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optogenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239660/%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-blockade-rescues-hypoglossal-motor-defense-against-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#1
Gang Song, Chi-Sang Poon
Decreased noradrenergic excitation of hypoglossal motoneurons during sleep causing hypotonia of pharyngeal dilator muscles is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a widespread disease for which treatment options are limited. Previous OSA drug candidates targeting various excitatory/inhibitory receptors on hypoglossal motoneurons have proved unviable in reactivating these neurons, particularly during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. To identify a viable drug target, we show that the repurposed α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine potently reversed the depressant effect of REM sleep on baseline hypoglossal motoneuron activity (a first-line motor defense against OSA) in rats...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238201/advances-in-optogenetic-and-chemogenetic-methods-to-study-brain-circuits-in-non-human-primates
#2
REVIEW
Adriana Galvan, Michael J Caiola, Daniel L Albaugh
Over the last 10 years, the use of opto- and chemogenetics to modulate neuronal activity in research applications has increased exponentially. Both techniques involve the genetic delivery of artificial proteins (opsins or engineered receptors) that are expressed on a selective population of neurons. The firing of these neurons can then be manipulated using light sources (for opsins) or by systemic administration of exogenous compounds (for chemogenetic receptors). Opto- and chemogenetic tools have enabled many important advances in basal ganglia research in rodent models, yet these techniques have faced a slow progress in non-human primate (NHP) research...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237104/assays-to-monitor-lysophagy
#3
Y-P Chu, Y-H Hung, H-Y Chang, W Y Yang
Lysophagy belongs to one of the many pathways cells activate in response to lysosomal damage. Damaged lysosomes attract glycan-binding galectins, become ubiquitinated, and are later on targeted for engulfment and degradation through lysophagy. Many triggers that are known to cause lysosomal membrane permeabilization have all been shown to induce lysophagy and can therefore be used to construct platforms for further molecular-level characterization of this process. In this chapter, we describe experimental parameters for triggering lysophagy through combined use of lysosome-specific dyes and light illumination...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231470/rapid-integration-of-artificial-sensory-feedback-during-operant-conditioning-of-motor-cortex-neurons
#4
Mario Prsa, Gregorio L Galiñanes, Daniel Huber
Neuronal motor commands, whether generating real or neuroprosthetic movements, are shaped by ongoing sensory feedback from the displacement being produced. Here we asked if cortical stimulation could provide artificial feedback during operant conditioning of cortical neurons. Simultaneous two-photon imaging and real-time optogenetic stimulation were used to train mice to activate a single neuron in motor cortex (M1), while continuous feedback of its activity level was provided by proportionally stimulating somatosensory cortex...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230316/quantitative-cognitive-test-characterization-of-reconnectable-implantable-fiber-optic-neurointerfaces-for-optogenetic-neurostimulation
#5
I V Fedotov, O I Ivashkina, M S Pochechuev, M A Roshchina, K A Toropova, A B Fedotov, K V Anokhin, A M Zheltikov
Cognitive tests on representative groups of freely behaving transgenic mice are shown to enable a quantitative characterization of reconnectable implantable fiber-optic neurointerfaces for optogenetic neurostimulation. A systematic analysis of such tests provides a robust quantitative measure for the cognitive effects induced by fiber-optic neurostimulation, validating the performance of fiber-optic neurointerfaces for long-term optogenetic brain stimulations and showing no statistically significant artifacts in the behavior of transgenic mice due to interface implantation...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230208/optogenetic-activation-of-vglut2-expressing-excitatory-neurons-blocks-epileptic-seizure-like-activity-in-the-mouse-entorhinal-cortex
#6
Latefa Yekhlef, Gian Luca Breschi, Stefano Taverna
