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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346443/exposure-to-previous-cart-is-associated-with-significant-liver-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients
#1
Evrim Anadol, Kristina Lust, Christoph Boesecke, Carolynne Schwarze-Zander, Raphael Mohr, Jan-Christian Wasmuth, Jürgen Kurt Rockstroh, Jonel Trebicka
INTRODUCTION: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival in HIV-patients. While the first antiretrovirals, which became available in particular D-drugs (especially didanosine and stavudine) and unboosted protease inhibitors, may impair liver function, the modern cART seems to decrease liver fibrosis. This study assessed the influence of exposure to previous antiretrovirals on liver fibrosis in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional single-center study recruited 333 HIV patients and assessed liver fibrosis using transient elastography (TE)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345855/increased-estradiol-in-hepatitis-e-virus-infected-pregnant-women-promote-viral-replication
#2
Chenchen Yang, Wenhai Yu, Yanhong Bi, Feiyan Long, Yunlong Li, Daqiao Wei, Xianhui Hao, Jianwen Situ, Yongqin Zhao, Fen Huang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection causes subclinical diseases, leading to high mortality (> 25%) in pregnant women. HEV replication is aggressively escalated in pregnant women, especially in the third trimester of pregnancy. Estrogen plays an important role in pregnancy. However, the pathogenesis of HEV in pregnant women or immunosuppressive pregnant women (such as HIV-infected, or organ-transplanted pregnant women) remains unclear. We investigated the role of estradiol in HEV infection in a cell culture system...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345844/assessing-hepatitis-c-spontaneous-clearance-and-understanding-associated-factors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Dewi Nur Aisyah, Laura Shallcross, Alice Jane Hully, Alastair O'Brien, Andrew Hayward
New advances in the treatment of hepatitis C provide high levels of sustained viral response but their expense limits availability in publicly funded health systems. The aim of this review is to estimate the proportion of patients who will spontaneously clear HCV and to identify factors that are associated with clearance, to support better targeting of directly acting antivirals. We searched Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline and Pubmed from 1st January 1994 to 30th June 2015 for studies reporting hepatitis C spontaneous clearance and/or demographic, clinical, and behavioural factors associated with clearance...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345371/therapeutic-manipulation-of-host-cell-death-pathways-to-facilitate-clearance-of-persistent-viral-infections
#4
REVIEW
James Cooney, Cody Allison, Simon Preston, Marc Pellegrini
Most persistent viral infections can be controlled, but not cured, by current therapies. Abrogated antiviral immunity and stable latently infected cells represent major barriers to cure. This necessitates life-long suppressive antiviral therapy. Achieving a cure for HIV, hepatitis B virus, Epstein Barr-virus, and others, requires novel approaches to facilitate the clearance of infected cells from the host. One such approach is to target host cell death pathways, rather than the virus itself. Here, we summarize recent findings from studies that have utilized therapeutics to manipulate host cell death pathways as a means to treat and cure persistent viral infections...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344726/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-elbasvir-and-grazoprevir-in-participants-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1b-infection
#5
Stefan Zeuzem, Lawrence Serfaty, John Vierling, Wendy Cheng, Jacob George, Jan Sperl, Simone Strasser, Hiromitsu Kumada, Peggy Hwang, Michael Robertson, Janice Wahl, Eliav Barr, Rohit Talwani, Heather Platt
BACKGROUND: Genotype 1b (GT1b) is the most common subtype of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). We present an integrated analysis of 1070 participants with HCV GT1b infection from 30 countries who received elbasvir/grazoprevir for 12 weeks. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data from participants with chronic HCV GT1b infection enrolled in 11 phase II/III clinical trials. All participants received elbasvir 50 mg plus grazoprevir 100 mg once daily for 12 weeks...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343192/coverage-and-outcomes-of-antenatal-tests-for-infections-a-population-based-survey-in-the-province-of-trento-italy
#6
Michela Dalmartello, Fabio Parazzini, Mariangela Pedron, Riccardo Pertile, Lucia Collini, Carlo La Vecchia, Silvano Piffer
BACKGROUND: Rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV), HIV, and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections may have very severe outcomes during pregnancy, and for this reason, monitoring of infections in pregnant women is a requirement of prenatal assistance. AIMS: To describe coverage and outcome of the screening for rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, CMV, HBV, HCV, HIV, and Group B Streptococcus in pregnancy in the Autonomous Province of Trento, Northern Italy (538,600 inhabitants)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338763/sero-prevalence-of-hbsag-in-naive-hiv-infected-patients-in-a-rural-locality-of-cameroon
#7
Jean-Patrick Molu, Marie Chantal Ngonde Essome, Chavely Gwladys Monamele, Richard Njouom
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed in order to fill the gap of knowledge regarding sero-epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) amongst Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and to assess the risk factors associated with HBV co-infection in a rural locality of Cameroon. A retrospective and cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2008 to April 2014 within the Mfou District Hospital. Naive HIV-infected patients were enrolled in the study and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)...
