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Muscle strain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096355/a-natural-product-inhibits-the-initiation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-and-suppresses-its-toxicity
#1
Michele Perni, Céline Galvagnion, Alexander Maltsev, Georg Meisl, Martin B D Müller, Pavan K Challa, Julius B Kirkegaard, Patrick Flagmeier, Samuel I A Cohen, Roberta Cascella, Serene W Chen, Ryan Limboker, Pietro Sormanni, Gabriella T Heller, Francesco A Aprile, Nunilo Cremades, Cristina Cecchi, Fabrizio Chiti, Ellen A A Nollen, Tuomas P J Knowles, Michele Vendruscolo, Adriaan Bax, Michael Zasloff, Christopher M Dobson
The self-assembly of α-synuclein is closely associated with Parkinson's disease and related syndromes. We show that squalamine, a natural product with known anticancer and antiviral activity, dramatically affects α-synuclein aggregation in vitro and in vivo. We elucidate the mechanism of action of squalamine by investigating its interaction with lipid vesicles, which are known to stimulate nucleation, and find that this compound displaces α-synuclein from the surfaces of such vesicles, thereby blocking the first steps in its aggregation process...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095141/an-old-problem-aging-and-skeletal-muscle-strain-injury
#2
Brent A Baker
: Clinical Scenario: Even though chronological aging is an inevitable phenomenological consequence occurring in every living organism, it is biological aging that may be the most significant factor challenging our quality of life. Development of functional limitations, resulting from improper maintenance and restoration of various organ systems, ultimately leads to reduced health and independence. Skeletal muscle is an organ system, that when challenged, is often injured in response to varying stimuli...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093618/mri-assessment-of-calf-injuries-in-australian-football-league-players-findings-that-influence-return-to-play
#3
George Waterworth, Sara Wein, Alexandra Gorelik, Andrew H Rotstein
OBJECTIVE: Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed...
January 16, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087756/fine-mapping-of-genes-determining-extrafusal-fiber-properties-in-murine-soleus-muscle
#4
Andrew Carroll, Riyan Cheng, Elaina Collie-Duguid, Caroline Meharg, Michael E Scholz, Steven N Fiering, Jennifer L Fields, Abraham A Palmer, Arimantas Lionikas
INTRODUCTION: Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and proportion of different fiber types are important determinants of muscle function and overall metabolism. Genetic variation plays a substantial role in phenotypic variation of these traits, however, the underlying genes remain poorly understood. AIMS: This study aimed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting differences in soleus muscle fiber traits between the LG/J and SM/J mouse strains. METHODS: Fiber number, CSA, and proportion of oxidative type I fibers were assessed in the soleus of 334 genotyped male and female mice of the F34 generation of advanced intercross lines (AIL) derived from the LG/J and SM/J strains...
January 13, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079700/the-chimera-flap-a-quarter-century-odyssey
#5
Geoffrey G Hallock
Incredibly complicated multidimensional defects have always strained the ingenuity of the reconstructive surgeon. Secondary perhaps to vascularized composite allotransplantation as a solution to this dilemma, the compound flap has been developed to be a more useful and available alternative. Their greatest versatility has been proven by its subtype, the chimera flap. The chimera flap itself consists of multiple flaps, the latter possibly composed of bone, skin, muscle, and so on, where each part has an independent vascular supply, and each part is independent of any physical interconnection whatsoever with the other components, except where joined ultimately only to a common vascular pedicle...
February 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078077/a-novel-method-for-the-quantification-of-fatty-infiltration-in-skeletal-muscle
#6
Nicole K Biltz, Gretchen A Meyer
BACKGROUND: Fatty infiltration of the skeletal muscle is a common but poorly understood feature of many myopathies. It is best described in human muscle, where non-invasive imaging techniques and representative histology have been optimized to view and quantify infiltrating fat. However, human studies are limited in their ability to identify cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating fatty infiltration, a likely prerequisite to developing targeted interventions. As mechanistic investigations move to small animals, studies may benefit from new or adapted imaging tools optimized for high resolution and whole muscle quantification...
