franco-Hernández
Pectobacterium carotovorum (Pc) is a phytopathogenic strain that causes soft rot disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), resulting in postharvest losses. Chemical control is effective for managing this disease, but overdoses cause adverse effects. Because farmers insist on using chemical agents for crop protection, it is necessary to develop more effective pesticides in which the active compound released can be regulated. In this context, we proposed the synthesis of ZnAl-NADS, in which nalidixic acid sodium salt (NADS) is linked to a ZnAl-NO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) host as a nanocarrier...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920564/intentional-overdose-of-the-novel-anti-epileptic-drug-eslicarbazepine-presenting-with-recurrent-seizures-and-ventricular-dysrhythmias
#5
Jesse Thompson, James D Powell, Daniel H Ovakim
Eslicarbazepine is a novel anti-epileptic agent indicated for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. We present the case of an 18 year old female that presented to the Emergency Department four hours after a reported intentional ingestion of an estimated 5600 mg of eslicarbazepine. Although initially hemodynamically stable and neurologically normal, shortly after arrival she developed confusion, rigidity and clonus, followed by recurrent seizures, hypoxemia and cardiac arrest which responded to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and wide complex tachycardia requiring defibrillation...
September 18, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919358/perfused-human-hepatocyte-microtissues-identify-reactive-metabolite-forming-and-mitochondria-perturbing-hepatotoxins
#6
Cliff Rowe, Mohsen Shaeri, Emma Large, Terri Cornforth, Angela Robinson, Tomasz Kostrzewski, Rowena Sison-Young, Christopher Goldring, Kevin Park, David Hughes
Hepatotoxins cause liver damage via many mechanisms but the formation of reactive metabolites and/or damage to liver mitochondria are commonly implicated. We assess 3D human primary hepatocyte microtissues as a platform for hepatotoxicity studies with reactive metabolite-forming and mitochondria-perturbing compounds. We show that microtissues formed from cryopreserved human hepatocytes had bile canaliculi, transcribed mRNA from genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and expressed functional cytochrome P450 enzymes...
September 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918124/polyphenols-reported-to-shift-apap-induced-changes-in-mapk-signaling-and-toxicity-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
Ngoc Uy Nguyen, Brendan David Stamper
Due to its widespread availability, acetaminophen (APAP) is the leading cause for drug-induced liver injury in many countries including United States and United Kingdom. When used as recommended, APAP is relatively safe. However, in overdose cases, increased metabolism of APAP to N-acetyl-para-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI), a reactive metabolite, leads to glutathione (GSH) depletion, oxidative stress, and cellular injury. Throughout this process, a variety of factors play important roles in propagating toxicity, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family...
September 13, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917061/use-of-lipid-emulsion-therapy-in-local-anesthetic-overdose
#8
Ozgur Karcioglu
The use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy as antidote in systemic toxicity of certain agents has gained widespread support. There are increasing data suggesting use of ILE in reversing from local anesthetic-induced systemic toxicity severe, life-threatening cardiotoxicity, although findings are contradictory. Efficiency of ILE was demonstrated in animal studies in the treatment of severe impairment of cardiac functions, via a mechanism for trapping lipophilic drugs in an expanded plasma lipid compartment ("lipid sink")...
October 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905733/why-it-s-inappropriate-not-to-treat-incarcerated-patients-with-opioid-agonist-therapy
#9
Sarah E Wakeman
Due to the criminalization of drug use and addiction, opioid use disorder is overrepresented in incarcerated populations. Decades of evidence supports opioid agonist therapy as a highly effective treatment that improves clinical outcomes and reduces illicit opioid use, overdose death, and cost. Opioid agonist therapy has been both studied within correctional facilities and initiated prerelease. It has been found to be beneficial, yet few incarcerated persons receive this evidence-based treatment. In addition to not offering treatment initiation for those who need it, most correctional facilities forcibly withdraw stable patients from opioid agonist therapy upon their entry into the criminal justice system...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905438/research-to-support-optimization-of-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs
#10
Sheri Doyle, Gillian Leichtling, Christi Hildebran, Cynthia Reilly
PURPOSE: Research is needed to evaluate the impact of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). This paper describes research priorities for PDMPs that were initially discussed at a 2015 meeting of PDMP administrators, researchers, public health officials, and other stakeholders. METHODS: Meeting participants defined the current landscape of PDMP research and identified research gaps. Research priorities were grouped by theme. RESULTS: Prescription drug monitoring program research priorities were identified for 3 key areas: individual patient health outcomes, prescriber use and decision making, and population-level outcomes...
