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Hiv hepatitis

Taylor McLinden, Erica E M Moodie, Anne-Marie Hamelin, Sam Harper, Carmine Rossi, Sharon L Walmsley, Sean B Rourke, Curtis Cooper, Marina B Klein, Joseph Cox
BACKGROUND: Severe food insecurity (FI) is common among individuals living with HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection. We hypothesize that the injection of opioids is partly responsible for the association between injection drug use and severe FI. Therefore, this analysis examines whether methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence is associated with a lower risk of severe FI. METHODS: We used biannual data from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort (N = 608, 2012-2015)...
February 20, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Carlos Fritzsche, M Loebermann, E C Reisinger
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against hepatitis A virus infection is recommended for men who have sex with men and other risk groups. The protection offered by the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine is comparable to that offered by the monovalent hepatitis A vaccine. CASE: A 38-year-old HIV-positive patient presented with right upper abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. Serological work-up and detection of hepatitis A RNA in stool sample revealed an acute hepatitis A infection despite a previous complete vaccination with the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine...
March 14, 2018: Infection
Nikolaus Ackermann, Durdica Marosevic, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Ute Eberle, Gabriele Rieder, Bianca Treis, Anja Berger, Heribert Bischoff, Katja Bengs, Regina Konrad, Wolfgang Hautmann, Katharina Schönberger, Anne Belting, Gisela Schlenk, Gabriele Margos, Martin Hoch, Friedrich Pürner, Volker Fingerle, Bernhard Liebl, Andreas Sing
Background and aimAs a consequence of socioeconomic and political crises in many parts of the world, many European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries have faced an increasing number of migrants. In the German federal state of Bavaria, a mandatory health screening approach is implemented, where individuals applying for asylum have to undergo a medical examination that includes serological testing for HIV and hepatitis B, screening for tuberculosis, and until September 2015, stool examination for Salmonella spp...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
J von Felden, J Vermehren, P Ingiliz, S Mauss, T Lutz, K G Simon, H W Busch, A Baumgarten, K Schewe, D Hueppe, C Boesecke, J K Rockstroh, M Daeumer, N Luebke, J Timm, J Schulze Zur Wiesch, C Sarrazin, S Christensen
BACKGROUND: Twelve weeks of the pangenotypic direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) was highly efficient in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 (GT3) infection in the ASTRAL-3 approval study. However, presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in the HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) was associated with lower treatment response. AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of SOF/VEL ± ribavirin (RBV) and the impact of NS5A RASs and RBV use on treatment outcome in HCV GT3 infection in a real-world setting...
March 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Julia L Marcus, Leo B Hurley, Scott Chamberland, Jamila H Champsi, Laura C Gittleman, Daniel G Korn, Jennifer B Lai, Jennifer O Lam, Mary Patricia Pauly, Charles P Quesenberry, Joanna Ready, Varun Saxena, Suk Seo, David J Witt, Michael J Silverberg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Treatment with the combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 12 weeks has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; some patients can be treated with an 8-week course. Guidelines recommend a 12-week treatment course for black patients, but studies have not compared the effectiveness of 8 vs 12 weeks in black patients who are otherwise eligible for an 8-week treatment regimen. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of Kaiser Permanente Northern California members with HCV genotype 1 infection who were eligible for 8 weeks of treatment with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (treatment-naïve, no cirrhosis, no HIV infection, level of HCV RNA <6 million IU/mL) and were treated for 8 or 12 weeks from October 2014 through December 2016...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Luděk Eyer, Radim Nencka, Erik de Clercq, Katherine Seley-Radtke, Daniel Růžek
Nucleoside analogs represent the largest class of small molecule-based antivirals, which currently form the backbone of chemotherapy of chronic infections caused by HIV, hepatitis B or C viruses, and herpes viruses. High antiviral potency and favorable pharmacokinetics parameters make some nucleoside analogs suitable also for the treatment of acute infections caused by other medically important RNA and DNA viruses. This review summarizes available information on antiviral research of nucleoside analogs against arthropod-borne members of the genus Flavivirus within the family Flaviviridae, being primarily focused on description of nucleoside inhibitors of flaviviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, methyltransferase, and helicase/NTPase...
