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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932200/the-seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-patients-undergoing-septoplasty
#1
Ozlem Onerci Celebi, Ela Araz Server, Bahtiyar Hamit, Özgür Yiğit
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus are major health problems. Healthcare workers are at risk of transmitting blood-borne viruses, and surgeons have a higher risk of exposure to blood and higher rates of percutaneous injury than other healthcare workers. Septoplasty is among the 3 most commonly performed otolaryngological surgeries worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen, Hepatitis C virus antibody, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus antibody in patients undergoing septoplasty with and without turbinate surgery under general anesthesia, and to determine if preoperative testing should be performed in such patients...
November 17, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931232/retention-in-georgia-opioid-substitution-therapy-program-and-associated-factors
#2
Ekaterine Ruadze, Khatuna Todadze
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse has been considered as a growing challenge in Georgia that is closely linked with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C transmission due to unsafe injection and other uncontrolled behaviors. Methadone maintenance therapy is one of the major treatment options for opioid-dependent individuals. It has proven efficacy in decreasing illegal opioid consumption and criminal behavior as well as reducing the level of HIV infection, mortality, HCV infection, and increasing social functioning...
December 8, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929270/sexually-transmitted-infections-recommendations-from-the-u-s-preventive-services-task-force
#3
Karen C Lee, Quyen Ngo-Metzger, Tracy Wolff, Joya Chowdhury, Michael L LeFevre, David S Meyers
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has issued recommendations on behavioral counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and recommendations about screening for individual STIs. Clinicians should obtain a sexual history to assess for behaviors that increase a patient's risk. Community and population risk factors should also be considered. The USPSTF recommends intensive behavioral counseling for all sexually active adolescents and for adults whose history indicates an increased risk of STIs...
December 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929247/initial-management-of-patients-with-hiv-infection
#4
Ronald H Goldschmidt, Carolyn Chu, Betty J Dong
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a treatable chronic disease with near-normal life expectancy when patients receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Family physicians and other primary care clinicians commonly provide long-term comprehensive care for persons with HIV infection. This article describes the scope of initial care, including obtaining a thorough history; physical examination for HIV-associated manifestations; attention to HIV-specific immunization schedules; routine and HIV-specific laboratory evaluation; and ensuring standard health care maintenance to prevent HIV- and non-HIV-related morbidity and mortality...
November 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928769/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-uptake-of-new-hepatitis-c-drugs-in-medicare
#5
Jeah Jung, Roger Feldman
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is an important public health concern. Recently launched drugs to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are effective but costly. Uptake of innovative and expensive prescription drugs may not be even across patient groups. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in uptake of new HCV drugs in the first year of their use (year 2014) in Medicare. METHODS: The study population was Medicare beneficiaries who had chronic hepatitis C in 2013 or 2014 and who were continuously enrolled in Part D stand-alone Prescription Drug Plans in 2014...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927859/systemic-elevation-of-proinflammatory-interleukin-18-in-hiv-hcv-coinfection-versus-hiv-or-hcv-monoinfection
#6
Rebecca T Veenhuis, Jacquie Astemborski, Michael A Chattergoon, Paige Greenwood, Marissa Jarosinski, Richard D Moore, Shruti H Mehta, Andrea L Cox
BACKGROUND: HIV/HCV coinfection and elevated interleukin (IL)-18 levels are both associated with enhanced progression of hepatic inflammation and increased risk of diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. IL-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine made upon activation of the inflammasome, an innate sensing system. We assessed whether increased IL-18 could explain the increased incidence and progression of inflammatory conditions seen with HIV/HCV coinfection. METHODS: Serum from 559 subjects with HIV monoinfection, HCV monoinfection, HIV/HCV coinfection, or people who inject drugs with neither infection was tested for IL-18 by ELISA and for 16 other analytes by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927207/acute-glycaemic-effects-of-co-trimoxazole-at-prophylactic-dose-in-healthy-adults
#7
Bernold Kenteu, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Martine Claude Etoa, Marcel Azabji-Kenfack, Mesmin Dehayem, Eugene Sobngwi
BACKGROUND: Cases of severe hypoglycaemia were reported in HIV/AIDS patients receiving high dose of the sulfonylurea co-trimoxazole for opportunistic infections. Whether co-trimoxazole at prophylactic dose would induce similar side effects is unknown. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of co-trimoxazole at prophylactic dose on glucose metabolism in healthy adults. METHODS: We enrolled 20 healthy volunteers (15 males and 5 females) aged 23.0 (SD 2.0) years, with mean BMI of 22...