We investigated whether an anti-epileptic effect is obtained by selectively activating excitatory neurons expressing ChR2 under the promoter for the synaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). VGLUT2-expressing cells were optically stimulated while local field potential and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed in mouse entorhinal cortical slices perfused with the proconvulsive compound 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). In control conditions, blue light flashes directly depolarized the majority of putative glutamatergic cells, which in turn synaptically excited GABAergic interneurons...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228583/food-responsiveness-regulates-episodic-behavioral-states-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Richard J McCloskey, Anthony D Fouad, Matthew A Churgin, Christopher Fang-Yen
Animals optimize survival and reproduction in part through control of behavioral states, which depend on the organism's internal and external environments. In the nematode C. elegans, a variety of behavioral states have been described, including roaming, dwelling, quiescence, and episodic swimming. These states have been considered in isolation, under varied experimental conditions, making it difficult to establish a unified picture of how they are regulated. Using long-term imaging, we examined C. elegans episodic behavioral states under varied mechanical and nutritional environments...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227955/cmos-based-opto-electronic-neural-interface-devices-for-optogenetics
#8
Takashi Tokuda, Satoki Noguchi, Satoru Iwasaki, Hiroaki Takehara, Toshihiko Noda, Kiyotaka Sasagawa, Jun Ohta, Takashi Tokuda, Satoki Noguchi, Satoru Iwasaki, Hiroaki Takehara, Toshihiko Noda, Kiyotaka Sasagawa, Jun Ohta, Toshihiko Noda, Kiyotaka Sasagawa, Satoru Iwasaki, Takashi Tokuda, Satoki Noguchi, Hiroaki Takehara, Jun Ohta
CMOS-based opto-electronic neural interface devices are presented. The devices are designed with target application of in vitro and in vivo optogenetics. Two types of the opto-electronic neural interface devices are presented. One is single-chip type device for on-chip optogenetics, and the other is multi-chip type device with flexibility and wide-area coverage for in vivo optogenetics on brain. Design, packaging and functional evaluations are presented.
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227923/a-sapphire-based-monolithic-integrated-optrode
#9
He Zhang, Weihua Pei, Xiaowei Yang, Xuhong Guo, Xiao Xing, Ruicong Liu, Yuanyuan Liu, Qiang Gui, Hongda Chen, He Zhang, Weihua Pei, Xiaowei Yang, Xuhong Guo, Xiao Xing, Ruicong Liu, Yuanyuan Liu, Qiang Gui, Hongda Chen, Xuhong Guo, Hongda Chen, Weihua Pei, Yuanyuan Liu, Ruicong Liu, Xiaowei Yang, He Zhang, Qiang Gui, Xiao Xing
A novel kind of optrode fabricated on a sapphire substrate is proposed for optogenetic applications in neuroscience. Eight thin-film neural electrodes and a GaN-LED are monolithically integrated on the surface of a sapphire shank. The LED is used for optogenetic stimulation and the multiple electrodes are used for simultaneous recording of neural activities. The output power density of the LED is 1-19 mW/mm(2) at 468 nm, driving with a current from 0.7-10 mA. The mean electrochemical impedance of the eight recoding sites on the optrode at 1 kHz is 385 kΩ...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227694/portable-closed-loop-optogenetic-stimulation-device
#10
Epsy S Edward, Abbas Z Kouzani, Rajas P Kale, Susannah J Tye, Epsy S Edward, Abbas Z Kouzani, Rajas P Kale, Susannah J Tye, Rajas P Kale, Susannah J Tye, Abbas Z Kouzani, Epsy S Edward
This paper presents a closed-loop optogenetic stimulation device to achieve online modulation of neurons. The device is designed to be mountable on small rodents in pre-clinical settings. Considering the size of rodents and the need for portability, a single-piece self-contained device is developed which allows real-time photostimulation based on detected neuronal states. It consists of three components: a neural recorder, a control algorithm, and an optogenetic stimulator. The neural recorder which is realized by analogue circuitry measures the neural signal...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227440/graphene-neural-interfaces-for-artifact-free-optogenetics
#11
Hongming Lyu, Xin Liu, Nick Rogers, Vikash Gilja, Duygu Kuzum, Hongming Lyu, Xin Liu, Nick Rogers, Vikash Gilja, Duygu Kuzum, Nick Rogers, Vikash Gilja, Xin Liu, Duygu Kuzum, Hongming Lyu