2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076414/a-mri-compatible-combined-mechanical-loading-and-mr-elastography-setup-to-study-deformation-induced-skeletal-muscle-damage-in-rats
#7
Jules L Nelissen, Larry de Graaf, Willeke A Traa, Tom J L Schreurs, Kevin M Moerman, Aart J Nederveen, Ralph Sinkus, Cees W J Oomens, Klaas Nicolay, Gustav J Strijkers
Deformation of skeletal muscle in the proximity of bony structures may lead to deep tissue injury category of pressure ulcers. Changes in mechanical properties have been proposed as a risk factor in the development of deep tissue injury and may be useful as a diagnostic tool for early detection. MRE allows for the estimation of mechanical properties of soft tissue through analysis of shear wave data. The shear waves originate from vibrations induced by an external actuator placed on the tissue surface. In this study a combined Magnetic Resonance (MR) compatible indentation and MR Elastography (MRE) setup is presented to study mechanical properties associated with deep tissue injury in rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073372/a-novel-method-for-the-quantification-of-fatty-infiltration-in-skeletal-muscle
#8
Nicole K Biltz, Gretchen A Meyer
BACKGROUND: Fatty infiltration of the skeletal muscle is a common but poorly understood feature of many myopathies. It is best described in human muscle, where non-invasive imaging techniques and representative histology have been optimized to view and quantify infiltrating fat. However, human studies are limited in their ability to identify cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating fatty infiltration, a likely prerequisite to developing targeted interventions. As mechanistic investigations move to small animals, studies may benefit from new or adapted imaging tools optimized for high resolution and whole muscle quantification...
January 10, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070903/myocardial-deformation-in-pediatric-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidoses-a-two-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-study
#9
Francesco Borgia, Enrica Pezzullo, Vincenzo Schiano Lomoriello, Regina Sorrentino, Francesco Lo Iudice, Sara Cocozza, Roberto Della Casa, Giancarlo Parenti, Pietro Strisciuglio, Bruno Trimarco, Maurizio Galderisi
BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are inherited lysosomal storage disorders caused by deficiency of required glycosaminoglycans breakdown enzymes, inducing cardiac involvement. Little is known about myocardial deformation involvement in MPS. Our aim was to assess biventricular structure and function in asymptomatic children with MPS using standard echo Doppler and 2D speckle tracking (STE). METHODS: Fifteen MPS children (one type I, six type II, three type III A, one III B, three IV A, one VI), asymptomatic for cardiac symptoms, and 15 age and sex-matched healthy controls underwent echo Doppler and STE...
January 10, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070866/finite-element-analysis-of-patient-specific-mitral-valve-with-mitral-regurgitation
#10
Thuy Pham, Fanwei Kong, Caitlin Martin, Qian Wang, Charles Primiano, Raymond McKay, John Elefteriades, Wei Sun
Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a significant complication of left ventricular dysfunction and strongly associated with a poor prognosis. In this study, we developed a patient-specific finite element (FE) model of the mitral apparatus in a FMR patient which included: both leaflets with thickness, annulus, chordae tendineae, and chordae insertions on the leaflets and origins on the papillary muscles. The FE model incorporated human age- and gender-matched anisotropic hyperelastic material properties, and MV closure at systole was simulated...
January 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069424/different-regulation-of-insulin-on-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-2-strains-of-gibel-carp
#11
Junyan Jin, Xiaoming Zhu, Dong Han, Yunxia Yang, Haokun Liu, Shouqi Xie
To test the hypothesis that response to insulin by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in gibel carp A strain may be different from that in DT strain, bovine insulin was injected into both strains of gibel carp after previous fasting for 48 h. The results showed that insulin induced hypoglycemia at 3 h in 2 strains, and that this was coupled with increased expression of glucose transporters (GLUT2 in the liver and GLUT1, GLUT4 in the muscle) and glycolytic enzyme (HK2 in the muscle) in both strains. Insulin induced increased glycolysis (GK) and fatty acid oxidation (ACO3 in the liver and CPT1a, ACO3 in the muscle) in the DT strain...
January 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061633/mechanisms-of-bone-response-to-injury
#12
Keren E Dittmer, Elwyn C Firth
Bone, despite its relatively inert appearance, is a tissue that is capable of adapting to its environment. Wolff's law, first described in the 19th century, describes the ability of bone to change structure depending on the mechanical forces applied to it. The mechanostat model extended this principle and suggested that the amount of strain a bone detects depends on bone strength and the amount of muscle force applied to the bone. Experimental studies have found that low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical loading is considered to be the most effective at increasing bone formation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060526/effects-of-dual-monitor-computer-work-versus-laptop-work-on-cervical-muscular-and-proprioceptive-characteristics-of-males-and-females
#13
Amanda M Farias Zuniga, Julie N Côté
OBJECTIVE: The effects of performing a 90-minute computer task with a laptop versus a dual monitor desktop workstation were investigated in healthy young male and female adults. BACKGROUND: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are common among computer (especially female) users. Laptops have surpassed desktop computer sales, and working with multiple monitors has also become popular. However, few studies have provided objective evidence on how they affect the musculoskeletal system in both genders...
