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Muscle strain

Brooke McClarren, Ronke Olabisi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into any mesenchymal tissue, including bone, cartilage, muscle, and fat. MSC differentiation can be influenced by a variety of stimuli, including environmental and mechanical stimulation, scaffold physical properties, or applied loads. Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of vibration or cyclic tensile strain on MSCs towards developing a mechanically based method of differentiation, but there is no consensus between studies and each investigation uses different culture conditions, which also influence MSC fate...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Qunfeng Cheng, Jingsong Peng
Nacre-inspired nanocomposites with excellent mechanical properties have achieved remarkable success in the past decades. The high performance of nacre-inspired nanocomposites lays down the basis for the further application of smart devices. Recently, some smart nanocomposites inspired by nacre have demonstrated well mechanical properties as well as effective and stable stimuli-responsive functions. In this concept, we summarize the recent development of smart nacre-inspired nanocomposites including 1D fibers, 2D films and 3D bulk nanocomposites in response to temperature, moisture, light, strain, etc...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Christopher McCrum, Pamela Leow, Gaspar Epro, Matthias König, Kenneth Meijer, Kiros Karamanidis
Tendons transfer forces produced by muscle to the skeletal system and can therefore have a large influence on movement effectiveness and safety. Tendons are mechanosensitive, meaning that they adapt their material, morphological and hence their mechanical properties in response to mechanical loading. Therefore, unloading due to immobilization or inactivity could lead to changes in tendon mechanical properties. Additionally, ageing may influence tendon biomechanical properties directly, as a result of biological changes in the tendon, and indirectly, due to reduced muscle strength and physical activity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jayendra M Bhalodiya, Arnab Palit, Manoj K Tiwari, Sanjay K Prasad, Sunil K Bhudia, Theodoros N Arvanitis, Mark A Williams
Cardiovascular disease diagnosis and prognosis can be improved by measuring patient-specific in-vivo local myocardial strain using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Local myocardial strain can be determined by tracking the movement of sample muscles points during cardiac cycle using cardiac motion estimation model. The tracking accuracy of the benchmark Free Form Deformation (FFD) model is greatly affected due to its dependency on tunable parameters and regularisation function. Therefore, Hierarchical Template Matching (HTM) model, which is independent of tunable parameters, regularisation function, and image-specific features, is proposed in this article...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Naoya Niwa, Eiji Kikuchi, Kazuhiro Matsumoto, Takeo Kosaka, Ryuichi Mizuno, Mototsugu Oya
PURPOSE: It is still unknown whether switching the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strain at the second induction course of BCG therapy has a therapeutic benefit in patients with tumor recurrence after the initial BCG therapy (BCG-relapsing tumor). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological features of 97 patients treated with a second induction course of BCG therapy between 1986 and 2014. Among the patients initially treated with BCG Tokyo-172, the second course was either BCG Tokyo-172 in 56 (57...
March 9, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Clothilde Philouze, Philippe Obert, Stéphane Nottin, Asma Benamor, Olivier Barthez, Falah Aboukhoudir
BACKGROUND: Discrepancies are present in the literature on resting myocardial mechanics in patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data are noticeably sparse regarding circumferential function and torsional mechanics. Resting deformation imaging may not be sensitive enough to detect subtle dysfunctions. The aim of this study was thus to comprehensively evaluate myocardial mechanics in patients with T2DM at rest and to investigate whether dobutamine stress echocardiography could unmask functional alterations that would remain otherwise subtle at rest...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Wolfgang Kemmler, Matthias Kohl, Ellen Freiberger, Cornel Sieber, Simon von Stengel
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic Obesity (SO) is characterized by low lean and high fat mass; i.e. from a functional aspect a disproportion between engine (muscle) and mass to be moved (fat). At present, most research focuses on the engine, but the close "cross talk" between age-associated adipose and skeletal muscle tissue inflammation calls for comprehensive interventions that affect both components alike. Protein and exercise are likely candidates, however with respect to the latter, the enthusiasm for intense and frequent exercise is rather low, especially in functionally limited older people...