Light-induced artifacts in metal-based microelectrodes significantly limit simultaneous use of electrophysiology with optogenetics or optical imaging. In this work, we systematically investigate light-induced artifacts in Au and transparent graphene electrodes fabricated in the same batch. We demonstrate that the Au electrodes show light artifacts resembling genuine local field potentials, while graphene electrodes are free of light-induced artifacts. With its other desirable properties including high mechanical strength, good conductivity, transparency, and biocompatibility, graphene electrodes show great promise for combining electrical and optical modalities in the same experiment...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226852/heterogeneous-3d-optrode-with-variable-spatial-resolution-for-optogenetic-stimulation-and-electrophysiological-recording
#12
Suleman Ayub, Falk Barz, Oliver Paul, Patrick Ruther, Suleman Ayub, Falk Barz, Oliver Paul, Patrick Ruther, Suleman Ayub, Oliver Paul, Patrick Ruther, Falk Barz
We report on the concept, development, and geometrical, optical as well as electrical characterization of the first three-dimensional (3D) optrode. This new device allows to optically interact with neuronal cells and simultaneously record their response with a high spatial resolution. Our design is based on a single-shank optical stimulation component and a multi-shank recording probe stacked together in a delicate assembly process. The electrical connection of both components is ensured by using flexible polyimide (PI) ribbon cables...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225752/prefrontal-cortex-output-circuits-guide-reward-seeking-through-divergent-cue-encoding
#13
James M Otis, Vijay M K Namboodiri, Ana M Matan, Elisa S Voets, Emily P Mohorn, Oksana Kosyk, Jenna A McHenry, J Elliott Robinson, Shanna L Resendez, Mark A Rossi, Garret D Stuber
The prefrontal cortex is a critical neuroanatomical hub for controlling motivated behaviours across mammalian species. In addition to intra-cortical connectivity, prefrontal projection neurons innervate subcortical structures that contribute to reward-seeking behaviours, such as the ventral striatum and midline thalamus. While connectivity among these structures contributes to appetitive behaviours, how projection-specific prefrontal neurons encode reward-relevant information to guide reward seeking is unknown...
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225716/divergent-functions-of-the-left-and-right-central-amygdala-in-visceral-nociception
#14
Katelyn E Sadler, Neal A McQuaid, Abigail C Cox, Marissa N Behun, Allison M Trouten, Benedict J Kolber
The left and right central amygdala (CeA) are limbic regions involved in somatic and visceral pain processing. These two nuclei are asymmetrically involved in somatic pain modulation; pain-like responses on both sides of the body are preferentially driven by the right CeA, and in a reciprocal fashion, nociceptive somatic stimuli on both sides of the body predominantly alter molecular and physiological activity in the right CeA. Unknown however, is whether this lateralization also exists in visceral pain processing, and furthermore, what function the left CeA has in modulating nociceptive information...
December 29, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223484/rhythmic-brain-stimulation-reduces-anxiety-related-behavior-in-a-mouse-model-based-on-meditation-training
#15
Aldis P Weible, Denise M Piscopo, Mary K Rothbart, Michael I Posner, Cristopher M Niell
Meditation training induces changes at both the behavioral and neural levels. A month of meditation training can reduce self-reported anxiety and other dimensions of negative affect. It also can change white matter as measured by diffusion tensor imaging and increase resting-state midline frontal theta activity. The current study tests the hypothesis that imposing rhythms in the mouse anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), by using optogenetics to induce oscillations in activity, can produce behavioral changes. Mice were randomly assigned to groups and were given twenty 30-min sessions of light pulses delivered at 1, 8, or 40 Hz over 4 wk or were assigned to a no-laser control condition...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222293/inhibitory-control-mapping-medial-frontal-cortex
#16
Nandakumar S Narayanan, Mark Laubach
Functional anatomy in frontal cortex has been elusive and controversial. A new study combines neuronal ensemble recordings and optogenetics to map a functional gradient in rodent prefrontal cortex that supports inhibitory control.
