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optogenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676731/oxytocin-functions-as-a-spatiotemporal-filter-for-excitatory-synaptic-inputs-to-vta-dopamine-neurons
#1
Lei Xiao, Michael F Priest, Yevgenia Kozorovitskiy
The experience of rewarding or aversive stimuli is encoded by distinct afferents to dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Several neuromodulatory systems including oxytocin regulate DA neuron excitability and synaptic transmission that process socially meaningful stimuli. We and others have recently characterized oxytocinergic modulation of activity in mouse VTA DA neurons, but the mechanisms underlying oxytocinergic modulation of synaptic transmission in DA neurons remain poorly understood...
April 20, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675583/do-alcohol-related-ampa-type-glutamate-receptor-adaptations-promote-intake
#2
F Woodward Hopf, Regina A Mangieri
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA, and kainate receptors) play a central role in excitatory glutamatergic signaling throughout the brain. As a result, functional changes, especially long-lasting forms of plasticity, have the potential to profoundly alter neuronal function and the expression of adaptive and pathological behaviors. Thus, alcohol-related adaptations in ionotropic glutamate receptors are of great interest, since they could promote excessive alcohol consumption, even after long-term abstinence...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673525/optogenetics-and-chemogenetics
#3
Ksenia Vlasov, Christa J Van Dort, Ken Solt
Optogenetics and chemogenetics provide the ability to modulate neurons in a type- and region-specific manner. These powerful techniques are useful to test hypotheses regarding the neural circuit mechanisms of general anesthetic end points such as hypnosis and analgesia. With both techniques, a genetic strategy is used to target expression of light-sensitive ion channels (opsins) or designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs in specific neurons. Optogenetics provides precise temporal control of neuronal firing with light pulses, whereas chemogenetics provides the ability to modulate neuronal firing for several hours with the single administration of a designer drug...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671930/optogenetics-a-primer-for-chemists
#4
David Lawrence, Colin P O'banion
The field of optogenetics uses genetically encoded, light-responsive proteins to control physiological processes. This technology has been hailed as the one of the ten big ideas in brain science in the past decade,[1] the breakthrough of the decade,[2] and the method of the year in 2010[3] and again in 2014[4]. The excitement evidenced by these proclamations is confirmed by a couple of impressive numbers. The term "optogenetics" was coined in 2006.[5] As of December 2017, "optogenetics" is found in the title or abstract of almost 1600 currently funded National Institutes of Health grants...
April 19, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670202/automated-fluid-delivery-from-multiwell-plates-to-microfluidic-devices-for-high-throughput-experiments-and-microscopy
#5
Ross C Lagoy, Dirk R Albrecht
High-throughput biological and chemical experiments typically use either multiwell plates or microfluidic devices to analyze numerous independent samples in a compact format. Multiwell plates are convenient for screening chemical libraries in static fluid environments, whereas microfluidic devices offer immense flexibility in flow control and dynamics. Interfacing these platforms in a simple and automated way would introduce new high-throughput experimental capabilities, such as compound screens with precise exposure timing...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670106/olfactory-inputs-modulate-respiration-related-rhythmic-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-freezing-behavior
#6
Andrew H Moberly, Mary Schreck, Janardhan P Bhattarai, Larry S Zweifel, Wenqin Luo, Minghong Ma
Respiration and airflow through the nasal cavity are known to be correlated with rhythmic neural activity in the central nervous system. Here we show in rodents that during conditioned fear-induced freezing behavior, mice breathe at a steady rate (~4 Hz), which is correlated with a predominant 4-Hz oscillation in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC), a structure critical for expression of conditioned fear behaviors. We demonstrate anatomical and functional connections between the olfactory pathway and plPFC via circuit tracing and optogenetics...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664610/bioprinting-living-biofilms-through-optogenetic-manipulation
#7
Yajia Huang, Aiguo Xia, Guang Yang, Fan Jin
In this paper, we present a new strategy for microprinting dense bacterial communities with a prescribed organization on a substrate. Unlike conventional bioprinting techniques that require bioinks, through optogenetic manipulation, we directly manipulated the behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to allow these living bacteria to autonomically form patterned biofilms following prescribed illumination. The results showed that through optogenetic manipulation, patterned bacterial communities with high spatial resolution (approximately 10 μm) could be constructed in 6 h...