November 15, 2016: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925409/more-improvement-than-progression-of-liver-fibrosis-following-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-longitudinal-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-or-without-hbv-and-hcv-co-infections
#8
Yingying Ding, Song Duan, Runhua Ye, Yuecheng Yang, Shitang Yao, Jibao Wang, Dongdong Cao, Xing Liu, Lin Lu, Manhong Jia, Zunyou Wu, Na He
We examined the effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on liver fibrosis among HIV-infected patients with or without Hepatitis B (HBV) or C virus (HCV) co-infection. This was a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients receiving cART during 2004-2016. Liver fibrosis was assessed using Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score with 3 classifications: Class 1, < 1.45; Class 2, 1.45-3.25; Class 3, > 3.25. Of 3,900 participants, 68.6% were HIV mono-infected, 5.3% were HIV/HBV co-infected, 23.8% were HIV/HCV co-infected and 2...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925386/interferon-free-therapies-for-patients-with-chronic%C3%A2-hepatitis-c-genotype-3-infection-a-systematic-review
#9
Vicente Gimeno-Ballester, María Buti, Ramón San Miguel, Mar Riveiro, Rafael Esteban
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with genotype 3 remains a challenge. The HCV elimination rate with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) is lower than the values reported for other HCV genotypes. In addition, genotype 3 infected patients have a higher risk of disease progression and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to review the relevant literature concerning treatment of HCV genotype 3 patients with interferon-free regimens. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Web of Science electronic databases...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925346/hepatitis-c-infection-and-other-drug-related-harms-among-inpatients-who-injected-drugs-in-turkey
#10
Arash Alaei, Kamiar Alaei, Katherine Waye, Melissa Tracy, Marine Nalbandyan, Elif Mutlu, Mustafa Kemal Cetin
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is easily spread among those who share drug injection equipment. Due to the ease of contraction and growing prevalence of HCV in Eastern Europe, the aims of this study focused on describing risky injection practices as well as the prevalence of HCV, HIV, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) among people who inject drugs (PWID) that were admitted to public and private drug treatment centers in Turkey from 2012 to 2013. Other aims included identifying correlates of needle sharing and HCV infection...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924779/hepatic-safety-of-maraviroc-in-patients-with-hiv-1-and-hepatitis-c-and-or-b-virus-144-week-results-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Juergen K Rockstroh, Frank Plonski, Meena Bansal, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Catherine B Small, David M Asmuth, Gilles Pialoux, Rebecca Zhang-Roper, Ronnie Wang, Juan A Pineda, Jayvant Heera
BACKGROUND: In the primary 48-week analysis of a hepatic safety trial in patients with HIV-1 co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), maraviroc-containing treatment regimens were not associated with increased hepatotoxicity. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study, patients received maraviroc twice daily (n=70) or placebo (n=67) with concomitant antiretroviral therapy for 144 weeks (clinicaltrials...
December 7, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923769/recombination-in-hepatitis-c-virus-is-not-uncommon-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-kolkata-india
#12
Debanjali Gupta, Kallol Saha, Aritra Biswas, Rushna Firdaus, Monika Ghosh, Provash Chandra Sadhukhan
Recombination in RNA virus is a rare event in the survival and evolution to evade host immune system. This is increasing within high risk group population (HRG) due to super infection that occurs by continuous sharing of common drug equipment by HCV infected or HIV-HCV co-infected recurrent drug users. Recombination causes impediment to vaccine development and therapeutic intervention as standard HCV treatment is still genotype specific. Blood samples of 194 people who inject drugs (PWID) were collected from an Opioid Substitution Therapy Centre in Kolkata,India...
December 3, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922855/liver-stiffness-predicts-variceal-bleeding-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients-with-compensated-cirrhosis
#13
Nicolás Merchante, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Francisco Téllez, Dolores Merino, Maria José Ríos-Villegas, Guillermo Ojeda-Burgos, Mohamed Omar, Juan Macías, Antonio Rivero, Monserrat Pérez-Pérez, Miguel Raffo, Inmaculada López-Montesinos, Manuel Márquez-Solero, Maria Amparo Gómez-Vidal, Juan A Pineda
BACKGROUND: A liver stiffness (LS) < 21 kPa has a high negative predictive value (NPV) to exclude the presence of esophageal varices (EV) at risk of bleeding in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Consequently, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) for the screening of EV could be avoided in these patients. However, this strategy has not been widely accepted due to concerns about its safety. OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of LS to predict the risk of portal hypertensive gastrointestinal bleeding (PHGB) in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with compensated cirrhosis...
