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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917291/exploring-the-role-of-striatal-d1-and-d2-medium-spiny-neurons-in-action-selection-using-a-virtual-robotic-framework
#1
Jyotika Bahuguna, Philipp Weidel, Abigail Morrison
The basal ganglia have been hypothesized to be involved in action selection, i.e. resolving competition between simultaneously activated motor programs. It has been shown that the direct pathway facilitates action execution whereas the indirect pathway inhibits it. However, as the pathways are both active during an action, it remains unclear whether their role is co-operative or competitive. In order to investigate this issue, we designed a striatal model consisting of D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and interfaced it to a simulated robot moving in an environment...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916253/ultrasonic-control-of-neural-activity-through-activation-of-the-mechanosensitive-channel-mscl
#2
Jia Ye, Siyang Tang, Long Meng, Xia Li, Xiaoxu Wen, Sihan Chen, Lili Niu, Xiangyao Li, Weibao Qiu, Hailan Hu, Mizu Jiang, Shiqiang Shang, Qiang Shu, Hairong Zheng, Shumin Duan, Yuezhou Li
Externally controlling the excitation of a neuronal subset through ion channels activation can modulate the firing pattern of an entire neural circuit in vivo. As nanovalves in the cell membrane, ion channels can be opened by light (optogenetics) or ultrasonic (sonogenetics) means. A thoroughly analyzed force sensor is the Escherichia coli mechano sensitive channel of large conductance (MscL). Here we expressed MscL in rat hippocampal neurons in a primary culture and showed that it could be activated by low-pressure ultrasound pulses...
June 19, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915394/electrical-properties-substrate-specificity-and-optogenetic-potential-of-the-engineered-light-driven-sodium-pump-ekr2
#3
Christiane Grimm, Arita Silapetere, Arend Vogt, Yinth Andrea Bernal Sierra, Peter Hegemann
A new microbial rhodopsin class that actively transports sodium out of the cell upon illumination was described in 2013. However, poor membrane targeting of the first-identified sodium pump KR2 in mammalian cells has hindered the direct electrical investigation of its transport mechanism and optogenetic application to date. Accordingly, we designed enhanced KR2 (eKR2), which exhibits improved membrane targeting and higher photocurrents in mammalian cells to facilitate molecular characterization and future optogenetic applications...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915285/guided-morphogenesis-through-optogenetic-activation-of-rho-signalling-during-early-drosophila-embryogenesis
#4
Emiliano Izquierdo, Theresa Quinkler, Stefano De Renzis
During organismal development, cells undergo complex changes in shape whose causal relationship to individual morphogenetic processes remains unclear. The modular nature of such processes suggests that it should be possible to isolate individual modules, determine the minimum set of requirements sufficient to drive tissue remodeling, and re-construct morphogenesis. Here we use optogenetics to reconstitute epithelial folding in embryonic Drosophila tissues that otherwise would not undergo invagination. We show that precise spatial and temporal activation of Rho signaling is sufficient to trigger apical constriction and tissue folding...
June 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915074/changes-in-white-matter-in-mice-resulting-from-low-frequency-brain-stimulation
#5
Denise M Piscopo, Aldis P Weible, Mary K Rothbart, Michael I Posner, Cristopher M Niell
Recent reports have begun to elucidate mechanisms by which learning and experience produce white matter changes in the brain. We previously reported changes in white matter surrounding the anterior cingulate cortex in humans after 2-4 weeks of meditation training. We further found that low-frequency optogenetic stimulation of the anterior cingulate in mice increased time spent in the light in a light/dark box paradigm, suggesting decreased anxiety similar to what is observed following meditation training. Here, we investigated the impact of this stimulation at the cellular level...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915034/altering-gain-of-the-infralimbic-to-accumbens-shell-circuit-alters-economically-dissociable-decision-making-algorithms
#6
Brian M Sweis, Erin B Larson, A David Redish, Mark J Thomas
The nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) is involved in reward valuation. Excitatory projections from infralimbic cortex (IL) to NAcSh undergo synaptic remodeling in rodent models of addiction and enable the extinction of disadvantageous behaviors. However, how the strength of synaptic transmission of the IL-NAcSh circuit affects decision-making information processing and reward valuation remains unknown, particularly because these processes can conflict within a given trial and particularly given recent data suggesting that decisions arise from separable information-processing algorithms...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913065/optobase-a-web-platform-for-molecular-optogenetics
#7
Katja Kolar, Christian Knobloch, Hendrik Stork, Matej Žnidarič, Wilfried Weber
OptoBase is an online platform for molecular optogenetics. At its core is a hand-annotated and ontology-supported database that aims to cover all existing optogenetic switches and publications, which is further complemented with a collection of convenient optogenetics-related web tools. OptoBase is meant for both expert optogeneticists, to easily keep track of the field, as well as for all researchers who find optogenetics inviting as a powerful tool to address their biological questions of interest. It is available at https://www...