April 18, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662214/locomotor-activity-modulates-associative-learning-in-mouse-cerebellum
#8
Catarina Albergaria, N Tatiana Silva, Dominique L Pritchett, Megan R Carey
Changes in behavioral state can profoundly influence brain function. Here we show that behavioral state modulates performance in delay eyeblink conditioning, a cerebellum-dependent form of associative learning. Increased locomotor speed in head-fixed mice drove earlier onset of learning and trial-by-trial enhancement of learned responses that were dissociable from changes in arousal and independent of sensory modality. Eyelid responses evoked by optogenetic stimulation of mossy fiber inputs to the cerebellum, but not at sites downstream, were positively modulated by ongoing locomotion...
April 16, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662090/optical-interrogation-of-neuronal-circuitry-in-zebrafish-using-genetically-encoded-voltage-indicators
#9
Hiroaki Miyazawa, Kanoko Okumura, Kanae Hiyoshi, Kazuhiro Maruyama, Hisaya Kakinuma, Ryunosuke Amo, Hitoshi Okamoto, Kyo Yamasu, Sachiko Tsuda
Optical measurement of membrane potentials enables fast, direct and simultaneous detection of membrane potentials from a population of neurons, providing a desirable approach for functional analysis of neuronal circuits. Here, we applied recently developed genetically encoded voltage indicators, ASAP1 (Accelerated Sensor of Action Potentials 1) and QuasAr2 (Quality superior to Arch 2), to zebrafish, an ideal model system for studying neurogenesis. To achieve this, we established transgenic lines which express the voltage sensors, and showed that ASAP1 is expressed in zebrafish neurons...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660600/holographic-imaging-and-photostimulation-of-neural-activity
#10
REVIEW
Weijian Yang, Rafael Yuste
Optical imaging methods are powerful tools in neuroscience as they can systematically monitor the activity of neuronal populations with high spatiotemporal resolution using calcium or voltage indicators. Moreover, caged compounds and optogenetic actuators enable to optically manipulate neural activity. Among optical methods, computer-generated holography offers an enormous flexibility to sculpt the excitation light in three-dimensions (3D), particularly when combined with two-photon light sources. By projecting holographic light patterns on the sample, the activity of multiple neurons across a 3D brain volume can be simultaneously imaged or optically manipulated with single-cell precision...
April 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659351/control-of-voluntary-and-optogenetically-perturbed-locomotion-by-spike-rate-and-timing-of-neurons-of-the-mouse-cerebellar-nuclei
#11
Rashmi Sarnaik, Indira M Raman
Neurons of the cerebellar nuclei (CbN), which generate cerebellar output, are inhibited by Purkinje cells. With extracellular recordings during voluntary locomotion in head-fixed mice, we tested how the rate and coherence of inhibition influence CbN cell firing and well-practiced movements. Firing rates of Purkinje and CbN cells were modulated systematically through the stride cycle (~200-300 ms). Optogenetically stimulating ChR2-expressing Purkinje cells with light steps or trains evoked either asynchronous or synchronous inhibition of CbN cells...
April 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658944/an-in-vivo-model-of-functional-and-vascularized-human-brain-organoids
#12
Abed AlFatah Mansour, J Tiago Gonçalves, Cooper W Bloyd, Hao Li, Sarah Fernandes, Daphne Quang, Stephen Johnston, Sarah L Parylak, Xin Jin, Fred H Gage
Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to small brain-like structures known as brain organoids offers an unprecedented opportunity to model human brain development and disease. To provide a vascularized and functional in vivo model of brain organoids, we established a method for transplanting human brain organoids into the adult mouse brain. Organoid grafts showed progressive neuronal differentiation and maturation, gliogenesis, integration of microglia, and growth of axons to multiple regions of the host brain...
April 16, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652889/the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus-is-essential-for-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#13
Su-Rong Yang, Zhen-Zhen Hu, Yan-Jia Luo, Ya-Nan Zhao, Huan-Xin Sun, Dou Yin, Chen-Yao Wang, Yu-Dong Yan, Dian-Ru Wang, Xiang-Shan Yuan, Chen-Bo Ye, Wei Guo, Wei-Min Qu, Yoan Cherasse, Michael Lazarus, Yu-Qiang Ding, Zhi-Li Huang
The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), also called the GABAergic tail of the ventral tegmental area, projects to the midbrain dopaminergic system, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and other regions. Whether the RMTg is involved in sleep-wake regulation is unknown. In the present study, pharmacogenetic activation of rat RMTg neurons promoted non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with increased slow-wave activity (SWA). Conversely, rats after neurotoxic lesions of 8 or 16 days showed decreased NREM sleep with reduced SWA at lights on, which persisted until after lesions of 25 days...
