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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633003/assessment-of-selected-overdose-poisoning-indicators-in-health-care-administrative-data-in-4-states-2012
#1
Beth Hume, Barbara Gabella, Jeanne Hathaway, Scott Proescholdbell, Cristy Sneddon, Elizabeth Brutsch, Riley Hedin, Christopher J Drucker
OBJECTIVES: In 2012, a consensus document was developed on drug overdose poisoning definitions. We took the opportunity to apply these new definitions to health care administrative data in 4 states. Our objective was to calculate and compare drug (particularly opioid) poisoning rates in these 4 states for 4 selected Injury Surveillance Workgroup 7 (ISW7) drug poisoning indicators, using 2 ISW7 surveillance definitions, Option A and Option B. We also identified factors related to the health care administrative data used by each state that might contribute to poisoning rate variations...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631318/bupropion-overdose-resulted-in-a-pharmacobezoar-in-a-fatal-bupropion-wellbutrin-%C3%A2-sustained-release-overdose-postmortem-distribution-of-bupropion-and-its-major-metabolites
#2
Gregory Schmit, Evy De Boosere, Jessica Vanhaebost, Arnaud Capron
Bupropion (BUP) overdose commonly causes generalized seizures and central nervous system depression. The case of a 28-year-old woman who died from a massive lethal overdose with sustained-release bupropion (Wellbutrin(®) 300 mg) is herein presented. The autopsy revealed the presence of a pharmacobezoar consisting of at least 40 tablets in the stomach. Determination of bupropion and its active metabolites (hydroxybupropion, threobupropion, erythrobupropion) was achieved by a liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627395/the-opioid-epidemic-is-an-historic-opportunity-to-improve-both-prevention-and-treatment
#3
Robert L DuPont
The current narrative describing the national opioid epidemic as the result of overprescribing opioid pain medicines fails to capture the full dimensions of problem and leads to inadequate and even confounding solutions. Overlooked is the fact that polysubstance use is nearly ubiquitous among overdose deaths, demonstrating that the opioid overdose death problem is bigger than opioids. The foundation of the nation's opioid overdose crisis - and the totality of the nation's drug epidemic - is widespread recreational pharmacology, the use of drugs for fun or "self-medication...
June 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622071/survival-in-out-of-hospital-rapid-sequence-intubation-of-non-traumatic-brain-pathologies
#4
Pieter Francsois Fouche, Paul Andrew Jennings, Karen Smith, Malcolm Boyle, Gabriel Blecher, Jonathan Knott, Mani Raji, Pamela Rosengarten, Michael Roberto Augello, Stephen Bernard
INTRODUCTION: Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is not only used in traumatic brain injuries in the out-of-hospital setting, but also for non-traumatic brain pathologies (NTBP) such as brain tumors, meningitis, encephalitis, hypoxic/anoxic brain injury, stroke, arteriovenous malformations, tumors, aneurysms, brain hemorrhage, as well as brain injury due to diabetes, seizures and toxicity, metabolic conditions, and alcohol and drug overdose. Previous research suggests that RSI is common in non-traumatic coma, but with an unknown prevalence of NTBP in those that receive RSI...
June 16, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622067/opioid-involved-overdose-among-male-afghanistan-iraq-era-u-s-military-veterans-a-multidimensional-perspective
#5
Alex S Bennett, Luther Elliott, Andrew Golub, Brett Wolfson-Stofko, Honoria Guarino
BACKGROUND: Mirroring nationwide trends in a broad range of U.S. populations, an alarming number of Afghanistan/Iraq-era U.S. Military veterans have experienced opioid-related overdoses. A growing body of research has examined the proximal behaviors that can precipitate an overdose; considerably less is known about more distal physiological, psychosocial and structural influences on these risk behaviors. OBJECTIVES: This study adopts a multidimensional approach to better understand opioid-related overdose among U...
June 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608586/metabolism-of-novel-opioid-agonists-u-47700-and-u-49900-using-human-liver-microsomes-with-confirmation-in-authentic-urine-specimens-from-drug-users
#6
Alex J Krotulski, Amanda L A Mohr, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
Recently, the number of adverse events, including death, involving novel opioids has continued to increase, providing additional and sustained challenges for forensic and medical communities. Identification of emerging novel opioids can be challenging, compounded by detection windows and unknown metabolic profiles. In this study, human liver microsomes were used for the generation of in vitro metabolic profiles of U-47700 and U-49900. Generated metabolites were analyzed via a SCIEX TripleTOF® 5600+ quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and resulting data files were processing using MetabolitePilot™...
