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Hepatic angiotensin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811860/the-apelin-receptor-apj-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-progenitor-cells-in-the-early-stage-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#1
Wataru Ando, Hiroaki Yokomori, Katsuya Otori, Masaya Oda
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatic steatosis and inflammation with or without fibrosis. The apelin receptor (APJ) is related to angiotensin-like-receptor 1 (AGTRL1). The present study aimed to evaluate APJ as an indicator of the pathophysiology of early-stage NASH. METHODS: APJ expression was evaluated in six tissue samples with histologically proven early-stage NASH using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM)...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798388/angiotensin-ii-induces-connective-tissue-growth-factor-expression-in-human-hepatic-stellate-cells-by-a-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-independent-mechanism
#2
Ao Li, Jingyao Zhang, Xiaoxun Zhang, Jun Wang, Songsong Wang, Xiao Xiao, Rui Wang, Peng Li, Yitao Wang
Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes hepatic fibrosis by increasing extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and emerges as downstream of the profibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). We aimed to investigate the molecular events that lead from the Ang II receptor to CTGF upregulation in human hepatic stellate cells, a principal fibrogenic cell type. Ang II produced an early, AT1 receptor-dependent stimulation of CTGF expression and induced a rapid activation of PKC and its downstream p38 MAPK, thereby activating a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and Smad2/3 cross-talk pathway...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792970/targeting-hepatic-heparin-binding-egf-like-growth-factor-hb-egf-induces-anti-hyperlipidemia-leading-to-reduction-of-angiotensin-ii-induced-aneurysm-development
#3
Seonwook Kim, Lihua Yang, Seongu Kim, Richard G Lee, Mark J Graham, Judith A Berliner, Aldons J Lusis, Lei Cai, Ryan E Temel, Debra L Rateri, Sangderk Lee
OBJECTIVE: The upregulated expression of heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in the vessel and circulation is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we tested the effects of HB-EGF targeting using HB-EGF-specific antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) on the development of aortic aneurysm in a mouse aneurysm model. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficient mice (male, 16 weeks of age) were injected with control and HB-EGF ASOs for 10 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761237/membranoproliferative-glomerulonephritis-associated-with-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#4
H Rafik, M El Amrani, D El Kabbaj
Type 1 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is an uncommon manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated renal disease in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus. We report a case of MPGN characterized by nephrotic syndrome associated with HIV without hepatitis C coinfection. The patient had a favorable response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Recognition of the MPGN lesion in HIV infection devoid of hepatitis C coinfection must be considered...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750149/single-center-evaluation-of-the-pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-the-angiotensin-ii-receptor-antagonist-azilsartan-medoxomil-in-mild-to-moderate-hepatic-impairment
#5
Caroline Dudkowski, Aziz Karim, Zhen Zhao, Alberto B Alonso, Dyal Garg, Richard A Preston
Azilsartan medoxomil (AZL-M) is a potent angiotensin II receptor blocker that decreases blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. It is a prodrug that is not detected in blood after its oral administration because of its rapid hydrolysis to the active moiety, azilsartan (AZL). AZL undergoes further metabolism to the major metabolite, M-II, and minor metabolites. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mild to moderate hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of AZL and its major metabolite...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740597/is-hepatic-steatosis-associated-with-left-ventricular-mass-index-increase-in-the-general-population
#6
Katharina Piontek, Carsten O Schmidt, Sebastian E Baumeister, Markus M Lerch, Julia Mayerle, Marcus Dörr, Stephan B Felix, Henry Völzke
AIM: To investigate the association between hepatic steatosis and change in left ventricular mass index (LVMI) over five years, and examine whether systolic and diastolic blood pressures are mediators of the association between hepatic steatosis and LVMI using a general population sample. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Study of Health in Pomerania. The study population comprised 1298 individuals aged 45 to 81 years. Hepatic steatosis was defined as the presence of a hyperechogenic pattern of the liver together with elevated serum alanine transferase levels...