June 18, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911171/amygdala-corticofugal-input-shapes-mitral-cell-responses-in-the-accessory-olfactory-bulb
#8
Livio Oboti, Eleonora Russo, Tuyen Tran, Daniel Durstewitz, Joshua G Corbin
Interconnections between the olfactory bulb and the amygdala are a major pathway for triggering strong behavioral responses to a variety of odorants. However, while this broad mapping has been established, the patterns of amygdala feedback connectivity and the influence on olfactory circuitry remain unknown. Here, using a combination of neuronal tracing approaches, we dissect the connectivity of a cortical amygdala [posteromedial cortical nucleus (PmCo)] feedback circuit innervating the mouse accessory olfactory bulb...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909998/the-organization-of-projections-from-olfactory-glomeruli-onto-higher-order-neurons
#9
James M Jeanne, Mehmet Fişek, Rachel I Wilson
Each odorant receptor corresponds to a unique glomerulus in the brain. Projections from different glomeruli then converge in higher brain regions, but we do not understand the logic governing which glomeruli converge and which do not. Here, we use two-photon optogenetics to map glomerular connections onto neurons in the lateral horn, the region of the Drosophila brain that receives the majority of olfactory projections. We identify 39 morphological types of lateral horn neurons (LHNs) and show that different types receive input from different combinations of glomeruli...
June 8, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909996/a-visual-cue-dependent-memory-circuit-for-place-navigation
#10
Han Qin, Ling Fu, Bo Hu, Xiang Liao, Jian Lu, Wenjing He, Shanshan Liang, Kuan Zhang, Ruijie Li, Jiwei Yao, Junan Yan, Hao Chen, Hongbo Jia, Benedikt Zott, Arthur Konnerth, Xiaowei Chen
The ability to remember and to navigate to safe places is necessary for survival. Place navigation is known to involve medial entorhinal cortex (MEC)-hippocampal connections. However, learning-dependent changes in neuronal activity in the distinct circuits remain unknown. Here, by using optic fiber photometry in freely behaving mice, we discovered the experience-dependent induction of a persistent-task-associated (PTA) activity. This PTA activity critically depends on learned visual cues and builds up selectively in the MEC layer II-dentate gyrus, but not in the MEC layer III-CA1 pathway, and its optogenetic suppression disrupts navigation to the target location...
June 5, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904149/stress-peptides-sensitize-fear-circuitry-to-promote-passive-coping
#11
Pinelopi Pliota, Vincent Böhm, Florian Grössl, Johannes Griessner, Ornella Valenti, Klaus Kraitsy, Joanna Kaczanowska, Manuel Pasieka, Thomas Lendl, Jan M Deussing, Wulf Haubensak
Survival relies on optimizing behavioral responses through experience. Animals often react to acute stress by switching to passive behavioral responses when coping with environmental challenge. Despite recent advances in dissecting mammalian circuitry for Pavlovian fear, the neuronal basis underlying this form of non-Pavlovian anxiety-related behavioral plasticity remains poorly understood. Here, we report that aversive experience recruits the posterior paraventricular thalamus (PVT) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and sensitizes a Pavlovian fear circuit to promote passive responding...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903972/synapse-specific-representation-of-the-identity-of-overlapping-memory-engrams
#12
Kareem Abdou, Mohammad Shehata, Kiriko Choko, Hirofumi Nishizono, Mina Matsuo, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Kaoru Inokuchi
Memories are integrated into interconnected networks; nevertheless, each memory has its own identity. How the brain defines specific memory identity out of intermingled memories stored in a shared cell ensemble has remained elusive. We found that after complete retrograde amnesia of auditory fear conditioning in mice, optogenetic stimulation of the auditory inputs to the lateral amygdala failed to induce memory recall, implying that the memory engram no longer existed in that circuit. Complete amnesia of a given fear memory did not affect another linked fear memory encoded in the shared ensemble...
June 15, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899026/dominant-neuropeptide-co-transmission-in-kisspeptin-gaba-regulation-of-gnrh-neuron-firing-driving-ovulation
#13
Richard Piet, Bruna Kalil, Tim McLennan, Robert Porteous, Katja Czieselsky, Allan E Herbison
A population of kisspeptin-GABA co-expressing neurons located in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) is believed to activate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to generate the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge triggering ovulation. Selective optogenetic activation of RP3V kisspeptin (RP3VKISS ) neurons in female mice for >30s and ≥10Hz in either a continuous or bursting mode was found to reliably generate a delayed and long-lasting activation of GnRH neuron firing in brain slices...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897417/prefrontal-d1-dopamine-receptor-neurons-and-delta-resonance-in-interval-timing
#14
Young-Cho Kim, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Considerable evidence has shown that prefrontal neurons expressing D1-type dopamine receptors (D1DRs) are critical for working memory, flexibility, and timing. This line of work predicts that frontal neurons expressing D1DRs mediate cognitive processing. During timing tasks, one form this cognitive processing might take is time-dependent ramping activity-monotonic changes in firing rate over time. Thus, we hypothesized the prefrontal D1DR+ neurons would strongly exhibit time-dependent ramping during interval timing...