December 5, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921633/healthcare-resources-are-inadequate-to-address-the-burden-of-illness-among-hiv-infected-male-prisoners-in-malaysia
#14
Joseph Bick, Gabriel Culbert, Haider A Al-Darraji, Clayton Koh, Veena Pillai, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Frederick Altice
Purpose Criminalization of drug use in Malaysia has concentrated people who inject drugs (PWID) and people living with HIV into prisons where health services are minimal and HIV-related mortality is high. Few studies have comprehensively assessed the complex health needs of this population. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach From October 2012 through March 2013, 221 sequentially selected HIV-infected male prisoners underwent a comprehensive health assessment that included a structured history, physical examination, and clinically indicated diagnostic studies...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919899/pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-darunavir-administered-once-or-twice-daily-in-combination-with-ritonavir-or-the-three-direct-acting-antiviral-regimen-of-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-and-dasabuvir-in-adults-co-infected-with-hepatitis-c-and-human-immunodeficiency
#15
Jennifer R King, Amit Khatri, Roger Trinh, Rolando M Viani, Bifeng Ding, Jiuhong Zha, Rajeev Menon
BACKGROUND: The three-direct acting antiviral (3D) regimen containing ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir and dasabuvir ± ribavirin (RBV) is approved for treatment of HCV GT1/HIV-1 co-infection. Results of a pharmacokinetic substudy of 3D and darunavir are presented. METHODS: HCV/HIV-1 infected subjects were randomized to maintain a darunavir 800 mg once daily (QD) or switch to a darunavir 600 mg twice daily (BID) based antiretroviral regimen. On Study Day 1, subjects received 3D and RBV plus darunavir for 12 weeks...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918880/racial-differences-in-hiv-and-hcv-risk-behaviors-transmission-and-prevention-knowledge-among-non-treatment-seeking-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder
#16
Verena E Metz, Maria A Sullivan, Jermaine D Jones, Elizabeth Evans, Rachel Luba, Jonathan Vogelman, Sandra D Comer
In light of New York's recently reinforced strategy to end the AIDS epidemic by expanding testing, treatment, and access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), we assessed drug use and sexual risk behaviors, along with HIV/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and prevention knowledge among non-treatment-seeking adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) in New York City. Over the course of 18 months, volunteers screening for research studies in the Opioid Laboratory at the New York State Psychiatric Institute completed a locally developed self-assessment questionnaire...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918571/reactivation-of-hepatitis-b-in-hiv-patients-treated-for-hepatitis-c
#17
Vicente Soriano
Two billion people have been exposed to HBV and exhibit serological markers of past infection such as anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs. However, around 240 million suffer from chronic hepatitis B, as defined by the presence of serum HBsAg for longer than six months. In addition, a small proportion of patients exposed to HBV may harbor detectable viremia (serum HBV DNA) in the absence of HBsAg, which is named "occult hepatitis B".
October 2016: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917597/chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-and-liver-disease-in-hiv-coinfected-patients-in-asia
#18
N Durier, E Yunihastuti, K Ruxrungtham, N V Kinh, A Kamarulzaman, D Boettiger, A Widhani, A Avihingsanon, B V Huy, S F B Syed Omar, A Sanityoso, S Chittmittrapap, N T H Dung, V Pillai, T Suwan-Ampai, M Law, A H Sohn, G Matthews
Data on markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients in resource-limited settings are scarce. We assessed HCV RNA, HCV genotype (GT), IL28B GT and liver fibrosis (FibroScan(®) ) in 480 HIV-infected patients with positive HCV antibody in four HIV treatment centres in South-East Asia. We enrolled 165 (34.4%) patients in Jakarta, 158 (32.9%) in Bangkok, 110 (22.9%) in Hanoi and 47 (9.8%) in Kuala Lumpur. Overall, 426 (88.8%) were male, the median (IQR) age was 38.1 (34.7-42.5) years, 365 (76...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917495/usefulness-of-nucleic-acid-testing-to-reduce-risk-of-hepatitis-b-virus-transfusion-transmitted-infection-in-argentina-high-rate-of-recent-infections
#19
Sebastián Blanco, Marcos César Balangero, Mildre Cledy Valle, Oscar Luis Montini, Luis Horacio Carrizo, Sandra Verónica Gallego
BACKGROUND: Results from 10-year experience using nucleic acid test (NAT) screening in a blood bank of Córdoba are presented, showing the first data on prevalence of recent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and occult HBV infections (OBIs) in Argentina. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Molecular screening was performed by COBAS AmpliScreen human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) test Version 1.5 and COBAS AmpliScreen hepatitis C virus (HCV) test Version 2.0 and COBAS TaqScreen MPX and MPX Version 2...
December 4, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917261/anti-hepatitis-c-virus-drugs-and-kidney
#20
REVIEW
Paul Carrier, Marie Essig, Marilyne Debette-Gratien, Denis Sautereau, Annick Rousseau, Pierre Marquet, Jérémie Jacques, Véronique Loustaud-Ratti
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mainly targets the liver but can also induce extrahepatic manifestations. The kidney may be impacted via an immune mediated mechanism or a cytopathic effect. HCV patients are clearly at a greater risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) than uninfected patients are, and the presence of CKD increases mortality. Interferon-based therapies and ribavirin are difficult to manage and are poorly effective in end-stage renal disease and hemodialysis. These patients should be given priority treatment with new direct anti-viral agents (DAAs) while avoiding peginterferon and ribavirin...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
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