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optogenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468190/optogenetic-activation-of-non-nociceptive-a%C3%AE-fibers-induces-neuropathic-pain-like-sensory-and-emotional-behaviors-after-nerve-injury-in-rats
#1
Ryoichi Tashima, Keisuke Koga, Misuzu Sekine, Kensho Kanehisa, Yuta Kohro, Keiko Tominaga, Katsuyuki Matsushita, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh, Yugo Fukazawa, Kazuhide Inoue, Hiromu Yawo, Hidemasa Furue, Makoto Tsuda
Neuropathic pain is caused by peripheral nerve injury (PNI). One hallmark symptom is allodynia (pain caused by normally innocuous stimuli), but its mechanistic underpinning remains elusive. Notably, whether selective stimulation of non-nociceptive primary afferent Aβ fibers indeed evokes neuropathic pain-like sensory and emotional behaviors after PNI is unknown, because of the lack of tools to manipulate Aβ fiber function in awake, freely moving animals. In this study, we used a transgenic rat line that enables stimulation of non-nociceptive Aβ fibers by a light-activated channel (channelrhodopsin-2; ChR2)...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466733/a%C3%A3-facilitates-ltd-at-schaffer-collateral-synapses-preferentially-in-the-left-hippocampus
#2
Kenneth J O'Riordan, Neng-Wei Hu, Michael J Rowan
Promotion of long-term depression (LTD) mechanisms by synaptotoxic soluble oligomers of amyloid-β (Aß) has been proposed to underlie synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, LTD was induced by relatively non-specific electrical stimulation. Exploiting optogenetics, we studied LTD using a more physiologically diffuse spatial pattern of selective pathway activation in the rat hippocampus in vivo. This relatively sparse synaptic LTD requires both the ion channel function and GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor but, in contrast to electrically induced LTD, is not facilitated by boosting endogenous muscarinic acetylcholine or metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor activation...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465988/light-switchable-ion-channels-and-receptors-for-optogenetic-interrogation-of-neuronal-signaling
#3
Wan-Chen Lin, Richard H Kramer
Optogenetics is an emerging technique that enables precise and specific control of biological activities in defined space and time. This technique employs naturally occurring or engineered light-responsive proteins to manipulate the physiological processes of the target cells. To better elucidate the molecular bases of neural functions, substantial efforts have been made to confer light sensitivity onto ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors that mediate signaling events within and between neurons. The chemical strategies for engineering light-switchable channels/receptors and the neuronal implementation of these tools are discussed...
February 21, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465801/near-infrared-light-controlled-gene-expression-and-protein-targeting-in-neurons-and-non-neuronal-cells
#4
Vladislav Verkhusha, Taras Redchuk, Maksim Karasev, Evgeniya Omelina
Near-infrared (NIR) light-inducible binding of bacterial phytochrome BphP1 to its engineered partner QPAS1 is used for optical protein regulation in mammalian cells. However, there are no data on the application of the BphP1-QPAS1 pair in cells derived from various mammalian tissues. Here, we tested functionality of two BphP1-QPAS1-based optogenetic tools, such as an NIR and blue light-sensing system for control of protein localization (iRIS) and an NIR light-sensing system for transcription activation (TA), in several cell types including cortical neurons...
February 21, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464556/microbial-rhodopsins
#5
Ivan Gushchin, Valentin Gordeliy
Microbial rhodopsins (MRs) are a large family of photoactive membrane proteins, found in microorganisms belonging to all kingdoms of life, with new members being constantly discovered. Among the MRs are light-driven proton, cation and anion pumps, light-gated cation and anion channels, and various photoreceptors. Due to their abundance and amenability to studies, MRs served as model systems for a great variety of biophysical techniques, and recently found a great application as optogenetic tools. While the basic aspects of microbial rhodopsins functioning have been known for some time, there is still a plenty of unanswered questions...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464198/unraveling-synaptic-gcamp-signals-differential-excitability-and-clearance-mechanisms-underlying-distinct-ca-2-dynamics-in-tonic-and-phasic-excitatory-and-aminergic-modulatory-motor-terminals-in-drosophila
#6
Xiaomin Xing, Chun-Fang Wu
GCaMP is an optogenetic Ca2+ sensor widely used for monitoring neuronal activities but the precise physiological implications of GCaMP signals remain to be further delineated among functionally distinct synapses. The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a powerful genetic system for studying synaptic function and plasticity, consists of tonic and phasic glutamatergic and modulatory aminergic motor terminals of distinct properties. We report a first simultaneous imaging and electric recording study to directly contrast the frequency characteristics of GCaMP signals of the three synapses for physiological implications...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463867/optogenetic-tractography-for-anatomo-functional-characterization-of-cortico-subcortical-neural-circuits-in-non-human-primates
#7
S Senova, C Poupon, J Dauguet, H J Stewart, G P Dugué, C Jan, K Hosomi, G S Ralph, L Barnes, X Drouot, C Pouzat, J F Mangin, F Pain, I Doignon, R Aron-Badin, E Brouillet, E S Boyden, K A Mitrophanous, P Hantraye, S Palfi