January 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337848/identifying-pre-existing-ns3-and-ns5a-resistance-associated-variants-and-transmission-chains-in-the-polish-hiv-hcv-genotype-1-epidemic-impact-on-prevention-and-treatment
#8
Miłosz Parczewski, Iwona Cielniak, Justyna Kordek, Bogusz Aksak-Wąs, Anna Urbańska, Magdalena Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Ewa Siwak, Monika Bociąga-Jasik, Anna Nowak, Aleksandra Szymczak, Małgorzata Zalewska, Władysław Łojewski, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Nadine Lübke, Lize Cuypers
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) resistance-associated variants (RAVs) have been shown to adversely affect treatment response of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Identifying pre-existing RAVs and transmission networks among HIV/HCV genotype 1 (G1) infected patients from Poland will assist in shaping surveillance strategies for HCV. METHODS: NS3 and NS5A sequences were obtained from samples of 112 DAA-naive G1 patients (45 G1a, 67 G1b), of which 74 were chronically infected and 38 were diagnosed with acute hepatitis C (AHC)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337702/changing-concepts-of-hiv-infection-and-renal-disease
#9
Jean Hou, Cynthia C Nast
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) was identified as the major renal manifestation of HIV infection early in the HIV epidemic. However, HIV infection now is associated with a different spectrum of renal lesions leading to chronic kidney disease. This review examines the changes in kidney injury occurring in the current HIV era and the factors involved in this transformation of disease expression. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of HIVAN and opportunistic infections in HIV-infected individuals has declined in concert with the use of effective combination antiretroviral agents...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336497/effects-of-treatment-with-maraviroc-a-ccr5-inhibitor-on-a-human-hepatic-stellate-cell-line
#10
N Coppola, A Perna, A Lucariello, S Martini, M Macera, M A Carleo, G Guerra, V Esposito, A De Luca
After an acute liver damage, tissue regeneration repairs lesions with degradation of deposed fibrotic material, while mechanisms of tissue restoration are persistently activated following several repeated injuries, inducing deposition of extracellular matrix. (ECM). Factors responsible for ECM remodeling have been identified in a pathway involving a family of zinc-dependent enzyme matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), together with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Recent experimental models suggested a role of CCR5 receptor in the genesis of liver fibrosis...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336004/point-of-care-urine-ethyl-glucuronide-testing-to-detect-alcohol-use-among-hiv-hepatitis-b-virus-coinfected-adults-in-zambia
#11
Michael J Vinikoor, Zude Zyambo, Monde Muyoyeta, Geetanjali Chander, Michael S Saag, Karen Cropsey
In an HIV-hepatitis B virus (HIV-HBV) coinfection cohort in Zambia, we piloted a qualitative point-of-care (POC) test for urine Ethyl glucuronide (uEtG), assessed concordance between uEtG and alcohol use disorders identification test-consumption (AUDIT-C), and identified epidemiological factors associated with underreporting (defined as uEtG-positivity with last reported drink > 7 days prior). Among 211 participants (40.8% women), there were 44 (20.8%) lifetime abstainers, 32 (15.2%) former drinkers, and 135 (64...