December 1, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058796/hox-gene-expression-in-the-specialized-limbs-of-the-iberian-mole-talpa-occidentalis
#14
Constanze Bickelmann, Wessel van der Vos, Merijn A G de Bakker, Rafael Jiménez, Saskia Maas, Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra
Fossorial talpid moles use their limbs predominantly for digging, which explains their highly specialized anatomy. The humerus is particularly short and dorsoventrally rotated, with broadened distal and proximal parts where muscles attach and which facilitate powerful abductive movements. The radius and ulna are exceptionally robust and short. The ulna has an expanded olecranon process. The femur is generalized, but the fused tibia-fibula complex is short and robust. To understand the developmental bases of these specializations, we studied expression patterns of four 5' Hox genes in the fossorial Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis)...
January 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057820/blood-flow-regulation-and-oxygen-uptake-during-high-intensity-forearm-exercise
#15
Stian Kwak Nyberg, Ole Kristian Berg, Jan Helgerud, Eivind Wang
The vascular strain is very high during heavy handgrip exercise, but the intensity and kinetics to reach peak blood flow, and peak oxygen uptake, are uncertain. We included 9 young (25±2yr) healthy males to evaluate blood flow and oxygen uptake responses during continuous dynamic handgrip exercise with increasing intensity. Blood flow was measured using Doppler-ultrasound and venous blood was drawn from a deep forearm vein to determine arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO2diff) during 6-minutes bouts of 60, 80 and 100% of maximal work rate (WRmax), respectively...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056127/use-of-robotic-manipulators-to-study-diarthrodial-joint-function
#16
Richard E Debski, Satoshi Yamakawa, Volker Musahl, Hiromichi Fujie
Diarthrodial joint function is mediated by a complex interaction between bones, ligaments, capsules, articular cartilage, and muscles. To gain a better understanding of injury mechanisms and to improve surgical procedures, an improved understanding of the structure and function of diarthrodial joints needs to be obtained. Thus, robotic testing systems have been developed to measure the resulting kinematics of diarthrodial joints as well as the in situ forces in ligaments and their replacement grafts in response to external loading conditions...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052089/evaluation-of-pressure-pain-threshold-as-a-measure-of-perceived-stress-and-high-job-strain
#17
Lisbeth Hven, Poul Frost, Jens Peter Ellekilde Bonde
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pressure pain threshold (PPT), determined by pressure algometry, can be used as an objective measure of perceived stress and job strain. METHODS: We used cross-sectional base line data collected during 1994 to 1995 within the Project on Research and Intervention in Monotonous work (PRIM), which included 3123 employees from a variety of Danish companies. Questionnaire data included 18 items on stress symptoms, 23 items from the Karasek scale on job strain, and information on discomfort in specified anatomical regions was also collected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048810/su-f-i-25-reproducibility-of-phosphorus-mrs-and-work-measurements-for-evaluating-skeletal-muscle-metabolism
#18
F Settles, E Ripley, D Shengwen, G Clarke
PURPOSE: Skeletal muscle energetics were studied by phosphorus-31 MRS ((31) P-MRS) during exercise. The reproducibility of work performed and the MRS parameters were investigated. METHODS: Reproducibility of the (31) P-MRS exercise parameters was validated in five healthy volunteers (2 M/3 F, age 39.2 ± 21.9 yr, BMI 25.1 ± 4.8 kg/m(2) ). Five minute exercise of the vastus lateralis (VL) was performed on two separate occasions during MRS in a 3 Tesla MRI system...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041998/bacillus-calmette-guerin-strain-may-not-effect-recurrence-free-survival-when-used-intravesically-with-interferon-alpha2b-for-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#19
Ryan L Steinberg, Nathan A Brooks, Lewis J Thomas, Sarah L Mott, Michael A O'Donnell
OBJECTIVES: Adjuvant intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) remains the standard-of-care for high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Conflicting reports exist regarding disparate outcomes among BCG strains. We sought to determine whether a difference in recurrence-free survival (RFS) existed between TICE BCG and Connaught BCG strains used with interferon (IFN) for the treatment of NMBIC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A post hoc analysis of the phase 2 BCG/IFN study, conducted from May 1999 to February 2001...
December 29, 2016: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033112/three-dimensional-ultrasound-strain-imaging-of-skeletal-muscles
#20
K Gijsbertse, A M J Sprengers, M M Nillesen, H H G Hansen, R G P Lopata, N Verdonschot, C L de Korte
In this study, a multi-dimensional strain estimation method is presented to assess local relative deformation in three orthogonal directions in 3D space of skeletal muscles during voluntary contractions. A rigid translation and compressive deformation of a block phantom, that mimics muscle contraction, is used as experimental validation of the 3D technique and to compare its performance with respect to a 2D based technique. Axial, lateral and (in case of 3D) elevational displacements are estimated using a cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm...
January 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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