September 14, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902068/factors-affecting-suicide-method-lethality-among-suicide-attempters-in-the-korea-national-suicide-survey
#11
Tae-Sung Yeum, Bora Kim, Eun Young Kim, Se Hyun Kim, Kyooseob Ha, Yong Min Ahn
This is the first national survey study in South Korea investigating the relationship between suicide lethality and the clinical information of suicide attempters. An interview questionnaire was used to assess their sociodemographic factors, medical and psychiatric information, and two suicide scales, the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale and the Suicide Intent Scale. Suicide methods were categorized as low and high lethality; low lethality covered drug overdose or self-cutting behavior, and high lethality covered all other methods...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891722/requirements-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-inhaler-devices-for-copd-patients-from-the-expert-prescribers-point-of-view-results-of-the-epoca-delphi-consensus
#12
Francisco García-Río, Juan J Soler-Cataluña, Bernardino Alcazar, José L Viejo, Marc Miravitlles
The study aimed to assess the preferences of expert physicians about the requirements for inhalation devices for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to identify the most relevant advantages and disadvantages to their prescription. In a two-round Delphi survey, 96 Spanish COPD-expert pulmonologists completed an internet-based questionnaire to evaluate the degree of importance of the characteristics of the inhaler devices in their choice for COPD. The requirements needed for use in COPD were that the device permits a high pulmonary deposit of the drug, allowed its dispensation at low inspiratory flows, did not require hand-mouth coordination, generated an exact and reproducible dose, its operation was easy to teach, provided the perception of a correct inhalation, had an intuitive use mechanism and security mechanisms to prevent overdosing and generates a reduced oropharyngeal deposit (very good consensus)...
September 11, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891590/co-administration-of-cyclosporine-and-ticagrelor-may-lead-to-a-higher-exposure-to-cyclosporine-a-case-report-of-a-49-year-old-man
#13
T T van Sloten, P A G de Klaver, A W L van den Wall Bake
A drug interaction leading to higher exposure to cyclosporine DRUGS IMPLICATED: Cyclosporine and ticagrelor THE PATIENT: A 49-year old man with a stable renal graft, managed with cyclosporine with stable trough blood concentrations for several years, was treated with ticagrelor for unstable angina pectoris EVIDENCE THAT LINKS THE DRUG TO THE EVENT: The timeline was consistent with the appearance of an interaction, the interaction was confirmed by an increase in trough concentration of cyclosporine, and there were no alternative causes that by themselves could have caused the increase in cyclosporine exposure MANAGEMENT: Cessation of ticagrelor MECHANISM: Inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein by ticagrelor IMPLICATIONS FOR THERAPY: Clinicians should be aware of this potential interaction as ticagrelor is frequently prescribed in individuals using cyclosporine...
September 11, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887927/cardiac-support-emphasis-on-venoarterial-ecmo
#14
REVIEW
Christopher S King, Aviral Roy, Liam Ryan, Ramesh Singh
Major advances have been made in mechanical circulatory support in recent years. Venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides both pulmonary and circulatory support for critically ill patients with hemodynamic compromise, serving as a bridge to recovery or definitive therapy in the form of transplant or a durable ventricular assist device. In the past, VA ECMO support was used in cases of cardiogenic shock or failure to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass; however, the technology is now being applied to an ever-expanding list of conditions, including massive pulmonary embolism, cardiac arrest, drug overdose, and hypothermia...