July 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691216/statins-and-ace-inhibitors-are-associated-with-reduced-mortality-and-morbidity-in-chronic-liver-disease
#7
Knut Stokkeland, Christine Takami Lageborn, Anders Ekbom, Jonas Höijer, Matteo Bottai, Per Stål, Karin Söderberg-Löfdal
Liver fibrosis is a common response to many chronic liver diseases. The aim of our study was to explore whether pharmacotherapy for concurrent diseases affects overall mortality, liver-related mortality and liver-related morbidity in patients with chronic liver disease. We performed a register-based cohort study of all patients with a first-time diagnosis of chronic liver disease between 2005 and 2012 in Sweden (n=70 546). Data from the Patient Register, the Prescribed Drug Register and the Death Certificate Register were linked...
July 10, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660748/angiotensin-ii-subtype-1a-receptor-signaling-in-resident-hepatic-macrophages-induces-liver-metastasis-formation
#8
Yuki Shimizu, Hideki Amano, Yoshiya Ito, Tomohiro Betto, Sakiko Yamane, Tomoyoshi Inoue, Nobuyuki Nishizawa, Yoshio Matsui, Mariko Kamata, Masaki Nakamura, Hidero Kitasato, Wasaburo Koizumi, Masataka Majima
Liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) are a clinically significant problem. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the tumor growth and metastases. This study was designed to evaluate the role of angiotensin II subtype receptor 1a (AT1a) in the formation of liver metastasis in CRC. A model of liver metastasis was made by intra-splenic injection of mouse colon cancer (CMT-93) into AT1a knockout mice (AT1aKO) and wild-type (C57BL/6) mice (WT). As compared with WT, the liver weight and liver metastatic rate were significantly lower in AT1aKO...
June 29, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660012/angiotensin-ii-or-epinephrine-hemodynamic-and-metabolic-responses-in-the-liver-of-l-name-induced-hypertension-and-spontaneous-hypertensive-rats
#9
Debora Conte Kimura, Marcia Regina Nagaoka, Durval Rosa Borges, Maria Kouyoumdjian
AIM: To study hepatic vasoconstriction and glucose release induced by angiotensin (Ang)II or Epi in rats with pharmacological hypertension and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). METHODS: Isolated liver perfusion was performed following portal vein and vena cava cannulation; AngII or epinephrine (Epi) was injected in bolus and portal pressure monitored; glucose release was measured in perfusate aliquots. RESULTS: The portal hypertensive response (PHR) and the glucose release induced by AngII of L-NAME were similar to normal rats (WIS)...
June 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629818/corydalis-hendersonii-hemsl-protects-against-myocardial-injury-by-attenuating-inflammation-and-fibrosis-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathways
#10
Ruifeng Bai, Xu Yin, Xiao Feng, Yuan Cao, Yan Wu, Zhixiang Zhu, Chun Li, Pengfei Tu, Xingyun Chai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Corydalis hendersonii Hemsl. (CH) with heat clearing and detoxifying effects are well described in Tibetan folk medicine. It has been used for centuries in China largely for the treatment of high altitude polycythemia, a pathophysiological condition referred to "plethora" in Tibetan medicine, hypertension, hepatitis, edema, gastritis, and other infectious diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the cardioprotective effects of Corydalis hendersonii extract in an ICR mouse model of myocardial ischemic injury...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626963/exercise-training-modulates-the-hepatic-renin-angiotensin-system-in-fructose-fed-rats
#11
Eliete Dalla Corte Frantz, Renata Frauches Medeiros, Isabele Gomes Giori, Juliana Bittencourt Silveira Lima, Thais Bento-Bernardes, Thaiane Gadioli Gaique, Caroline Fernandes-Santos, Tiago Fernandes, Edilamar Menezes Oliveira, Carla Paulo Vieira, Carlos Adam Conte-Junior, Karen Jesus Oliveira, Antonio Claudio Lucas Nobrega
What is the central question of this study? What are the effects of exercise training on the hepatic renin-angiotensin system and their contribution to damage resulting from fructose overload in rats? What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise training attenuated the deleterious actions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor axis and increased expression of the counter-regulatory (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor) axis in the liver...
