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Drug Overdose

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930884/the-effect-of-branching-star-architecture-on-poly-d-l-lactide-pdlla-degradation-and-drug-delivery
#1
Jason Burke, Roberto Donno, Richard d'Arcy, Sarah Cartmell, Nicola Tirelli
This study focuses on the comparative evaluation of star (branched) and linear poly(L,D-lactic acid) (PDLLA) as degradable materials employed in controlled release. The polymers were prepared via ring-opening polymerization initiated by decanol (linear), pentaerythritol (4-armed star) and dipentaerythritol (6-armed star), and processed both in the form of films and nanoparticles. Independently on the length or number of their arms, star polymers degrade slower than linear polymers, possibly through a surface (vs...
December 8, 2016: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929396/detection-of-ciprofloxacin-in-urine-through-sensitized-lanthanide-luminescence
#2
Subhankar Singha, Kyo Han Ahn
Ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is widely used for the treatment of bacterial infection in humans due to its broad antibacterial spectrum. An excessive use or overdose of ciprofloxacin on the other hand can cause several adverse effects not only to humans but also to microorganisms. Unabsorbed ciprofloxacin in the body is mostly excreted through urine and finally goes to the environment, providing a drug resistance pressure on bacteria. Hence a simple and efficient detection method of ciprofloxacin is necessary, which, for example, can be used to analyze ciprofloxacin content in urine...
December 5, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926646/treatment-of-a-pregnant-patient-in-a-persistent-vegetative-state
#3
Matthew P Romagano, William E Scorza, Stephen E Lammers, Carole Dorr, John C Smulian
BACKGROUND: Brain injury leading to a persistent vegetative state during pregnancy involves difficult medical and ethical decisions. CASE: A 21-year-old multigravid woman entered a persistent vegetative state at 20 1/7 weeks of gestation after cardiac arrest with postanoxic brain injury from a suspected drug overdose. The clinical disciplines responsible for her case formed a collaborative care plan involving ventilator, nutrition, and medication support of the mother and regular fetal monitoring and ultrasound testing...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925864/intravenous-use-of-intranasal-naloxone-a-case-of-overdose-reversal
#4
Smita Das, Nina Shah, Murtuza Ghadiali
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose is a growing concern in the United States and internationally. Prehospital or pre-medical-personnel (lay person) administration of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, to reverse overdose, is an expanding mode of harm reduction. Recently, community clinics, methadone clinics, needle exchanges, some pharmacies and other health care facilities have made naloxone available to the community. CASE: This case describes heroin overdose reversal of a 28-year-old male who had been using about a gram of heroin intravenously for 3 years, but recently reduced frequency of use in an attempt to stop...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920680/mucocutaneous-ulcerations-and-pancytopenia-due-to-methotrexate-overdose
#5
Katharina Knoll, Florian Anzengruber, Antonio Cozzio, Lars E French, Carla Murer, Alexander A Navarini
Methotrexate (MTX) is an antifolic drug used in the treatment of immune-mediated and neoplastic diseases. Initiation or dosage changes in MTX therapy can cause mucositis and bone marrow suppression. Skin lesions due to acute MTX toxicity are rare, but they serve as a herald for later-onset pancytopenia. Therefore, identification of those cutaneous lesions might help to initiate rescue strategies at an early stage. Here we describe a case with mucocutaneous ulcerations and pancytopenia due to overdosed MTX.
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917016/the-portapotty-experiment-neoliberal-approaches-to-the-intertwined-epidemics-of-opioid-related-overdose-and-hiv-hcv-and-why-we-need-cultural-anthropologists-in-the-south-bronx
#6
Brett Wolfson-Stofko, Ric Curtis, Faustino Fuentes, Ed Manchess, Alexis Del Rio-Cumba, Alex S Bennett
The following report from the field focuses on the authors' collective efforts to operate an ad hoc safer injection facility (SIF) out of portapotties (portable toilets) in an area of the South Bronx that has consistently experienced some of the highest overdose morbidity and mortality rates in New York City over the past decade (New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2011, 2015, 2016). Safer injection facilities (also known as supervised injection facilities, drug consumption rooms, etc.) operating outside the US provide a legal, hygienic, and supervised environment for individuals to use drugs in order to minimize the likelihood of fatal overdose and the spread of blood-borne infections while reducing public injection...