Dissecting neural circuitry in non-human primates (NHP) is crucial to identify potential neuromodulation anatomical targets for the treatment of pharmacoresistant neuropsychiatric diseases by electrical neuromodulation. How targets of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and cortical targets of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) compare and might complement one another is an important question. Combining optogenetics and tractography may enable anatomo-functional characterization of large brain cortico-subcortical neural pathways...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463643/hyperactivity-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-areas-24a-24b-drives-chronic-pain-induced-anxiodepressive-like-consequences
#8
Jim Sellmeijer, Victor Mathis, Sylvain Hugel, Xu-Hui Li, Qian Song, Qi-Yu Chen, Florent Barthas, Pierre-Eric Lutz, Meltem Karatas, Andreas Luthi, Pierre Veinante, Michel Barrot, Min Zhuo, Ipek Yalcin
Pain associates both sensory and emotional aversive components, and often leads to anxiety and depression when it becomes chronic. Here, we characterized, in a mouse model, the long-term development of these sensory and aversive components as well as anxiodepressive-like consequences of neuropathic pain and determined their electrophysiological impact on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, cortical areas 24a/24b). We show that these symptoms of neuropathic pain evolve and recover in different time courses following nerve injury in male mice...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462586/sociobiology-changing-the-dominance-hierarchy
#9
Chen Qu, Jean-Claude Dreher
One fundamental question is to understand what neural circuits are involved when social hierarchies are established, maintained and modified. Now, a new study shows that a previously subordinate animal can become dominant after optogenetic stimulation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, demonstrating that this brain region is necessary and sufficient to quickly induce winning during social competitions.
February 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462275/excitation-of-cortical-nnos-nk1r-neurons-by-hypocretin-1-is-independent-of-sleep-homeostasis
#10
Rhîannan H Williams, Sarah W Black, Alexia M Thomas, Juliette Piquet, Bruno Cauli, Thomas S Kilduff
We have proposed that cortical nNOS/NK1R interneurons have a role in sleep homeostasis. The hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons project to the cortex. Hcrt peptides affect deep layer cortical neurons, and Hcrt receptor 1 (Hcrtr1; Ox1r) mRNA is expressed in cortical nNOS/NK1R cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Hcrt neuron stimulation affects cingulate cortex nNOS/NK1R neurons. Bath application of HCRT1/orexin-A evoked an inward current and membrane depolarization in most nNOS/NK1R cells which persisted in tetrodotoxin; optogenetic stimulation of Hcrt terminals expressing channelrhodopsin-2 confirmed these results, and pharmacological studies determined that HCRTR1 mediated these responses...
February 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460052/dorsal-raphe-projection-inhibits-the-excitatory-inputs-on-lateral-habenula-and-alleviates-depressive-behaviors-in-rats
#11
Hai Zhang, Kuan Li, Hong-Sheng Chen, Shuang-Qi Gao, Zhi-Xuan Xia, Jie-Ting Zhang, Fang Wang, Jian-Guo Chen
Hypofunction of the serotonergic (5-HT) system has close relationship with the symptoms in major depressive disorders (MDD), however, the underlying neural circuitry mechanisms are not fully understood. Lateral habenula (LHb) plays a crucial role in aversive behaviors and is activated in conditions of depression. It has been reported that 5-HT inhibits the excitability of LHb neurons, leading to the hypothesis that decreased transmission of 5-HT would elevate the activity of LHb and therefore mediates depressive symptoms...
February 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459701/imaging-of-electrical-activity-in-small-diameter-fibers-of-the-murine-peripheral-nerve-with-virally-delivered-gcamp6f
#12
Hans E Anderson, Arjun K Fontaine, John H Caldwell, Richard F Weir
Current neural interfaces are hampered by lack of specificity and selectivity for neural interrogation. A method that might improve these interfaces is an optical peripheral nerve interface which communicates with individual axons via optogenetic reporters. To determine the feasibility of such an interface, we delivered the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6f to the mouse peripheral nerve by intramuscular injection of adenoassociated viral vector (AAV1) under the control of the CAG (chicken beta actin- cytomegalovirus hybrid promoter)...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455105/shedding-light-on-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-using-optogenetics-and-photopharmacology
#13
REVIEW
Cyril Goudet, Xavier Rovira, Amadeu Llebaria
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors activated by glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system. These receptors are considered as potential therapeutic targets in many neurological diseases but a better understanding of their complex molecular dynamics and of their role in the normal and pathological functioning of the brain is still required. Manipulating mGluRs with high spatial and temporal precision holds great promise for deciphering their physiological and pathological functions...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454937/frequency-modulation-of-transcriptional-bursting-enables-sensitive-and-rapid-gene-regulation
#14
Congxin Li, François Cesbron, Michael Oehler, Michael Brunner, Thomas Höfer
Gene regulation is a complex non-equilibrium process. Here, we show that quantitating the temporal regulation of key gene states (transcriptionally inactive, active, and refractory) provides a parsimonious framework for analyzing gene regulation. Our theory makes two non-intuitive predictions. First, for transcription factors (TFs) that regulate transcription burst frequency, as opposed to amplitude or duration, weak TF binding is sufficient to elicit strong transcriptional responses. Second, refractoriness of a gene after a transcription burst enables rapid responses to stimuli...