March 9, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Matthew L Benn, Tania Pizzari, Leanne Rath, Kylie Tucker, Adam I Semciw
INTRODUCTION: Cadaveric studies indicate that adductor magnus is structurally partitioned into at least two regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the direction-specific actions of proximal and distal portions of adductor magnus, and in doing so determine if these segments have distinct functional roles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fine-wire EMG electrodes were inserted into two portions of adductor magnus of twelve healthy young adults. Muscle activity was recorded during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) across eight tests (hip flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, abduction, and adduction at 0°, 45° and 90° hip flexion)...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Dariusz Czaprowski, Łukasz Stoliński, Marcin Tyrakowski, Mateusz Kozinoga, Tomasz Kotwicki
Background: The physiological sagittal spinal curvature represents a typical feature of good body posture in the sagittal plane. The cervical and the lumbar spine are curved anteriorly (lordosis), while the thoracic segment is curved posteriorly (kyphosis). The pelvis is inclined anteriorly, and the lower limbs' joints remain in a neutral position. However, there are many deviations from the optimal body alignment.The aim of this paper is to present the most common types of non-structural misalignments of the body posture in the sagittal plane...
2018: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
V Piloni, M Bergamasco, G Melara, P Garavello
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between symptoms of obstructed defecation and findings on magnetic resonance (MR) defecography in males with obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS). METHODS: Thirty-six males with ODS who underwent MR defecography at our institution between March 2013 and February 2016 were asked in a telephone interview about their symptoms and subsequent treatment, either medical or surgical. Patients were divided into 2 groups, one with anismus (Group 1) and one with prolapse without anismus (Group 2)...
March 6, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
Chee-Chee H Stucky, Kate D Cromwell, Rachel K Voss, Yi-Ju Chiang, Karin Woodman, Jeffrey E Lee, Janice N Cormier
Background: Many surgeons experience work-related pain and musculoskeletal symptoms; however, comprehensive reporting of surgeon ailments is lacking in the literature. We sought to evaluate surgeons' work-related symptoms, possible causes of these symptoms, and to report outcomes associated with those symptoms. Materials and methods: Five major medical indices were queried for articles published between 1980 and 2014. Included articles evaluated musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic outcomes in surgeons...
March 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Valentina Mazzoli, Lukas M Gottwald, Eva S Peper, Martijn Froeling, Bram F Coolen, Nico Verdonschot, Andre M Sprengers, Pim van Ooij, Gustav J Strijkers, Aart J Nederveen
PURPOSE: 3D time-resolved (4D) phase contrast MRI can be used to study muscle contraction. However, 3D coverage with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution can only be achieved by interleaved acquisitions during many repetitions of the motion task, resulting in long scan times. The aim of this study was to develop a compressed sensing accelerated 4D phase contrast MRI technique for quantification of velocities and strain rate of the muscles in the lower leg during active plantarflexion/dorsiflexion...
March 5, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Alan She, Shuyan Zhang, Samuel Shian, David R Clarke, Federico Capasso
Focal adjustment and zooming are universal features of cameras and advanced optical systems. Such tuning is usually performed longitudinally along the optical axis by mechanical or electrical control of focal length. However, the recent advent of ultrathin planar lenses based on metasurfaces (metalenses), which opens the door to future drastic miniaturization of mobile devices such as cell phones and wearable displays, mandates fundamentally different forms of tuning based on lateral motion rather than longitudinal motion...