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221990/an-integrated-circuit-for-simultaneous-extracellular-electrophysiology-recording-and-optogenetic-neural-manipulation
#17
Chang Hao Chen, Elizabeth A McCullagh, Sio Hang Pun, Peng Un Mak, Mang I Vai, Pui In Mak, Achim Klug, Tim C Lei
OBJECTIVE: The ability to record and to control action potential firing in neuronal circuits is critical to understand how the brain functions. The objective of this study is to develop a monolithic integrated circuit (IC) to record action potentials and simultaneously control action potential firing using optogenetics. METHODS: A low-noise and high input impedance (or low input capacitance) neural recording amplifier is combined with a high current laser/light-emitting diode (LED) driver in a single IC...
March 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221018/low-efficiency-upconversion-nanoparticles-for-high-resolution-coalignment-of-near-infrared-and-visible-light-paths-on-a-light-microscope
#18
Sriramkumar Sundaramoorthy, Adrian Garcia Badaracco, Sophia M Hirsch, Jun Hong Park, Tim Davies, Julien Dumont, Mimi Shirasu-Hiza, Andrew C Kummel, Julie C Canman
The combination of near-infrared (NIR) and visible wavelengths in light microscopy for biological studies is increasingly common. For example, many fields of biology are developing the use of NIR for optogenetics, in which an NIR laser induces a change in gene expression and/or protein function. One major technical barrier in working with both NIR and visible light on an optical microscope is obtaining their precise coalignment at the imaging plane position. Photon upconverting particles (UCPs) can bridge this gap as they are excited by NIR light but emit in the visible range via an anti-Stokes luminescence mechanism...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219987/a-unique-angiotensin-sensitive-neuronal-population-coordinates-neuroendocrine-cardiovascular-and-behavioral-responses-to-stress
#19
Annette D de Kloet, Lei Wang, Soledad Pitra, Helmut Hiller, Justin A Smith, Yalun Tan, Dani Nguyen, Karlena M Cahill, Colin Sumners, Javier E Stern, Eric G Krause
Stress elicits neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses that mitigate homeostatic imbalance and ensure survival; however, chronic engagement of such responses promotes psychological, cardiovascular and metabolic impairments. Over recent years, the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a key mediator of stress responding and its related pathologies, but the neuronal circuits that orchestrate these interactions are not known. These studies combine the use of the Cre-recombinase/loxP system in mice with optogenetics to structurally and functionally characterize angiotensin type-1a receptor-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the goal being to determine the extent of their involvement in the regulation of stress responses...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218915/one-step-optogenetics-with-multifunctional-flexible-polymer-fibers
#20
Seongjun Park, Yuanyuan Guo, Xiaoting Jia, Han Kyoung Choe, Benjamin Grena, Jeewoo Kang, Jiyeon Park, Chi Lu, Andres Canales, Ritchie Chen, Yeong Shin Yim, Gloria B Choi, Yoel Fink, Polina Anikeeva
Optogenetic interrogation of neural pathways relies on delivery of light-sensitive opsins into tissue and subsequent optical illumination and electrical recording from the regions of interest. Despite the recent development of multifunctional neural probes, integration of these modalities in a single biocompatible platform remains a challenge. We developed a device composed of an optical waveguide, six electrodes and two microfluidic channels produced via fiber drawing. Our probes facilitated injections of viral vectors carrying opsin genes while providing collocated neural recording and optical stimulation...
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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