December 2016: Dialectical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914553/determination-of-fluoxetine-in-dermestes-maculatus-coleoptera-dermestidae-by-a-spectrophotometric-method
#7
Noelia I Zanetti, Adriana A Ferrero, Néstor D Centeno
The aims of this study were to detect and quantify fluoxetine, an antidepressant, from entomological samples. Larvae, pupae and adults of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) were reared on pig muscle previously treated with fluoxetine. The concentration selected, 2000mg/kg, emulates a fluoxetine overdose lethal to humans and laboratory animals. Thirty larvae on the fourth and fifth stages, 50 adults and several exuviae were analyzed for fluoxetine content. Detection of fluoxetine was performed by UV spectrophotometry at 270 and 277nm...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913221/role-of-the-inflammasome-in-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury-and-acute-liver-failure
#8
REVIEW
Benjamin L Woolbright, Hartmut Jaeschke
Drug-induced acute liver failure carries a high morbidity and mortality rate. Acetaminophen overdose is the number one cause of acute liver failure and remains a major problem in Western medicine. Administration of N-acetyl cysteine is an effective antidote when given before the initial rise in toxicity; however, many patients present to the hospital after this stage occurs. As such, treatments which can alleviate late-stage acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure are imperative. While the initial mechanisms of toxicity are well described, a debate has occurred recently in the literature over whether or not there exists a second phase of injury, mediated by inflammatory processes...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907848/fatal-and-non-fatal-overdose-after-narcology-hospital-discharge-among-russians-living-with-hiv-aids-who-inject-drugs
#9
Alexander Y Walley, Debbie M Cheng, Emily K Quinn, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Christine E Chaisson, Evgeny Krupitsky, Philip O Coffin, Jeffrey H Samet
OBJECTIVES: Among Russians living with HIV/AIDS who inject drugs, we examined the incidence of fatal and non-fatal overdoses following discharge from a narcology hospital and the associations with more advanced HIV infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of data collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months from HIV-infected patients with a history of injection drug use who were not treated with anti-retroviral therapy. Participants were recruited between 2012-2014 from a narcology (addiction) hospital in St...
November 28, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903206/long-term-outcomes-after-severe-drug-overdose
#10
Lee Y Wong, Rinaldo Bellomo, Ray Robbins, Johan Martensson, Richard Kanaan, Richard Newton, Chih-Chiang Hu, David M Taylor
OBJECTIVE: The long-term outcomes of patients with drug overdose admitted to the intensive care unit compared with those admitted to general wards have not been assessed. We aimed to compare the recurrence of overdose, mortality after hospital discharge, cause of death and quality-of-life scores (using the EQ-5D questionnaire) between the ICU patients and general ward patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 102 ICU patients with drug overdose and 102 matched general ward patients with drug overdose in a university-affiliated teaching hospital between 2009 and 2013...
December 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903034/prescription-drug-abuse-a-timely-update
#11
Benny Monheit, Danusia Pietrzak, Sandra Hocking
BACKGROUND: Prescription drug abuse is a rising problem in Australia and pharmaceutical drugs have been the most frequent contributors to overdose deaths in Victoria in recent years. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this article are to examine the main prescription drugs contributing to overdose deaths and to consider how doctors may help in reducing this problem. DISCUSSION: Data from the Coroners Court of Victoria list the main drugs that contributed to drug-related deaths in 2009-15...