January 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335234/a-patient-held-smartcard-with-a-unique-identifier-and-an-mhealth-platform-to-improve-the-availability-of-prenatal-test-results-in-rural-nigeria-demonstration-study
#12
Semiu Olatunde Gbadamosi, Chuka Eze, John Olajide Olawepo, Juliet Iwelunmor, Daniel F Sarpong, Amaka Grace Ogidi, Dina Patel, John Okpanachi Oko, Chima Onoka, Echezona Edozie Ezeanolue
BACKGROUND: Community-based strategies to test for HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and sickle cell disease (SCD) have expanded opportunities to increase the proportion of pregnant women who are aware of their diagnosis. In order to use this information to implement evidence-based interventions, these results have to be available to skilled health providers at the point of delivery. Most electronic health platforms are dependent on the availability of reliable Internet connectivity and, thus, have limited use in many rural and resource-limited settings...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334973/options-for-reducing-hiv-transmission-related-to-the-dead-space-in-needles-and-syringes
#13
William A Zule, Poonam G Pande, David Otiashvili, Georgiy V Bobashev, Samuel R Friedman, V Anna Gyarmathy, Don C Des Jarlais
BACKGROUND: When shared by people who inject drugs, needles and syringes with different dead space may affect the probability of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission differently. METHODS: We measured dead space in 56 needle and syringe combinations obtained from needle and syringe programs across 17 countries in Europe and Asia. We also calculated the amounts of blood and HIV that would remain in different combinations following injection and rinsing. RESULTS: Syringe barrel capacities ranged from 0...
January 15, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334550/chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-subsequent-hiv-viral-load-among-women-with-hiv-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
Sarah J Willis, Stephen R Cole, Daniel Westreich, Andrew Edmonds, Christopher B Hurt, Svenja Albrecht, Kathryn Anastos, Michael Augenbraun, Margaret Fischl, Audrey L French, Aley G Kalapila, Roksana Karim, Marion G Peters, Michael Plankey, Eric C Seaberg, Phyllis C Tien, Adaora A Adimora
OBJECTIVE(S): One in four persons living with HIV is coinfected with HCV. Biological and behavioral mechanisms may increase HIV viral load among coinfected persons. Therefore, we estimated the longitudinal effect of chronic HCV on HIV suppression after ART initiation among women with HIV (WWH). DESIGN: HIV RNA was measured every six months among 441 WWH in the Women's Interagency HIV Study who initiated ART from 2000-2015. METHODS: Log-binomial regression models were used to compare the proportion of study visits with detectable HIV RNA between women with and without chronic HCV...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334197/increased-non-aids-mortality-among-persons-with-aids-defining-events-after-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation
#15
April C Pettit, Mark J Giganti, Suzanne M Ingle, Margaret T May, Bryan E Shepherd, Michael J Gill, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Sophie Abgrall, Michael S Saag, Julia Del Amo, Amy C Justice, Jose M Miro, Matthias Cavasinni, François Dabis, Antonella D Monforte, Peter Reiss, Jodie Guest, David Moore, Leah Shepherd, Niels Obel, Heidi M Crane, Colette Smith, Ramon Teira, Robert Zangerle, Jonathan Ac Sterne, Timothy R Sterling
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 infection leads to chronic inflammation and to an increased risk of non-AIDS mortality. Our objective was to determine whether AIDS-defining events (ADEs) were associated with increased overall and cause-specific non-AIDS related mortality after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. METHODS: We included HIV treatment-naïve adults from the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) who initiated ART from 1996 to 2014. Causes of death were assigned using the Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) protocol...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330726/ultra-deep-genomic-sequencing-of-hcv-ns5a-resistance-associated-substitutions-in-hcv-hiv-coinfected-patients
#16
Enass A Abdel-Hameed, Susan D Rouster, Ceejay L Boyce, Xiang Zhang, Jacek Biesiada, Mario Medvedovic, Kenneth E Sherman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The prevalence of naturally occurring HCV-NS5A resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) to DAA drugs might affect the response to treatment in HCV/HIV coinfected subjects. There are limited data on the frequency of HCV-NS5A naturally occurring drug-RAS at baseline in HCV/HIV coinfected patients when ultra-deep sequencing methodologies are applied. METHODS: HCV-NS5A-RAS were evaluated among 25 subjects in each group. Patients were matched by age, gender, and hepatic fibrosis stage category to control for selection bias...