June 13, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607654/qualitative-thallium-urinary-assays-are-almost-as-valuable-as-quantitative-tests-implication-for-outpatient-settings-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#7
Amir Ghaderi, Hamid Reza Banafshe, Soroor Khodabandehlo, Fateme Mehrzad, Omid Mehrpour, Reza Afshari
BACKGROUND: Thallium (Tl), lead and steroid exposures were reported as a result of street drug consumption such as heroin and cocaine. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the values of qualitative and quantitative assays for detecting Tl as an adulterant in opioid-like compound drug users. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted throughout a specified time bracket ranging from May 2015 to November 2015 in Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605928/targeted-temperature-management-after-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-in-three-young-patients
#8
Amina Godinjak, Amer Iglica, Adis Kukuljac, Ira Tančica, Selma Jusufović, Anes Ajanović, Šejla Rožajac
OBJECTIVE: We present the use of targeted temperature management in a tertiary-level intensive care unit, in three patients who experienced an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. CASE REPORT: Three young patients experienced an out-of-hospital non-coronary cardiac arrest. The causes of the cardiac arrest were: Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, drug overdose and long-QT syndrome. All patients were resuscitated according to the advanced cardiac life support guidelines, and treated with targeted temperature management, with a target temperature of 33°C for 24 hours...
May 2017: Acta Medica Academica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605020/report-of-increasing-overdose-deaths-that-include-acetyl-fentanyl-in-multiple-counties-of-the-southwestern-region-of-the-commonwealth-of-pennsylvania-in-2015-2016
#9
Jessica B Dwyer, Jennifer Janssen, Todd M Luckasevic, Karl E Williams
Acetyl fentanyl is a Schedule I controlled synthetic opioid that is becoming an increasingly detected "designer drug." Routine drug screening procedures in local forensic toxicology laboratories identified a total of 41 overdose deaths associated with acetyl fentanyl within multiple counties of the southwestern region of the state of Pennsylvania. The range, median, mean, and standard deviation of blood acetyl fentanyl concentrations for these 41 cases were 0.13-2100 ng/mL, 11 ng/mL, 169.3 ng/mL, and 405...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604436/brief-report-nonfatal-overdose-events-among-persons-who-inject-drugs-findings-from-seven-national-hiv-behavioral-surveillance-cities-2009-2012
#10
William T Robinson, Catherine Kazbour, Tanner Nassau, Kiva Fisher, Shane Sheu, Alexis V Rivera, Alia Al-Tayyib, Sara Nelson Glick, Sarah Braunstein, Narquis Barak, Jennifer Shinefeld, Jonathon Poe, Henry Fisher Raymond, Kathleen Brady
The rate of drug and opioid overdose deaths in the United States has more than tripled over the past 15 years. The ability to conduct public health surveillance on nonfatal overdoses is limited. The current study used National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) data to estimate recent and lifetime history of nonfatal overdose events in persons who inject drugs in 7 cities. Recent and lifetime experience of overdose events ranged from 3% to 20% and from 29% to 63%, respectively. Adapting systems such as NHBS may be useful in responding to and monitoring emergent public health problems such as the overdose epidemic...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602695/-presumed-cardiac-arrest-in-children-and-young-adults-a-misnomer
#11
Katherine S Allan, Laurie J Morrison, Arnold Pinter, Jack V Tu, Paul Dorian
AIM: To use a novel methodology to assess the incidence and specific causes of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) within a young urban cohort. METHODS: All EMS attended OHCA patients in a large urban area, between 2009 and 2012, aged 2-45 years, treated or untreated, who died or survived, and that were designated as "no obvious cause" etiology by trained data abstractors were included. Using multisource (medical and coroner) records, an expert panel adjudicated the causes of the OHCAs as: confirmed cardiac causes, confirmed non- cardiac causes, and other causes...
June 7, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602044/the-dynamic-interaction-between-pain-and-opioid-misuse
#12
REVIEW
Adrianne R Wilson-Poe, Jose A Moron
In 2014, drug overdose surpassed automobile accidents as the number one cause of accidental death for the first time in US history. The overdose epidemic is largely driven by opioids, and genuine prescription opioid analgesics play the biggest role in this phenomenon. Despite advancements in abuse deterrent formulations, prescription drug monitoring programs, and clinical assessments for the detection of abuse potential, drug overdoses continue to escalate. The CDC has recently issued new guidelines for opioid prescription, yet even these recommendations have their shortcomings...
June 11, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601512/epidemiology-of-fentanyl-involved-drug-overdose-deaths-a-geospatial-retrospective-study-in-rhode-island-usa
#13
Brandon D L Marshall, Maxwell S Krieger, Jesse L Yedinak, Patricia Ogera, Priya Banerjee, Nicole E Alexander-Scott, Josiah D Rich, Traci C Green
BACKGROUND: We conducted an epidemiological investigation of fentanyl and non-fentanyl overdose deaths in Rhode Island to inform overdose prevention efforts. METHODS: All drug overdose deaths occurring in Rhode Island between January 1, 2014 and September 30, 2016 were included. Overdose circumstances and decedent characteristics were ascertained from medical examiner files. Toxicological reports provided quantification of fentanyl and metabolites. ArcGIS was used to map exact overdose locations...
