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Cycling injuries

Attila Kiss, Huaqing Shu, Ouafa Hamza, David Santer, Eva Verena Tretter, Shanglong Yao, Klaus Markstaller, Seth Hallström, Bruno K Podesser, Klaus Ulrich Klein
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies demonstrated that preconditioning with argon gas provided a marked reduction in inflammation and apoptosis and increased myocardial contractility in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR). There is substantial evidence that myocardial IR injury following cardioplegic arrest is associated with the enhancement of apoptosis and inflammation, which is considered to play a role in cardiac functional impairment. Therefore, the present study was designed to clarify whether preconditioning with argon gas enhances recovery of cardiac function following cardioplegic arrest...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Mayumi Matsuda, Yuki Mataki, Hirotaka Mutsuzaki, Kenichi Yoshikawa, Kazushi Takahashi, Keiko Enomoto, Kumiko Sano, Masafumi Mizukami, Kazuhide Tomita, Haruka Ohguro, Nobuaki Iwasaki
[Purpose] Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) using Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL, CYBERDYNE) was previously reported beneficial for stroke and spinal cord injury patients. Here, we investigate the immediate effect of a single session of RAGT using HAL on gait function for cerebral palsy (CP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients (average age: 16.2 ± 7.3 years) with CP received a single session of RAGT using HAL. Gait speed, step length, cadence, single-leg support per gait cycle, hip and knee joint angle in stance, and swing phase per gait cycle were assessed before, during, and immediately after HAL intervention...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Helena S Gouveia, Sílvia O Lopes, Ana Luísa Faria
Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is a rare oncological emergency in solid tumours. Because it is associated with bad short-term prognosis, early recognition and treatment are mandatory. This case refers to a middle-aged woman who presented with stage IV colon cancer, with massive hepatic involvement. After three cycles of first-line FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin), she developed acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia that did not respond to standard measures. High suspicion of TLS prompted further corroborating investigations and early intensive care unit admission...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
JongEun Yim, Jerrold Petrofsky, Haneul Lee
Ankle and foot injuries are common among athletes and physically active individuals. The most common residual disability, ankle sprain, is characterized by instability along with postural sway. If the supporting structures around a joint become lax, posture stability and balance are also affected. Previous studies have examined muscle stiffness and elasticity and postural sway separately; however, the relationship between these factors is yet unknown. It is well known that the levels of sex hormones, especially estrogen, change in women over the phase of the menstrual cycle...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Danh T Tran, Scott Esckilsen, Jennifer Mulligan, Shikhar Mehrotra, Carl Atkinson, Satish N Nadig
BACKGROUND: Microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) are central to an allograft's immunogenicity. Cold ischemia and reperfusion injury associated with static cold storage and warm reperfusion activates ECs and increases the immunogenicity of the allograft. Following reperfusion, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in the allograft, which correlates to alloimmune rejection. Current understanding of this relationship, however, centers on the whole allograft instead of ECs...
March 10, 2018: Transplantation
Raghavendra Rao, Motaz Nashawaty, Saher Fatima, Kathleen Ennis, Ivan Tkac
Hyperglycemia (blood glucose concentration >150 mg/dL) is common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs; birth at <28 week gestation). Hyperglycemia increases the risk of brain injury in the neonatal period. The long-term effects are not well understood. In adult rats, hyperglycemia alters hippocampal energy metabolism. The effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus were studied in rat pups. In Experiment 1, recurrent hyperglycemia of graded severity (moderate hyperglycemia (moderate-HG), mean blood glucose 214...
March 13, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Christina L Ekegren, Ben Beck, Pamela M Simpson, Belinda J Gabbe
Background: Sports injuries that result in major trauma or death are associated with significant health care burden and societal costs. An understanding of changes in injury trends, and their drivers, is needed to implement policy aimed at risk reduction and injury prevention. To date, population-level reporting has not been available regarding trends in serious sport and recreation injuries anywhere in Australia over such an extended period, nor have any studies of this length captured comprehensive, long-term data on all sports-related major trauma internationally...