February 2018: Science Advances
Jun Miyazaki, Mizuki Onozawa, Eiichiro Takaoka, Ikuya Yano
In the past 40 years, intravesical immunotherapy with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin has been carried out as the most effective treatment for preventing local recurrences and tumor progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin is a family of vaccines derived in 1921 by the in vitro attenuation of Mycobacterium bovis. Subsequently, bacillus Calmette-Guérin seed lots were spread around the world, and both phenotypic and genotypic differences among the strains have been compiled...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Konstantin Nadein, Oliver Betz
We describe the kinematics and performance of the natural jump in the weevil Orchestes fagi (Fabricius, 1801) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its jumping apparatus with underlying anatomy and functional morphology. In weevils, jumping is performed by the hind legs and involves the extension of the hind tibia. The principal structural elements of the jumping apparatus are (1) the femoro-tibial joint, (2) the metafemoral extensor tendon, (3) the extensor ligament, (4) the flexor ligament, (5) the tibial flexor sclerite and (6) the extensor and flexor muscles...
February 26, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Toru Kondo, Sumio Yamada, Chikako Asai, Takahiro Okumura, Daisuke Tanimura, Toyoaki Murohara
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle pump function may play a key role in maintaining cardiac output (CO), because of the lack of cardiac contractility reserve during incremental exercise in heart failure (HF) patients. We aimed to investigate the relationship between lower leg pump function and surrogate measures of CO during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) in HF patients.Methods and Results:Consecutive cardiac patients referred for CPX had their lower leg ejection fraction (LgEF) measured using strain gauge plethysmography as a marker of skeletal muscle pump function...
March 1, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Márcio G Dos Santos, Felipe S Moreno, Akila L de Oliveira, Isadora C F Oliveira, Natália Tribuiani, José C Cogo, Andreia B Scriboni, Karina Cogo-Müller, Arturo San Feliciano, Tiago Jose Bonomini, João B Fernandes, Yoko Oshima-Franco
Galactia glaucescens leaves are popularly used against snakebites in Brazil. The hydroethanolic extract from aerial parts of G. glaucescens (HEGg) was assayed against the neurotoxicity and myotoxicity induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom. A traditional myographic technique was applied for neurotoxicity and the resulting muscles were treated routinely by light microscopy analysis for myotoxicity. Additionally, the antimicrobial potential of HEGg was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, as well as Rutin was isolated for the first time in this specie using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods and its antiophidian property was assessed...
February 28, 2018: Natural Product Research
Anand Prakash Singh, Swati Sharma, Kirti Pagarware, Rafay Anwar Siraji, Imran Ansari, Anupam Mandal, Pangertoshi Walling, Saima Aijaz
Enteropathogenic E. coli infection is characterized by rapid onset of diarrhea but the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. EPEC targets the tight junctions which selectively regulate the permeability of charged and uncharged molecules. Cooperative actions of the EPEC effectors EspF and Map have been reported to mediate tight junction disruption. To analyze the individual contributions of EspF and Map, we generated in vitro models where EspF and Map, derived from the EPEC strain E2348/69, were constitutively expressed in epithelial cells...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ji Qi, Shaoqun Zhang, Lei Zhang, Ruiyue Ping, Kaike Ping, Da Ye, Honggui Shen, Yili Chen, Yikai Li
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to preliminarily explore the effects of the soft tissue mobilization of pushing on Qiao-Gong (MPQ) on biomechanical properties of the carotid artery using an animal model of carotid atherosclerosis (CAS). METHODS: Fifty rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: animals with CAS treated with MPQ (CAS-MPQ [n = 15]); animals with CAS treated without MPQ (CAS [n = 15]); normal animals treated with MPQ (normal-MPQ [n = 10]); and a blank control group (n = 10)...
February 2018: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Luciana Lassance, Gustavo K Marino, Carla S Medeiros, Shanmugapriya Thangavadivel, Steven E Wilson
The aim of this study was to determine whether bone marrow-derived fibrocytes migrate into the cornea after stromal scar-producing injury and differentiate into alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) + myofibroblasts. Chimeric mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) bone marrow cells had fibrosis (haze)-generating irregular phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK). Multiplex immunohistochemistry (IHC) for GFP and fibrocyte markers (CD34, CD45, and vimentin) was used to detect fibrocyte infiltration into the corneal stroma and the development of GFP+ αSMA + myofibroblasts...
February 23, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
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