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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333494/ensuring-adequate-vascular-access-in-patients-with-major-trauma-a-quality-improvement-initiative
#1
Kevin Verhoeff, Rachelle Saybel, Pamela Mathura, Bonnie Tsang, Vanessa Fawcett, Sandy Widder
Ensuring adequate vascular access in major trauma patients prior to decompensative physiological processes is crucial to patient outcomes. Most protocols suggest achieving two 18-gauge or larger intravenous lines immediately in patients with major trauma. We discuss a quality improvement approach to ensure that >90% of patients with major trauma (as defined by an injury severity score ≥12) at a level one trauma centre receive timely and adequate fluid access. Applying Donabedian principles for process improvement, we used the Alberta Trauma Registry to perform a 4-month chart audit on patients with major trauma at the University of Alberta Hospital...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333223/development-of-practical-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-systems-based-on-an-electromyography-study-of-the-cybathlon-2016
#2
Jetsada Arnin, Traisak Yamsa-Ard, Preechapawan Triponyuwasin, Yodchanan Wongsawat
The purpose of this study was to develop a functional electrical stimulation (FES) system based on the motor driving concept for use by spinal cord injury patients participating in the FES Cycling competition at the Cybathlon 2016. The proposed FES system consists of a low-power control system, a precise processor unit, and a 4-channel stimulation unit. Self-adhesive carbon conductive electrodes were utilized for stimulation. A 26-year-old SCI patient was qualified to participate in the competition. The pilot patient underwent training for 16 months, which included experience with FES stimulation, performing FES cycling, and reducing spasticity, to practice using the FES system...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331700/effects-of-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-on-cardiac-reperfusion-injury-in-mice-with-depression-induced-by-constant-darkness
#3
Lu-Yuan Tao, Ming-Yuan Huang, Saroj-Thapa, Jiao-Ni Wang, Shao-Ze Wu, Fei He, Kai-Yu Huang, Yang-Jing Xue, Lingwei-Jin, Lian-Ming Liao, Ji-Fei Tang, Kang-Ting Ji
RATIONALE: Depression is associated with coronary artery disease and increases adverse outcomes and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice with constant darkness-induced depression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks old, male) were randomly divided into 2 groups: one group was housed in a 12h light/dark cycle environment (LD) and the other in a constant darkness environment (DD)...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327742/targeting-cleanups-towards-a-more-sustainable-future
#4
David O'Connor, Deyi Hou
A tension arises between society's disposition to protect people at risk from environmental pollution, and an aversion towards the potential harmful side-effects associated with cleanup activities. Here we explore how setting different cleanup standards may influence some of the environmental, social, and economic side-effects of remediation, and how they can be quantified for incorporation into cleanup target setting; these include (1) secondary environmental impacts, assessed by life cycle assessment (LCA); (2) fatalities and injuries, assessed by actuarial risk analysis; and (3) the cost effectiveness of stringent cleanup standards, assessed by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327704/emerging-nonmetabolic-functions-of-skin-fat
#5
REVIEW
Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Maksim V Plikus
Although the major white adipose depots evolved primarily to store energy, secrete hormones and thermo-insulate the body, multiple secondary depots developed additional specialized and unconventional functions. Unlike any other fat tissue, dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) evolved a large repertoire of novel features that are central to skin physiology, which we discuss in this Review. dWAT exists in close proximity to hair follicles, the principal appendages of the skin that periodically grow new hairs. Responding to multiple hair-derived signals, dWAT becomes closely connected to cycling hair follicles and periodically cycles itself...
January 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326163/lim-and-cysteine-rich-domains-1-is-required-for-thrombin-induced-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-promotes-atherogenesis
#6
Jagadeesh Janjanam, Baolin Zhang, Arul M Mani, Nikhlesh K Singh, James G Traylor, A Wayne Orr, Gadiparthi N Rao
Restenosis arises after vascular injury and is characterized by arterial wall thickening and decreased arterial lumen space. Vascular injury induces the production of thrombin, which in addition to its role in blood clotting, acts as a mitogenic and chemotactic factor. In exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying restenosis, here we identified LIM and cysteine-rich domains 1 (LMCD1) as a gene highly responsive to thrombin in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Of note, LMCD1 depletion inhibited proliferation of human but not murine vascular smooth muscle cells...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324409/assessment-of-spasticity-by-a-pendulum-test-in-sci-patients-who-exercise-fes-cycling-or-receive-only-conventional-therapy
#7
Lana Popovic-Maneski, Antonina Aleksic, Amine Metani, Vance Bergeron, Radoje Cobeljic, Dejan B Popovic
Increased muscle tone and exaggerated tendon reflexes characterize most of the individuals after a spinal cord injury (SCI). We estimated seven parameters from the pendulum test and used them to compare with the Ashworth modified scale of spasticity grades in three populations (retrospective study) to assess their spasticity. Three ASIA B SCI patients who exercised on a stationary FES bicycle formed group F, six ASIA B SCI patients who received only conventional therapy were in the group C, and six healthy individuals constituted the group H...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321682/intermittent-metabolic-switching-neuroplasticity-and-brain-health
#8
REVIEW
Mark P Mattson, Keelin Moehl, Nathaniel Ghena, Maggie Schmaedick, Aiwu Cheng
During evolution, individuals whose brains and bodies functioned well in a fasted state were successful in acquiring food, enabling their survival and reproduction. With fasting and extended exercise, liver glycogen stores are depleted and ketones are produced from adipose-cell-derived fatty acids. This metabolic switch in cellular fuel source is accompanied by cellular and molecular adaptations of neural networks in the brain that enhance their functionality and bolster their resistance to stress, injury and disease...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318697/oroxylin-a-inhibits-ethanol-induced-hepatocyte-senescence-via%C3%A2-yap-pathway
#9
Huanhuan Jin, Naqi Lian, Mianli Bian, Chenxi Zhang, Xingran Chen, Jiangjuan Shao, Li Wu, Anping Chen, Qinglong Guo, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng
OBJECTIVES: Oroxylin A, a natural flavonoid isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, has been reported to have anti-hepatic injury effects. However, the effects of oroxylin A on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of oroxylin A on ALD and the potential mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male ICR mice and human hepatocyte cell line LO2 were used. Yes-associated protein (YAP) overexpression and knockdown were achieved using plasmid and siRNA technique...