March 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Alex Veith, Bhagavatula Moorthy
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are a diverse group of heme monooxygenases that, through the course of their reaction cycle, contribute to cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). CYP enzymes play a crucial role in human physiology and are involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism as well as biosynthesis of endogenous molecules and are expressed throughout the human body. However, during the course of the CYP catalytic cycle, ROS can be generated through uncoupling of the enzymatic cycle. ROS is known to modify endogenous molecules, included lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, which can lead to cell damage and death and contribute to disease development...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Toxicology
Shahenda A Abu ElEla, Evgenios Agathokleous, Takayoshi Koike
A series of laboratory no-choice assays were performed to test changes in the feeding, growth, and nutrition of leaf beetle (Agelastica coerulea) larval instars on O3 -treated leaves of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica). Larvae fed with O3 -treated leaves grew and developed significantly faster throughout their developmental cycle than the corresponding controls. The growth rate (GR) and consumption index (CI) were mostly decreased with age for both control and O3 -treated leaves. Efficiency of conversion of both ingested and digested food (ECI, ECD) showed an increase from the 2nd to the 4th instar, after which they decreased significantly and reached the lowest value in the last larval instars (7th)...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Martina Pesaresi, Sergi A Bonilla-Pons, Giacoma Simonte, Daniela Sanges, Umberto Di Vicino, Maria Pia Cosma
Müller glial cells (MGCs) represent the most plastic cell type found in the retina. Following injury, zebrafish and avian MGCs can efficiently re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate and generate new functional neurons. The regenerative potential of mammalian MGCs, however, is very limited. Here, we showed that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) damage stimulates murine MGCs to re-enter the cell cycle and de-differentiate back to a progenitor-like stage. These events are dependent on the recruitment of endogenous bone marrow cells (BMCs), which, in turn, is regulated by the stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1)-C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) pathway...
February 28, 2018: EBioMedicine
A D Rogers, M Saggaf, N Ziolkowski
BACKGROUND: Patients with extensive burn injuries are susceptible to a host of accompanying adverse effects should they develop perioperative hypothermia, which occurs in up to ¼ of all major burn cases. This quality improvement project aimed to reduce the incidence of perioperative hypothermia to below 10% of cases in patients with major burn (Total Body Surface Area [TBSA] >15%), within a one year period. METHODS: A baseline diagnostic phase was undertaken to provide a greater understanding of the incidence, natural history and risk factors of perioperative hypothermia...
March 7, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Noora K Airaksinen, Ilona S Nurmi-Lüthje, J Matti Kataja, Heikki P J Kröger, Peter M J Lüthje
BACKGROUND: Most of the cycling accidents that occur in Finland do not end up in the official traffic accident statistics. Thus, there is minimal information on these accidents and their consequences, particularly in cases in which alcohol was involved. The focus of the present study is on cycling accidents and injuries involving alcohol in particular. METHODS: Data on patients visiting the emergency department at North Kymi Hospital because of a cycling accident was prospectively collected for two years, from June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2006...