June 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897332/orbital-frontal-cortex-updates-state-induced-value-change-for-decision-making
#15
Emily T Baltz, Ege A Yalcinbas, Rafael Renteria, Christina M Gremel
Recent hypotheses have posited that orbital frontal cortex (OFC) is important for using inferred consequences to guide behavior. Less clear is OFC's contribution to goal-directed or model-based behavior, where the decision to act is controlled by previous experience with the consequence or outcome. Investigating OFC's role in learning about changed outcomes separate from decision-making is not trivial and often the two are confounded. Here we adapted an incentive learning task to mice, where we investigated processes controlling experience-based outcome updating independent from inferred action control...
June 13, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895862/a-platform-of-bret-fret-hybrid-biosensors-for-optogenetics-chemical-screening-and-in-vivo-imaging
#16
Naoki Komatsu, Kenta Terai, Ayako Imanishi, Yuji Kamioka, Kenta Sumiyama, Takashi Jin, Yasushi Okada, Takeharu Nagai, Michiyuki Matsuda
Genetically encoded biosensors based on the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer comprise two major classes: biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and those based on bioluminescence energy transfer (BRET). The FRET biosensors visualize signaling-molecule activity in cells or tissues with high resolution. Meanwhile, due to the low background signal, the BRET biosensors are primarily used in drug screening. Here, we report a protocol to transform intramolecular FRET biosensors to BRET-FRET hybrid biosensors called hyBRET biosensors...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893404/light-controllable-transcription-system-by-nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling-of-a-truncated-phytochrome-b
#17
Natsumi Noda, Takeaki Ozawa
Transcriptional regulation is a useful strategy for gene therapy and for biomedical research. Unlike chemically regulated transcriptional approaches, spatiotemporal control of transcription using optogenetic tools is a powerful technology for the analysis of single cells. For light to penetrate into tissues, it is desired to use photoreceptors absorbing red/far-red light with a low-molecular mass applicable for the use of virus vectors, and a photoswitch using the photoreceptor need to be constructed as a single expression vector...
June 12, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892057/top-down-feedback-controls-spatial-summation-and-response-amplitude-in-primate-visual-cortex
#18
Lauri Nurminen, Sam Merlin, Maryam Bijanzadeh, Frederick Federer, Alessandra Angelucci
Sensory information travels along feedforward connections through a hierarchy of cortical areas, which, in turn, send feedback connections to lower-order areas. Feedback has been implicated in attention, expectation, and sensory context, but the mechanisms underlying these diverse feedback functions are unknown. Using specific optogenetic inactivation of feedback connections from the secondary visual area (V2), we show how feedback affects neural responses in the primate primary visual cortex (V1). Reducing feedback activity increases V1 cells' receptive field (RF) size, decreases their responses to stimuli confined to the RF, and increases their responses to stimuli extending into the proximal surround, therefore reducing surround suppression...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892048/thalamic-dual-control-of-sleep-and-wakefulness
#19
Thomas C Gent, Mojtaba Bandarabadi, Carolina Gutierrez Herrera, Antoine R Adamantidis
Slow waves (0.5-4 Hz) predominate in the cortical electroencephalogram during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in mammals. They reflect the synchronization of large neuronal ensembles alternating between active (UP) and quiescent (Down) states and propagating along the neocortex. The thalamic contribution to cortical UP states and sleep modulation remains unclear. Here we show that spontaneous firing of centromedial thalamus (CMT) neurons in mice is phase-advanced to global cortical UP states and NREM-wake transitions...
June 11, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892029/infrared-spectroscopy-reveals-multi-step-multi-timescale-photoactivation-in-the-photoconvertible-protein-archetype-dronpa
#20
Sergey P Laptenok, Agnieszka A Gil, Christopher R Hall, Andras Lukacs, James N Iuliano, Garth A Jones, Gregory M Greetham, Paul Donaldson, Atsushi Miyawaki, Peter J Tonge, Stephen R Meech
Photochromic fluorescent proteins play key roles in super-resolution microscopy and optogenetics. The light-driven structural changes that modulate the fluorescence involve both trans-to-cis isomerization and proton transfer. The mechanism, timescale and relative contribution of chromophore and protein dynamics are currently not well understood. Here, the mechanism of off-to-on-state switching in dronpa is studied using femtosecond-to-millisecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy and isotope labelling. Chromophore and protein dynamics are shown to occur on multiple timescales, from picoseconds to hundreds of microseconds...
June 11, 2018: Nature Chemistry
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