January 12, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330673/vacuum-assisted-closure-therapy-of-paradoxical-reaction-in-tuberculous-lymphadenopathy-caused-by-mycobacterium-africanum
#17
H F Geerdes-Fenge, P Pongratz, J Liese, E C Reisinger
A 26-year-old HIV-negative male from Ghana was treated for cervical, intrathoracic and abdominal lymph node tuberculosis (TB) and tuberculous hepatitis. Penetration of the thoracic trachea by a mediastinal lymph node had caused bronchomucosal TB. Sputum culture grew M. africanum, sensitive to all first-line antituberculous drugs. Four weeks after the beginning of directly observed treatment with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, the right cervical lymph node increased in size, liquefied and caused a spontaneous fistula...
January 12, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330418/hla-b-hla-c-and-kir-improve-the-predictive-value-of-ifnl3-for-hepatitis-c-spontaneous-clearance
#18
Mario Frias, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Diego Rodriguez-Cano, Ángela Camacho, Pedro López-López, María Ángeles Risalde, Bárbara Manzanares-Martín, Teresa Brieva, Isabel Machuca, Antonio Rivero
IFNL3 is the strongest predictor of spontaneous resolution (SR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV), however, consideration of IFNL3 genotype alone is of limited clinical value for the prediction of SR or chronic HCV infection. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of HLA-B, HLA-C and KIRs on SR, as well as their additive effects on the predictive value of the IFNL3 genotype. We conducted a retrospective study of HIV patients that included both SR and chronic HCV patients. In our study, 61.6% of patients with IFNL3 CC achieved SR, and 81...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329763/efficacy-and-safety-of-varenicline-for-smoking-cessation-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-france-anrs-144-inter-activ-a-randomised-controlled-phase-3-clinical-trial
#19
Patrick Mercié, Julie Arsandaux, Christine Katlama, Samuel Ferret, Aurélie Beuscart, Christian Spadone, Claudine Duvivier, Jacques Reynes, Nathalie Wirth, Laetitia Moinot, Antoine Bénard, David Zucman, Xavier Duval, Jean-Michel Molina, Bruno Spire, Catherine Fagard, Geneviève Chêne
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is common in people living with HIV, but high-quality evidence on interventions for smoking cessation is not available in this population. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of varenicline with counselling to aid smoking cessation in people living with HIV. METHODS: The ANRS 144 Inter-ACTIV randomised, parallel, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was done at 30 clinical hospital sites in France. People living with HIV who had smoked at least ten cigarettes per day for 1 year or longer, were motivated to stop smoking, were not dependent on another psychoactive substance, and had no history of depression or suicide attempt were eligible...
January 9, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328508/serologic-responses-and-effectiveness-of-hepatitis-a-vaccination-among-hiv-positive-individuals-during-the-outbreak-of-acute-hepatitis-a
#20
Kuan-Yin Lin, Szu-Min Hsieh, Hsin-Yun Sun, Yi-Chun Lo, Wang-Huei Sheng, Yu-Chung Chuang, Aristine Cheng, Sung-Ching Pan, Guan-Jhou Chen, Chien-Ching Hung, Shan-Chwen Chang
Outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection have been occurring among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia-Pacific region, the United States, and several European countries since June 2015, and recently among persons who are homeless and use illicit drugs in the US. We evaluated the serologic responses and effectiveness of HAV vaccination in HIV-positive individuals during the outbreak in Taiwan. From June 1, 2015 to September 30, 2016, anti-HAV IgG was prospectively determined among all HIV-positive individuals...
January 12, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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