December 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898722/suicide-among-young-people-and-adults-in-ireland-method-characteristics-toxicological-analysis-and-substance-abuse-histories-compared
#12
Ella Arensman, Marco Bennardi, Celine Larkin, Amanda Wall, Carmel McAuliffe, Jacklyn McCarthy, Eileen Williamson, Ivan J Perry
OBJECTIVE: Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. METHODS: The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007-2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898133/opioid-misuse-abuse-and-quality-persistent-pain-management-in-older-adults
#13
Yu-Ping Chang, Peggy Compton
The United States is amid an epidemic of prescription opioid drug abuse, bringing with it not only high rates of overdose, but growing rates of heroin abuse and addiction. Liberal opioid drug prescribing on the part of well-meaning clinicians has in part fueled this epidemic, being correlated to opioid death and addiction treatment admission rates. Misuse and abuse of prescription opioid drugs is greatest among young adults (ages 18 to 25); however, the fastest growing age group for opioid drug misuse/abuse is older (ages 50 to 64)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897465/predicting-young-adults-risk-for-engaging-in-prescription-drug-misuse-in-daily-life-from-individual-partner-and-relationship-factors
#14
Lauren M Papp, Chrystyna D Kouros
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence based on retrospective and global assessments has established associations between prescription drug misuse and illicit drug use, alcohol abuse, mental health problems, risky sexual behaviors, and overdose deaths. However, there is a notable absence of identified risk and protective factors for an individual's likelihood of engaging in misuse in real-world environments. METHODS: Using an experience sampling approach, we collected repeated moments of young adults' (n = 95 participants drawn from 49 romantic couples) prescription drug misuse instances in daily life, and tested multiple factors associated with the misuse...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894311/access-to-substance-use-treatment-among-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-non-medically
#15
Elliott J Liebling, Jesse L Yedinak, Traci C Green, Scott E Hadland, Melissa A Clark, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: Non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) use is a substantial public health problem in the United States, with 1.5 million new initiates annually. Only 746,000 people received treatment for NMPO use in 2013, demonstrating substantial disparities in access to treatment. This study aimed to assess correlates of accessing substance use treatment among young adult NMPO users in Rhode Island, a state heavily impacted by NMPO use and opioid overdose. METHODS: This analysis uses data from a study of 200 Rhode Island residents aged 18 to 29 who reported NMPO use in the past 30 days...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886824/switching-p2y12-receptor-inhibiting-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Fabiana Rollini, Francesco Franchi, Dominick J Angiolillo
Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor is the cornerstone of treatment of patients with atherothrombotic disease manifestations. Switching between P2Y12 inhibitors occurs commonly in clinical practice for a variety of reasons, including safety, efficacy, adherence, and economic considerations. There are concerns about the optimal approach for switching because of potential drug interactions, which may lead to ineffective platelet inhibition and thrombotic complications, or potential overdosing due to overlap in drug therapy, which might cause excessive platelet inhibition and increased bleeding...
January 2017: Interventional cardiology clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885362/current-rural-drug-use-in-the-us-midwest
#17
Kirk Dombrowski, Devan Crawford, Bilal Khan, Kimberly Tyler
The nature and challenge of illicit drug use in the United States continues to change rapidly, evolving in reaction to myriad social, economic, and local forces. While the use of illicit drugs affects every region of the country, most of our current information about drug use comes from large urban areas. Data on rural drug use and its harms justify greater attention. Record overdose rates, unexpected outbreaks of HIV, and a dearth of treatment facilities point to a rapidly worsening health situation. While health sciences have made considerable progress in understanding the etiology of drug use and uncovering the link between drug use and its myriad associated harms, this promising scientific news has not always translated to better health outcomes...
2016: Journal of Drug Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884758/magnesium-enhances-opioid-induced-analgesia-what-we-have-learnt-in-the-past-decades
#18
REVIEW
Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny, Jan Tatarkiewicz, Kamila Kulik, Małgorzata Filip, Marek Naruszewicz
Opioids are increasingly used in alleviating pain, including cancer-related pain and postoperative pain. Unfortunately, the development of tolerance, the resistance of neuropathic pain on opioid analgesia or other undesirable effects may limit their utility. In order to reduce opioid doses, and thereby to avoid the risk of side effects and sudden deaths due to overdosing, attempts have been made to introduce co-analgesics. Due to an increasing amount of data concerning a potential enhance of opioid analgesia by the physiological antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, magnesium ions (Mg(2+)), a concomitant use of such a combination seems to be interesting from a clinical point of view...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884585/the-successful-treatment-of-5-fluorouracil-5-fu-overdose-in-a-patient-with-malignancy-and-hiv-aids-with-uridine-triacetate
#19
Cynthia Santos, Brent W Morgan, Robert J Geller
According to the NIH, about 275000 patients receive treatment with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and more than 1300 die from 5-FU toxicity every year from life-threatening myelosuppression, gastrointestinal complications, and neurotoxicity. Immunocompromised persons are at higher risk of developing toxicity. Recently uridine triacetate (Vistagard®) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the only specific antidote available for 5-FU poisoning. In a clinical trial (n=135), 96% of patients with 5-FU toxicity recovered after treatment, where as in a historical control group only 10% survived...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884575/brugada-pattern-caused-by-a-flecainide-overdose
#20
Elena Tessitore, Majd Ramlawi, Olivier Tobler, Henri Sunthorn
BACKGROUND: Brugada pattern can be found on the electrocardiogram (ECG) of patients with altered mental status, usually with fever or drug intoxication. Diagnosis remains challenging, because the ECG changes are dynamic and variable. In addition, triggers are not always clearly identified. In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the use of class IC antidysrhythmic drugs can unmask a Brugada pattern on the ECG, especially if combined with other medications acting on sodium channels...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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