March 3, 2018: Injury
Sofia Ferreira-Gonzalez, Wei-Yu Lu, Alexander Raven, Benjamin Dwyer, Tak Yung Man, Eoghan O'Duibhir, Philip J Starkey Lewis, Lara Campana, Tim J Kendall, Thomas G Bird, Nuria Tarrats, Juan-Carlos Acosta, Luke Boulter, Stuart J Forbes
Cellular senescence is a mechanism that provides an irreversible barrier to cell cycle progression to prevent undesired proliferation. However, under pathological circumstances, senescence can adversely affect organ function, viability and regeneration. We have developed a mouse model of biliary senescence, based on the conditional deletion of Mdm2 in bile ducts under the control of the Krt19 promoter, that exhibits features of biliary disease. Here we report that senescent cholangiocytes induce profound alterations in the cellular and signalling microenvironment, with recruitment of myofibroblasts and macrophages causing collagen deposition, TGFβ production and induction of senescence in surrounding cholangiocytes and hepatocytes...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Hajime Okada, Minami Yamada, Kenji Kamimoto, Cindy Yuet-Yin Kok, Kota Kaneko, Masatsugu Ema, Atsushi Miyajima, Tohru Itoh
Under various conditions of liver injury, the intrahepatic biliary epithelium undergoes dynamic tissue expansion and remodeling, a process known as ductular reaction. Mouse models defective in inducing such a tissue-remodeling process are more susceptible to liver injury, suggesting a crucial role of this process in liver regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating the biliary epithelial cell (BEC) dynamics in the ductular reaction remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) is highly enriched in mouse liver BECs and plays a key role in regulating the ductular reaction, specifically under cholestatic injury conditions...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Karen Louise Thomsen, Francesco De Chiara, Krista Rombouts, Hendrik Vilstrup, Fausto Andreola, Rajeshwar P Mookerjee, Rajiv Jalan
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from steatosis, through non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis. The development of fibrosis is the most important factor contributing to NASH-associated morbidity and mortality. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are responsible for extracellular matrix deposition in conditions of frank hepatocellular injury and are key cells involved in the development of fibrosis. In experimental models and patients with NASH, urea cycle enzyme gene and protein expression is reduced resulting in functional reduction in the in vivo capacity for ureagenesis and subsequent hyperammonemia at a pre-cirrhotic stage...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Ali C M Johnson, Richard A Zager
Background: P21, a cyclin kinase inhibitor, is upregulated by renal 'ischemic preconditioning' (IPC), and induces a 'cytoresistant' state. However, P21-induced cell cycle inhibition can also contribute to cellular senescence, a potential adverse renal event. Hence, this study assessed whether: (i) IPC-induced P21 upregulation is associated with subsequent renal senescence; and (ii) preconditioning can be established 'independent' of P21 induction and avoid a post-ischemic senescent state? Methods: CD-1 mice were subjected to either IPC (5-15 min) or to a recently proposed 'oxidant-induced preconditioning' (OIP) strategy (tin protoporphyrin-induced heme oxygenase inhibition +/- parental iron administration)...
March 7, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Xinhua Zhan, Boryana Stamova, Frank R Sharp
This review proposes that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, found in the wall of all Gram-negative bacteria) could play a role in causing sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is based in part upon recent studies showing that: Gram-negative E. coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid; bacterial-encoded 16S rRNA is present in all human brains with over 70% being Gram-negative bacteria; ultrastructural analyses have shown microbes in erythrocytes of AD patients; blood LPS levels in AD patients are 3-fold the levels in control; LPS combined with focal cerebral ischemia and hypoxia produced amyloid-like plaques and myelin injury in adult rat cortex...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ae-Rang Hwang, Ju-Ock Nam, Young Jin Kang
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a novel fibrotic mediator, which is considered to mediate fibrosis through extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in diabetic cardiovascular complications. Statins have significant immunomodulatory effects and reduce vascular injury. We therefore examined whether fluvastatin has anti-fibrotic effects in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and elucidated its putative transduction signals. We show that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) stimulated CTGF mRNA and protein expression in a time-dependent manner...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Christopher J Udell, Julie L Ruddy, Philip M Procento
Introduction: US Navy recruits who have injuries preventing them from participating in intense physical conditioning are pulled out of boot camp training and receive treatment that includes daily physical therapy, pain medications, and psychoeducational groups. Graduation from boot camp for these recruits requires not only recovering from their injuries but also passing a required Physical Fitness Assessment consisting of a timed 1.5-mile run, curl-ups, and push-ups. About 50-60% of these recruits will eventually be separated out and sent home...
March 6, 2018: Military Medicine
Christopher T Banek, Madeline M Gauthier, Daniel C Baumann, Dusty Van Helden, Ninitha Asirvatham-Jeyaraj, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Gregory D Fink, John W Osborn
Recent preclinical studies show renal denervation (RDNx) may be an effective treatment for hypertension; however, the mechanism remains unknown. We have recently reported total RDNx (TRDNx) and afferent-selective RDNx (ARDNx) similarly attenuated the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Whereas TRDNx abolished renal inflammation, ARDNx had a minimal effect despite an identical anti-hypertensive effect. Although this study established that ARDNx attenuates the development of DOCA-salt hypertension, it is unknown whether this mechanism remains operative once hypertension is established...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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