October 2017: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885952/military-sexual-trauma-in-female-veterans-is-associated-with-chronic-pain-conditions
#15
Sara B Cichowski, Rebecca G Rogers, Elizabeth A Clark, Erin Murata, Allison Murata, Glen Murata
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the impact of MST on chronic pain conditions among female Veterans. The primary objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of chronic pain conditions among U.S. female veterans with a history of military sexual trauma (MST) to those without a history of MST. We anticipated that female Veterans with a history of MST would have higher associations with chronic pain conditions than the female Veterans without a history of MST. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a large-scale, retrospective study using the Veterans' Health Administration Corporate Data Warehouse with institutional approval (15-H175)...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885516/treating-acute-pain-in-the-opiate-dependent-patient
#16
Coleen Dever
Opioid drugs, including prescription as well as heroin, have come to the national spotlight due to the unprecedented rate of overdose and addiction. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has termed this problem as an "epidemic" that has reached record numbers of deaths in 2014. Approximately half of these deaths are the result from prescribed opioids. Also on the rise are the numbers of individuals who are diagnosed with chronic pain and are treated with opioids, methadone and buprenorphine. Individuals currently taking opioids for chronic pain confound the treatment of acute pain after traumatic injury...
September 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882143/characteristics-of-persons-who-inject-drugs-and-who-witness-opioid-overdoses-in-vietnam-a-cross-sectional-analysis-to-inform-future-overdose-prevention-programs
#17
N A Blackburn, K E Lancaster, T V Ha, C A Latkin, W C Miller, C Frangakis, V A Chu, T Sripaipan, V M Quan, N L Minh, P T Vu, V F Go
BACKGROUND: Persons who use opioids have a high risk of overdose and associated mortality. In Vietnam, little is known about the characteristics of this population and the persons who are witness to those overdoses. One approach to combatting fatal overdose has been the use of peer interventions in which a friend or injecting partner administers overdose reversal medication, but availability in Vietnam of these medications is limited to pilot programs with aims to expand in the future (Le Minh and V...
September 7, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881461/overdoses-with-aripiprazole-signs-symptoms-and-outcomes-in-239-exposures-reported-to-the-danish-poison-information-center
#18
Amalie P Christensen, Soeren Boegevig, Mikkel B Christensen, Kasper M Petersen, Kim P Dalhoff, Tonny S Petersen
The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical signs and symptoms of exposures to aripiprazole overdoses. We retrospectively identified all aripiprazole exposures reported to the Danish Poisons Information Center (DPIC) from June 2007 to May 2015. Information concerning demographics, ingested dose and symptoms were extracted from the DPIC database and medical records. Information on death and admission to hospital was obtained from Danish national registers. We analysed 239 cases, 86 concerning single-drug exposures to aripiprazole, and 153 cases where aripiprazole had been taken with at least one other substance (mixed-drug)...
September 7, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879174/mobile-technology-to-increase-hiv-hcv-testing-and-overdose-prevention-response-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#19
Ian David Aronson, Alexander Bennett, Lisa A Marsch, Theodore C Bania
The United States faces dramatically increasing rates of opioid overdose deaths, as well as persistent ongoing problems of undiagnosed HIV and HCV infection. These problems commonly occur together in substance using populations that have limited, if any, access to primary care and other routine health services. To collectively address all three issues, we developed the Mobile Intervention Kit (MIK), a tablet computer-based intervention designed to provide overdose prevention and response training and to facilitate HIV/HCV testing in community settings...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878168/metabolomics-analysis-of-urine-samples-from-children-after-acetaminophen-overdose
#20
Laura K Schnackenberg, Jinchun Sun, Sudeepa Bhattacharyya, Pritmohinder Gill, Laura P James, Richard D Beger
Acetaminophen (APAP), a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic, accounts for approximately fifty percent of the cases of acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States due to overdose, with over half of those unintentional. Current clinical approaches for assessing APAP overdose rely on identifying the precise time of overdose and quantitating acetaminophen alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in peripheral blood. Novel specific and sensitive biomarkers may provide additional information regarding patient status post overdose...
September 6, 2017: Metabolites
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