January 10, 2018: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316313/microrna-21-promotes-glioma-cell-proliferation-and-inhibits-senescence-and-apoptosis-by-targeting-spry1-via-the-pten-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#10
Chang Chai, Lai-Jun Song, Shuang-Yin Han, Xi-Qing Li, Ming Li
AIMS: Our study aims to investigate the effect of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on the proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis of glioma cells by targeting SPRY1 via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. METHODS: Glioma tissues and brain tissues were collected for this study after surgical decompression for traumatic brain injury. RT-qPCR was employed to measure mRNA levels of miR-21, SPRY1, PTEN, PI3K, and AKT, and Western blotting was conducted to determine protein levels of SPRY1, PTEN, PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, P53, GSK3, and p-GSK3...
January 5, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315137/reducing-ischemic-injury-from-indwelling-peripheral-arterial-catheters-in-a-pediatric-cardiac-icu-a-quality-improvement-initiative
#11
Adam C Adler, Stephanie Helman, Cynthia Field, Judith J Stellar, Lauren A Brown, Nicole Omensetter, Andrew T Costarino, Mahsun Yuerek, Karen S Bender
OBJECTIVES: To reduce the number of ischemic arterial catheter injuries in children with congenital or acquired heart disease. DESIGN: This is a quality improvement study with pre- and postintervention groups. SETTING: University-affiliated pediatric cardiac center in a quaternary care freestanding children's hospital. PATIENTS: All patients with an indwelling peripheral arterial catheter placed in the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Cardiac Center associated with an admission to the Cardiac Intensive Cardiac Unit from January 2015 to July 2017 are included...
January 8, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311336/troy-brain-stem-cells-cycle-through-quiescence-and-regulate-their-number-by-sensing-niche-occupancy
#12
Onur Basak, Teresa G Krieger, Mauro J Muraro, Kay Wiebrands, Daniel E Stange, Javier Frias-Aldeguer, Nicolas C Rivron, Marc van de Wetering, Johan H van Es, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Benjamin D Simons, Hans Clevers
The adult mouse subependymal zone provides a niche for mammalian neural stem cells (NSCs). However, the molecular signature, self-renewal potential, and fate behavior of NSCs remain poorly defined. Here we propose a model in which the fate of active NSCs is coupled to the total number of neighboring NSCs in a shared niche. Using knock-in reporter alleles and single-cell RNA sequencing, we show that the Wnt target Tnfrsf19/Troy identifies both active and quiescent NSCs. Quantitative analysis of genetic lineage tracing of individual NSCs under homeostasis or in response to injury reveals rapid expansion of stem-cell number before some return to quiescence...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310699/planning-a-sports-training-program-using-adaptive-particle-swarm-optimization-with-emphasis-on-physiological-constraints
#13
Nattapon Kumyaito, Preecha Yupapin, Kreangsak Tamee
OBJECTIVE: An effective training plan is an important factor in sports training to enhance athletic performance. A poorly considered training plan may result in injury to the athlete, and overtraining. Good training plans normally require expert input, which may have a cost too great for many athletes, particularly amateur athletes. The objectives of this research were to create a practical cycling training plan that substantially improves athletic performance while satisfying essential physiological constraints...
January 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307055/novel-acute-kidney-injury-biomarkers-their-characteristics-utility-and-concerns
#14
REVIEW
Braian M Beker, Mateo G Corleto, Cecilia Fieiras, Carlos G Musso
Acute kidney injury (AKI) consists of a rapid renal function decline which usually increases serum urea and creatinine levels. Since kidney injury begins by inducing biological and molecular changes which evolve to cellular damage, biomarkers could be used as tools for monitoring early AKI appearance, and predicting its recovery. Among the main AKI biomarkers the neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, cystatin C, kidney injury molecule-1, monocyte chemotactic peptide-1, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, interleukin-18, liver-type fatty acid-binding protein, netrin-1, cycle arrest markers, endogenous ouabain, selenium-binding protein 1, and BPIFA2 marker, have been described...