January 2018: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, Natalie E Netzler, Jennifer H Lun, Jason M Mackenzie, Peter A White
Norovirus infections are a significant health and economic burden globally, accounting for hundreds of millions of cases of acute gastroenteritis every year. In the absence of an approved norovirus vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop antivirals to treat chronic infections, and provide prophylactic therapy to limit viral spread during epidemics and pandemics. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been explored widely for their antiviral potential and several are progressing through clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and as adjuvants for norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Calleb George Onyango, Lilian Ogonda, Bernard Guyah, Peter Okoth, Clement Shiluli, Felix Humwa, Vallarie Opollo
OBJECTIVE: Since the implementation of a series of blood donation safety improvements in Kenya, information about seroprevalence and determinants of transfusion transmissible infections among voluntary blood donors especially in high HIV burden regions of Homabay, Kisumu and Siaya counties remain scanty. A cross-sectional study examining HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and C virus sero-markers and associated determinants was conducted among voluntary blood donors. Their demographic characteristics and previous risk exposure were recorded in a pre-donation questionnaire, while blood samples collected were screened for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency viruses by ELISA and RPR (syphilis), then confirmed using CMIA...
March 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Wolfgang Miehsler, Clemens Dejaco, Hans-Peter Gröchenig, Harry Fuchssteiner, Christoph Högenauer, Lili Kazemi-Shirazi, Harald Maier, Andreas Mayer, Alexander Moschen, Walter Reinisch, Wolfgang Petritsch, Reingard Platzer, Pius Steiner, Herbert Tilg, Harald Vogelsang, Heimo Wenzl, Gottfried Novacek
Anti-TNFα-antibodies have revolutionized the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Due to the increasing application of these substances, the Working Group of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of the Austrian Association of Gastroenterology and Hepatology intended to update their consensus report on the safe use of Infliximab (published in 2010) and to enlarge its scope to cover all anti-TNFα-antibodies. The present consensus report summarizes the current evidence on the safe use of anti-TNFα-antibodies and covers the following topics: general risk of infection, bacterial infections (i...
March 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Anton Khlopas, Michael A Mont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Siddharth A Mahure, Joseph A Bosco, James D Slover, Jonathan Vigdorchik, Richard Iorio, Ran Schwarzkopf
BACKGROUND: Individuals coinfected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV represent a unique and growing population of patients undergoing orthopaedic surgical procedures. Data regarding complications for HCV monoinfection or HIV monoinfection are robust, but there are no data available, to our knowledge, on patients who have both HCV and HIV infections. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We sought to determine whether patients with coinfection differed in terms of baseline demographics and comorbidity burden as compared with patients without coinfection and whether these potential differences were translated into varying levels of postoperative complications, mortality, and hospital readmission risk...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Alastair D Duncan, Louise M Goff, Barry S Peters
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has a reported greater prevalence and poorer treatment outcomes in people living with HIV (PLWH) than comparable HIV-uninfected cohorts. We conducted a cross-sectional study to delineate the factors driving T2D in PLWH in an ethnically diverse cohort, and additionally observed how these have changed over time. SETTING: We studied a diverse HIV cohort in London to determine the prevalence and risk factors for T2D, and compared them to a cohort studied 10 years previously...