June 19, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596676/renin-angiotensin-system-in-liver-diseases-friend-or-foe
#12
REVIEW
Ana Cristina Simões E Silva, Aline S Miranda, Natália P Rocha, Antônio L Teixeira
In the last three decades, the understanding of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) has been changed by the discoveries of functional local systems, novel biologically active peptides, additional specific receptors, alternative pathways of angiotensin (Ang) II generation, and new roles for enzymes and precursor components other than those in Ang II synthesis. In this regard, the discovery that Ang-(1-7) opposes the pressor, proliferative, pro-fibrotic, and pro-inflammatory effects mediated by Ang II has contributed to the realization that the RAS is composed of two axes...
May 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587339/orf3-as-a-sensitive-and-specific-diagnostic-index-for-hepatitis-e
#13
Lijuan Li, Min Liu, Chengrui Geng, Yunmei Zou, Tong Jiao
We explored the significance of the expression of hepatitis E virus (HEV) open reading frame 3 (ORF3) in hepatitis E rat models. We also investigated its diagnostic value. Forty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were infected with HEV and 10 uninfected rats were selected for the control group. Rats were sacrificed at 14, 21, 35 and 70 days after infection. They were divided into 4 groups: Model group 1, model group 2, model group 3 and model group 4. ORF3 protein expression level in liver tissue, level of adipokines [fatty acid synthase (FAS), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor 2 (ACE-2)], Th1/Th2 cells balance [interferon (IFN), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Th1/Th2] and the level of immune outcome (levels of CD4(+), CD8(+) T lymphocytes and CD4(+)/CD8(+)) were measured and compared among groups...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572913/hdac9-is-an-epigenetic-repressor-of-kidney-angiotensinogen-establishing-a-sex-difference
#14
Camille T Bourgeois, Ryousuke Satou, Minolfa C Prieto
BACKGROUND: Sexual difference has been shown in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease induced by hypertension. Females are protected from hypertension and related end-organ damage. Augmentation of renal proximal tubular angiotensinogen (AGT) expression can promote intrarenal angiotensin formation and the development of associated hypertension and kidney injury. Female rodents exhibit lower intrarenal AGT levels than males under normal conditions, suggesting that the suppressed intrarenal AGT production by programmed mechanisms in females may provide protection from these diseases...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565796/hemodynamic-effects-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-inhibitor-and-%C3%AE-blocker-combination-therapy-vs-%C3%AE-blocker-monotherapy-for-portal-hypertension-in-cirrhosis-a-meta-analysis
#15
Jianrong Wang, Wenxia Lu, Jingjing Li, Rong Zhang, Yuqing Zhou, Qin Yin, Yuanyuan Zheng, Fan Wang, Yujing Xia, Kan Chen, Sainan Li, Tong Liu, Jie Lu, Yingqun Zhou, Chuan-Yong Guo
β-blockers are commonly used for the treatment of acute variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone antagonists (angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and aldosterone antagonists) are potential therapies for portal hypertension. Several studies have compared the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor and β-blocker combination therapy vs. β-blocker monotherapy, with inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the RAAS inhibitor and β-blocker combination therapy vs...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527109/erratum-to-clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-sacubitril-valsartan-lcz696-a-novel-angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor
#16
Surya Ayalasomayajula, Thomas Langenickel, Parasar Pal, Sreedevi Boggarapu, Gangadhar Sunkara
Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is indicated for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Absorption of sacubitril/valsartan and conversion of sacubitril (prodrug) to sacubitrilat (neprilysin inhibitor) was rapid with maximum plasma concentrations of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) reaching within 0.5, 1.5-2.0, and 2.0-3.0 h, respectively. With a twofold increase in dose, an increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was proportional for sacubitril, ~1...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525892/rasal1-is-a-potent-regulator-of-hepatic-stellate-cell-activity-and-liver-fibrosis