January 6, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305998/effects-of-mechanical-loading-on-cortical-defect-repair-using-a-novel-mechanobiological-model-of-bone-healing
#15
Chao Liu, Robert Carrera, Vittoria Flamini, Lena Kenny, Pamela Cabahug-Zuckerman, Benson M George, Daniel Hunter, Bo Liu, Gurpreet Singh, Philipp Leucht, Kenneth A Mann, Jill A Helms, Alesha B Castillo
Mechanical loading is an important aspect of post-surgical fracture care. The timing of load application relative to the injury event may differentially regulate repair depending on the stage of healing. Here, we used a novel mechanobiological model of cortical defect repair that offers several advantages including its technical simplicity and spatially confined repair program, making effects of both physical and biological interventions more easily assessed. Using this model, we showed that daily loading (5N peak load, 2Hz, 60 cycles, 4 consecutive days) during hematoma consolidation and inflammation disrupted the injury site and activated cartilage formation on the periosteal surface adjacent to the defect...
January 4, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305217/metabonomic-profiling-in-study-hepatoprotective-effect-of-polysaccharides-from-flammulina-velutipes-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-acute-liver-injury-rats-using-gc-ms
#16
Yan Zhang, Haitao Li, Tao Hu, Hui Li, Gang Jin, Yang Zhang
This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of FVP on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury rats. Transaminase levels, antioxidant effect and histopathology were used to assess the recovery of FVP treated acute liver injury rats. Metabolomic analysis of liver homogenate based on GC-MS was used to obtain a global understanding of metabolic change between acute liver injury model rats and FVP-treated rats in order to assess the underlying mechanisms. Multivariate statistical approaches such as principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structure square-discriminant analysis revealed distinctions among the normal, liver injury model, and FVP groups...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305004/translational-control-of-the-myogenic-program-in-developing-regenerating-and-diseased-skeletal-muscle
#17
Ryo Fujita, Colin Crist
Translational control of genes that code for protein allows a cell to rapidly respond to changes in its environment, in part because translational control of gene expression does not depend on upstream events required to produce an mRNA molecule. The importance of translational control has been highlighted by studies concerning muscle development, regeneration, and disease. Translational control of specific mRNAs is achieved by microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, which are particularly relevant to developmental myogenesis, where they ensure the stepwise differentiation of multipotent progenitors to committed myogenic progenitors that ultimately fuse into slow- or fast-type myofibers that make up skeletal muscle...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303509/hippo-pathway-coactivators-yap-and-taz-are-required-to-coordinate-mammalian-liver-regeneration
#18
Li Lu, Milton J Finegold, Randy L Johnson
The mammalian liver has a remarkable capacity for repair following injury. Removal of up to two-third of liver mass results in a series of events that include extracellular matrix remodeling, coordinated hepatic cell cycle re-entry, restoration of liver mass and tissue remodeling to return the damaged liver to its normal state. Although there has been considerable advancement of our knowledge concerning the regenerative capacity of the mammalian liver, many outstanding questions remaining, such as: how does the regenerating liver stop proliferating when appropriate mass is restored and how do these mechanisms relate to normal regulation of organ size during development? Hippo pathway has been proposed to be central in mediating both events: organ size control during development and following regeneration...
January 5, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302794/evaluation-of-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-sirt3-in-experimental-stroke
#19
Rajkumar Verma, Rodney M Ritzel, Joshua Crapser, Brett D Friedler, Louise D McCullough
Sirtuins (Sirt) are a family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins implicated in aging, cell cycle regulation, and metabolism. These proteins are involved in the epigenetic modification of neuromodulatory proteins after strokevia acetylation/deacetylation. The specific role of Sirt3, a mitochondrial sirtuin, in post-stroke injury has been relatively unexplored. Using male Sirt3 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type littermates (WT), we show that Sirt3 KO mice show significant neuroprotection at 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or stroke injury...
January 4, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299228/comparison-of-strategies-and-performance-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-in-spinal-cord-injury-pilots-for-competition-in-the-first-ever-cybathlon
#20
Christine Azevedo Coste, Vance Bergeron, Rik Berkelmans, Emerson Fachin Martins, Ché Fornusek, Arnin Jetsada, Kenneth J Hunt, Raymond Tong, Ronald Triolo, Peter Wolf
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) can elicit muscular contraction and restore motor function in paralyzed limbs. FES is a rehabilitation technique applied to various sensorimotor deficiencies and in different functional situations, e.g. grasping, walking, standing, transfer, cycling and rowing. FES can be combined with mechanical devices. FES-assisted cycling is mainly used in clinical environments for training sessions on cycle ergometers, but it has also been adapted for mobile devices, usually tricycles...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
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