2018: PloS One
Luis J Jara, Gabriela Medina, Miguel A Saavedra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update about the interactions between infections and autoimmune diseases (AIDs), from the molecular perspective to the clinical spectrum and the differentiation between infection and disease activity. RECENT FINDINGS: Any kind of infection may modify the innate and adaptive immune response through the following mechanisms: molecular mimicry, superantigens, epitope spreading and B-cell activation. The consequence is the overproduction of antibodies shared with those found in AIDs...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Victoria P Strouvelle, Dominique L Braun, Valentina Vongrad, Alexandra U Scherrer, Yik Lim Kok, Roger D Kouyos, Marcel Stöckle, Andri Rauch, Katharine Darling, Matthias Hoffmann, Karin J Metzner, Huldrych F Günthard
Pegylated interferon-alpha (pIFN-α) is suggested to lower HIV-1 DNA load in antiretroviral therapy (ART) treated patients. We studied the kinetics of total HIV-1 DNA levels in 40 HIV-1/hepatitis C (HCV) coinfected patients, treated with pIFN-α for HCV and categorized into three groups according to start of ART: Chronic HIV-1 infection (n=22), acute HIV-1 infection (n=8), no-ART (n=10). Total HIV-1 DNA levels were quantified in 247 PBMC samples and remained stable before, during, and after pIFN-α treatment in all three groups...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ronnye Rutledge, Lynn Madden, Onyema Ogbuagu, Jaimie P Meyer
Women involved in the criminal justice system (WICJ) are at high risk of acquiring HIV and would benefit from HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) but there are no studies in this population to inform PrEP implementation programs. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of HIV-uninfected, cis-gender women on probation, parole and/or recently released from prison/jail to assess PrEP awareness, eligibility, potential barriers to uptake, and the PrEP care continuum. The 125 WICJ surveyed reported high rates of HIV risk behaviors including recent transactional sex (22...
March 11, 2018: AIDS Care
Agnese Comelli, Ilaria Izzo, Salvatore Casari, Angiola Spinetti, Alberto Bergamasco, Francesco Castelli
Since June 2016, an outbreak of hepatitis A has been reported in Europe. Here we report the HAV outbreak in Brescia (Northern Italy) from July 2016 to July 2017. We actively recorded all HAV cases defined by detection of HAV IgM antibodies in serum. Data on sexual behaviour, travel attitudes, concomitant sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), clinical presentation and laboratory results were collected. Forty-two confirmed cases were recorded: 25 (60%) were MSM and reported sexual contact at risk of STDs. Compared to 2015 and the first half of 2016, when only three hepatitis A cases were recorded, in the 12 months in question the number of cases rose 14-fold...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Kamiar Alaei, Mohammad Sarwar, Arash Alaei
Blood transfusions are contributing to a higher rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Pakistan. Half of all blood transfusions in Pakistan are not screened for hepatitis C, hepatitis B or HIV. Family members donate blood that is likely not tested due to social stigma attached to HCV. Paid donations are also quite common in the country, especially by people who inject drugs (PWID), which increases the population's exposure to HCV. Most of the population utilizes the private sector for their health needs; this sector has lax regulation due to the lack of oversight by the government or any other regulatory body...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Fengchao Xu, Hongxiao Song, Qingfei Xiao, Na Li, Hong Zhang, Genhong Cheng, Guangyun Tan
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its associated chronic infection remain serious health threats worldwide. However, there is still no impactful approach for clinical treatment of hepatitis B patients. Therefore, developing a better understanding of the interactions between HBV and its host is particularly important. HBV infection has been reported to induce type-III but not type-I or type-II interferon (IFN). In this study, we identified CBFβ, an HIV enhancer, as an HBV restriction factor that is specifically induced by type-III IFN in the early stages of HBV infection...
March 9, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Nico Holmstock, Marlies Oorts, Jan Snoeys, Pieter Annaert
Hepatic drug transporters play a pivotal role in the excretion of drugs from the body, in drug-drug interactions as well as in drug-induced liver toxicity. Hepatocytes cultured in sandwich configuration are an advantageous model to investigate the interactions of drug candidates with apical efflux transporters in a bio-relevant manner. However, the commonly used 'offline' assays (i.e. that rely on measuring intracellular accumulated amounts after cell lysis) are time and resource consuming while data output is often high and variable...
March 9, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Z Wyżewski, K P Gregorczyk, J Szczepanowska, L Szulc-Dąbrowska
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are a family of proteins highly conserved in evolution. Members of the Hsp family are mainly responsible for proper protein folding, however they perform many other functions in living organisms. Hsp60 is a molecular chaperone that is present in mitochondria and cytosol of eukaryotic cells, as well as on their surface. It is also found in the extracellular space and in the peripheral blood. Apart from its role in assisting protein folding in cooperation with Hsp10, Hsp60 contributes to regulation of apoptosis, as well as participates in modulation of the immune system activity...
2018: Acta Virologica
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