#17
Akemi Takata, Motoyuki Otsuka, Takahiro Kishikawa, Mari Yamagami, Rei Ishibashi, Kazuma Sekiba, Tatsunori Suzuki, Motoko Ohno, Yui Yamashita, Takaya Abe, Ryota Masuzaki, Tsuneo Ikenoue, Kazuhiko Koike
Liver fibrosis, leading to cirrhosis and liver failure, can occur after chronic liver injury. The transition of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) from quiescent cells into proliferative and fibrogenic cells is a central event in liver fibrosis. Here, we show that RAS protein activator like-1 (RASAL1), a RAS-GTPase-activating protein, which switches off RAS activity, is significantly decreased during HSC activation, and that HSC activation can be antagonized by forced expression of the RASAL1 protein. We demonstrate that RASAL1 suppresses HSC proliferation by regulating the Ras-MAPK pathway, and that RASAL1 suppresses HSC fibrogenic activity by regulating the PKA-LKB1-AMPK-SRF pathway by interacting with angiotensin II receptor, type 1...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509128/a-case-of-rapid-amelioration-of-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-cryoglobulinemic-membranoproliferative-glomerulonephritis-treated-by-interferon-free-directly-acting-antivirals-for-hcv-in-the-absence-of-immunosuppressant
#18
Fumiaki Obata, Taichi Murakami, Junko Miyagi, Sayo Ueda, Taizo Inagaki, Masanori Minato, Hiroyuki Ono, Kenji Nishimura, Eriko Shibata, Masanori Tamaki, Sakiya Yoshimoto, Fumi Kishi, Seiji Kishi, Motokazu Matsuura, Kojiro Nagai, Hideharu Abe, Toshio Doi
Mixed cryoglobulinemic syndrome, which is a systemic vasculitis characterized by the immune complex deposition in small- and medium-sized arteries and most often due to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, sometimes clinically manifests as refractory glomerulonephritis or nephritic syndrome. Patients with mixed cryoglobulinemic nephropathy who have a rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis should receive immunosuppressive therapy. After disease stabilization, patients should receive concurrent therapy for the underlying HCV infection...
May 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505074/nafld-and-atherosclerosis-are-prevented-by-a-natural-dietary-supplement-containing-curcumin-silymarin-guggul-chlorogenic-acid-and-inulin-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#19
Antonella Amato, Gaetano-Felice Caldara, Domenico Nuzzo, Sara Baldassano, Pasquale Picone, Manfredi Rizzo, Flavia Mulè, Marta Di Carlo
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) confers an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. NAFDL is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia, inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance, which in turn lead to atherosclerotic lesions. In the present study, the impact of a natural dietary supplement (NDS) containing Curcuma longa, silymarin, guggul, chlorogenic acid and inulin on NAFLD and atherosclerosis was evaluated, and the mechanism of action was examined. C57BL/6 mice were fed an HFD for 16 weeks; half of the mice were simultaneously treated with a daily oral administration (os) of the NDS...
May 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484393/the-role-of-the-apelin-apj-system-in-the-regulation-of-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Xinrui Lv, Jing Kong, Wei-Dong Chen, Yan-Dong Wang
Apelin is an endogenous peptide that is a ligand for the APJ receptor (angiotensin II receptor like-1, AT-1). The apelin/APJ system is distributed in diverse periphery organ tissues. It has been shown that the apelin/APJ system plays various roles in physiology and pathophysiology of many organs. It regulates cardiovascular development or cardiac disease, glycometabolism and fat metabolism as well as metabolic disease. The apelin/APJ system participates in various cell activities such as proliferation, migration, apoptosis or inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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