June 7, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597483/international-patent-applications-for-non-injectable-naloxone-for-opioid-overdose-reversal-exploratory-search-and-retrieve-analysis-of-the-patentscope-database
#14
REVIEW
Rebecca McDonald, Øyvind Danielsson Glende, Ola Dale, John Strang
ISSUES: Non-injectable naloxone formulations are being developed for opioid overdose reversal, but only limited data have been published in the peer-reviewed domain. Through examination of a hitherto-unsearched database, we expand public knowledge of non-injectable formulations, tracing their development and novelty, with the aim to describe and compare their pharmacokinetic properties. APPROACH: (i) The PatentScope database of the World Intellectual Property Organization was searched for relevant English-language patent applications; (ii) Pharmacokinetic data were extracted, collated and analysed; (iii) PubMed was searched using Boolean search query '(nasal OR intranasal OR nose OR buccal OR sublingual) AND naloxone AND pharmacokinetics'...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595692/non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulant-dosing-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-renal-dysfunction
#15
Xiaoxi Yao, Nilay D Shah, Lindsey R Sangaralingham, Bernard J Gersh, Peter A Noseworthy
BACKGROUND: Dose reduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is indicated in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with renal impairment. Failure to reduce the dose in patients with severe kidney disease may increase bleeding risk, whereas dose reductions without a firm indication may decrease the effectiveness of stroke prevention. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate NOAC dosing patterns and associated outcomes, i.e., stroke (ischemic stroke and systemic embolism) and major bleeding in patients treated in routine clinical practice...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595684/marijuana-use-in-the-elderly-implications-and-considerations
#16
Tracy D Mahvan, Michelle L Hilaire, Allison Mann, Antoinette Brown, Becky Linn, Taylor Gardner, Beryen Lai
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the literature on the use of marijuana in the elderly. Pharmacists play an important role in the management of medications including drug use of potentially illegal drugs, including marijuana. The use of both recreational and medical marijuana has grown exponentially in the general population, including in older adults. As of 2017, marijuana for medical use is legal in 26 states and the District of Columbia. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Internet search using the following terms: marijuana, cannabis, delta-9-tetrhydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabinoid, elderly, geriatric, and pharmacology...
June 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594892/a-behavioral-typology-of-opioid-overdose-risk-behaviors-among-recent-veterans-in-new-york-city
#17
Alex S Bennett, Andrew Golub, Luther Elliott
OBJECTIVE: To identify meaningful classes of opioid-using military veterans in terms of self-reported opioid overdose risk behaviors. METHOD: The study recruited a sample of 218 military veterans in the NYC area who were discharged from active duty service after September 11, 2001 and reported past-month opioid use. Survey data including measures of mental health, social stressors, substance use, and opioid-related overdose risk behaviors were analyzed using Latent Class Analysis (LCA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594786/hospitalizations-for-endocarditis-and-associated-health-care-costs-among-persons-with-diagnosed-drug-dependence-north-carolina-2010-2015
#18
Aaron T Fleischauer, Laura Ruhl, Sarah Rhea, Erin Barnes
Opioid dependence and overdose have increased to epidemic levels in the United States. The 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health estimated that 4.3 million persons were nonmedical users of prescription pain relievers (1). These users are 40 times more likely than the general population to use heroin or other injection drugs (2). Furthermore, CDC estimated a near quadrupling of heroin-related overdose deaths during 2002-2014 (3). Although overdose contributes most to drug-associated mortality, infectious complications of intravenous drug use constitute a major cause of morbidity leading to hospitalization (4)...
June 9, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593192/intravenous-heroin-induces-rapid-brain-hypoxia-and-hyperglycemia-that-precede-brain-metabolic-response
#19
Ernesto Solis, Keaton T Cameron-Burr, Yavin Shaham, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Heroin use and overdose have increased in recent years as people transition from abusing prescription opiates to using the cheaper street drug. Despite a long history of research, many physiological effects of heroin and their underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we used high-speed amperometry to examine the effects of intravenous heroin on oxygen and glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in freely-moving rats. Heroin within the dose range of human drug use and rat self-administration (100-200 μg/kg) induced a rapid, strong, but transient drop in NAc oxygen that was followed by a slower and more prolonged rise in glucose...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592287/naloxone-and-the-inner-city-youth-experience-nicye-a-community-based-participatory-research-study-examining-young-people-s-perceptions-of-the-bc-take-home-naloxone-program
#20
Keren Mitchell, S Elise Durante, Katrina Pellatt, Chris G Richardson, Steve Mathias, Jane A Buxton
BACKGROUND: Take home naloxone (THN) programs reduce mortality by training bystanders to respond to opioid overdoses. Clinical observation by the health care team at the Inner City Youth (ICY) program indicated that young adults appeared to enthusiastically participate in the THN program and developed improved relationships with staff after THN training. However, we found a dearth of literature exploring the experiences of young adults with THN programs. This study set out to address this gap and identify suggestions from the young adults for program improvement...
June 7, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
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