February 12, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452828/glutamatergic-ventral-pallidal-neurons-modulate-activity-of-the-habenula-tegmental-circuitry-and-constrain-reward-seeking
#15
Jessica Tooley, Lauren Marconi, Jason Bondoc Alipio, Bridget Matikainen-Ankney, Polymnia Georgiou, Alexxai V Kravitz, Meaghan C Creed
BACKGROUND: The ability to appropriately integrate and respond to rewarding and aversive stimuli is essential for survival. The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in processing both rewarding and aversive stimuli. However, the VP is a heterogeneous structure, and how VP subpopulations integrate into larger reward networks to ultimately modulate these behaviors is not known. We identify a noncanonical population of glutamatergic VP neurons that play a unique role in responding to aversive stimuli and constraining inappropriate reward seeking...
January 12, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451205/optical-read-out-and-modulation-of-peripheral-nerve-activity
#16
REVIEW
Arjun K Fontaine, Hans E Anderson, John H Caldwell, Richard F Weir
Numerous clinical and research applications necessitate the ability to interface with peripheral nerve fibers to read and control relevant neural pathways. Visceral organ modulation and rehabilitative prosthesis are two areas which could benefit greatly from improved neural interfacing approaches. Therapeutic neural interfacing, or 'bioelectronic medicine', has potential to affect a broad range of disorders given that all the major organs of the viscera are neurally innervated. However, a better understanding of the neural pathways that underlie function and a means to precisely interface with these fibers are required...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449490/dentate-gyrus-mossy-cells-control-spontaneous-convulsive-seizures-and-spatial-memory
#17
Anh D Bui, Theresa M Nguyen, Charles Limouse, Hannah K Kim, Gergely G Szabo, Sylwia Felong, Mattia Maroso, Ivan Soltesz
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is characterized by debilitating, recurring seizures and an increased risk for cognitive deficits. Mossy cells (MCs) are key neurons in the hippocampal excitatory circuit, and the partial loss of MCs is a major hallmark of TLE. We investigated how MCs contribute to spontaneous ictal activity and to spatial contextual memory in a mouse model of TLE with hippocampal sclerosis, using a combination of optogenetic, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches. In chronically epileptic mice, real-time optogenetic modulation of MCs during spontaneous hippocampal seizures controlled the progression of activity from an electrographic to convulsive seizure...
February 16, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447015/optogenetics-in-cancer-drug-discovery
#18
Michał Kiełbus, Jakub Czapiński, Adrian Odrzywolski, Grażyna Stasiak, Kamila Szymańska, Joanna Kałafut, Michał Kos, Krzysztof Giannopoulos, Andrzej Stepulak, Adolfo Rivero-Müller
The discovery and domestication of biomolecules that respond to light has taken a light of its own, providing new molecular tools with incredible spatio-temporal resolution to manipulate cellular behavior. Areas covered: The authors herein analyze the current optogenetic tools in light of their current, and potential, uses in cancer drug discovery, biosafety and cancer biology. Expert opinion: The pipeline from drug discovery to the clinic is plagued with drawbacks, where most drugs fail in either efficacy or safety...
February 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445337/cocaine-induced-changes-in-low-dimensional-attractors-of-local-field-potentials-in-optogenetic-mice
#19
Sorinel A Oprisan, Julia Imperatore, Jessica Helms, Tamas Tompa, Antonieta Lavin
Optogenetically evoked local field potential (LFP) recorded from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of mice during basal conditions and following a systemic cocaine administration were analyzed. Blue light stimuli were delivered to mPFC through a fiber optic every 2 s and each trial was repeated 100 times. As in the previous study, we used a surrogate data method to check that nonlinearity was present in the experimental LFPs and only used the last 1.5 s of steady activity to measure the LFPs phase resetting induced by the brief 10 ms light stimulus...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444523/a-novel-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-using-optogenetics-representation-of-various-disease-stages-by-modulating-the-illumination-parameter
#20
Eun Jung Lee, Hyung Ho Yoon, Eun Suk Park, Joongkee Min, Sang Ryong Jeon
BACKGROUND: The classic animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) using neurotoxin can only simulate fixed stages of the disease by causing irreversible damage to the nigrostriatal system. OBJECTIVES: To develop an optogenetic PD model that can modulate the severity of disease by optical stimulation by introducing the halorhodopsin (NpHR) gene into the substantia nigra compacta. METHODS: Fifteen rats received injections of engineered AAV with NpHR-YFP gene into the substantia nigra...
February 14, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
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