April 13, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650697/cell-type-specific-contributions-of-medial-prefrontal-neurons-to-flexible-behaviors
#14
Hirofumi Nakayama, Ines Ibañez-Tallon, Nathaniel Heintz
Behavioral flexibility and impulse control are necessary for successful execution of adaptive behavior. They are impaired in patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and in some clinically important conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been investigated as a critical structure for behavioral flexibility and impulse control, the contribution of the underlying pyramidal neuron cell types in the mPFC remained to be understood. Here we show that interneuron-mediated local inactivation of pyramidal neurons in the mPFC of male and female mice induces both premature responses and choice bias, and establish that these impulsive and compulsive responses are modulated independently...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643766/spatiotemporal-control-of-gpr37-signaling-and-its-behavioral-effects-by-optogenetics
#15
Wu Zheng, Jianhong Zhou, Yanan Luan, Jianglan Yang, Yuanyuan Ge, Muran Wang, Beibei Wu, Zhongnan Wu, Xingjun Chen, Fei Li, Zhihui Li, Sergii Vakal, Wei Guo, Jiang-Fan Chen
Despite the progress in deorphanization of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs), ≈100 GPCRs are still classified as orphan receptors without identified endogenous ligands and with unknown physiological functions. The lack of endogenous ligands triggering GPCR signaling has hampered the study of orphan GPCR functions. Using GPR37 as an example, we provide here the first demonstration of the channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)-GPCR approach to bypass the endogenous ligand and selectively activate the orphan GPCR signal by optogenetics...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643503/functional-circuit-architecture-underlying-parental-behaviour
#16
Johannes Kohl, Benedicte M Babayan, Nimrod D Rubinstein, Anita E Autry, Brenda Marin-Rodriguez, Vikrant Kapoor, Kazunari Miyamishi, Larry S Zweifel, Liqun Luo, Naoshige Uchida, Catherine Dulac
Parenting is essential for the survival and wellbeing of mammalian offspring. However, we lack a circuit-level understanding of how distinct components of this behaviour are coordinated. Here we investigate how galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area (MPOAGal ) of the hypothalamus coordinate motor, motivational, hormonal and social aspects of parenting in mice. These neurons integrate inputs from a large number of brain areas and the activation of these inputs depends on the animal's sex and reproductive state...
April 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630041/tracking-drosophila-larval-behavior-in-response-to-optogenetic-stimulation-of-olfactory-neurons
#17
David A Clark, Donovan Kohler, America Mathis, Eryn Slankster, Samipya Kafle, Seth R Odell, Dennis Mathew
The ability of insects to navigate toward odor sources is based on the activities of their first-order olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). While a considerable amount of information has been generated regarding ORN responses to odorants, the role of specific ORNs in driving behavioral responses remains poorly understood. Complications in behavior analyses arise due to different volatilities of odorants that activate individual ORNs, multiple ORNs activated by single odorants, and the difficulty in replicating naturally observed temporal variations in olfactory stimuli using conventional odor-delivery methods in the laboratory...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630035/an-optogenetic-method-to-control-and-analyze-gene-expression-patterns-in-cell-to-cell-interactions
#18
Akihiro Isomura, Ryoichiro Kageyama
Cells should respond properly to temporally changing environments, which are influenced by various factors from surrounding cells. The Notch signaling pathway is one of such essential molecular machinery for cell-to-cell communications, which plays key roles in normal development of embryos. This pathway involves a cell-to-cell transfer of oscillatory information with ultradian rhythms, but despite the progress in molecular biology techniques, it has been challenging to elucidate the impact of multicellular interactions on oscillatory gene dynamics...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629879/a-nanofabricated-optoelectronic-probe-for-manipulating-and-recording-neural-dynamics
#19
Bingzhao Li, Kwang Lee, Sotiris C Masmanidis, Mo Li
OBJECTIVE: The convergence of optogenetic and large-scale neural recording technologies opens enormous opportunities for studying brain function. However, compared to the widespread use of optogenetics or recordings as standalone methods, the joint use of these techniques in behaving animals is much less well developed. A simple but poorly scalable solution has been to implant conventional optical fibers together with extracellular microelectrodes. A more promising approach has been to combine microfabricated light emission sources with multielectrode arrays...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628879/dopamine-effort-based-choice-and-behavioral-economics-basic-and-translational-research
#20
REVIEW
John D Salamone, Merce Correa, Jen-Hau Yang, Renee Rotolo, Rose Presby
Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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