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Running gait

Siddhartha Khandelwal, Nicholas Wickström
Numerous gait event detection (GED) algorithms have been developed using accelerometers as they allow the possibility of long-term gait analysis in everyday life. However, almost all such existing algorithms have been developed and assessed using data collected in controlled indoor experiments with pre-defined paths and walking speeds. On the contrary, human gait is quite dynamic in the real-world, often involving varying gait speeds, changing surfaces and varying surface inclinations. Though portable wearable systems can be used to conduct experiments directly in the real-world, there is a lack of publicly available gait datasets or studies evaluating the performance of existing GED algorithms in various real-world settings...
September 28, 2016: Gait & Posture
Kristin L Popp, William McDermott, Julie M Hughes, Stephanie A Baxter, Steven D Stovitz, Moira A Petit
PURPOSE: To determine differences in bone geometry, estimates of bone strength, muscle size and bone strength relative to load, in women runners with and without a history of stress fracture. METHODS: We recruited 32 competitive distance runners aged 18-35, with (SFX, n=16) or without (NSFX, n=16) a history of stress fracture for this case-control study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg/mm(3)), total (ToA) and cortical (CtA) bone areas (mm(2)), and estimated compressive bone strength (bone strength index; BSI, mg/mm(4)) at the distal tibia...
October 10, 2016: Bone
Allison M Brown, Rebecca A Zifchock, Howard J Hillstrom, Jinsup Song, Carole A Tucker
BACKGROUND: Altered hip and knee kinematics and joint coupling have been documented in runners with iliotibial band syndrome. Symptoms often present themselves after several minutes of running, yet the effect of fatigue warrants further exploration. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a run to fatigue in runners with iliotibial band syndrome, as compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty uninjured and 12 female runners with iliotibial band syndrome performed a treadmill run to fatigue...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Charlotte Apps, Thorsten Sterzing, Thomas O'Brien, Mark Lake
Unstable shoes (US) continually perturb gait which can train the lower limb musculature, but muscle co-contraction and potential joint stiffness strategies are not well understood. A shoe with a randomly perturbing midsole (IM) may enhance these adaptations. This study compares ankle and knee joint stiffness, and ankle muscle co-contraction during walking and running in US, IM and a control shoe in 18 healthy females. Ground reaction forces, three-dimensional kinematics and electromyography of the gastrocnemius medialis and tibialis anterior were recorded...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Rui-Han Wei, Wei Song, Can Zhao, Wen Zhao, Li-Feng Li, Run Ji, Jia-Sheng Rao, Zhao-Yang Yang, Xiao-Guang Li
BACKGROUND: The primate model of bipedal locomotion has been extensively used to study human evolution and played a critical role in exploring the pathological mechanisms of human neurologic disease and spinal cord injury. Speed has great influence on both walking posture and gait parameters in human walking; however, how speed changes the gait pattern of bipedal locomotion in primates remains unclear. METHODS: We chose six adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and collected the gait parameters of these animals during their treadmill locomotion over a wide range of speed...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Primatology
Bhupinder Singh, Megan G Negatu, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, H John Yack
: The purpose of this study was to determine how an overweight or obese child's cardiorespiratory fitness level and a state of fatigue affect gait biomechanics. METHODS: Using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, twenty-nine (female and male) overweight and obese children aged 8-11 years walked on force plates before and after being fatigued from the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) protocol. Joint moments were calculated for the knee and hip in the frontal and sagittal planes...
September 8, 2016: Gait & Posture
Giuliano Lamberto, Saulo Martelli, Aurelio Cappozzo, Claudia Mazzà
Musculoskeletal models are widely used to estimate joint kinematics, intersegmental loads, and muscle and joint contact forces during movement. These estimates can be heavily affected by the soft tissue artefact (STA) when input positional data are obtained using stereophotogrammetry, but this aspect has not yet been fully characterised for muscle and joint forces. This study aims to assess the sensitivity to the STA of three open-source musculoskeletal models, implemented in OpenSim. A baseline dataset of marker trajectories was created for each model from experimental data of one healthy volunteer...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Katharine I Mangan, Trevor D Kingsbury, Brittney N Mazzone, Marilynn P Wyatt, Kevin M Kuhn
OBJECTIVES: To determine if there is a difference in functional gait outcomes between patients with limb injuries treated with either transtibial amputation or limb preservation with Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis (IDEO). DESIGN: Retrospective prognostic study. SETTING: Tertiary referral military hospital. PATIENTS: This study included 10 transtibial amputees and ten limb preservation patients using the IDEO who were matched by body mass index after excluding for non-traumatic, proximal ipsilateral, contralateral, spine or traumatic brain injuries...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Joe P Warne, Barry P Smyth, John O'C Fagan, Michelle E Hone, Chris Richter, Alan M Nevill, Kieran A Moran, Giles D Warrington
An evaluation of a six-week Combined minimal footwear transition and gait-retraining combination vs. gait retraining only on impact characteristics and leg stiffness. Twenty-four trained male runners were randomly assigned to either (1) Minimalist footwear transition Combined with gait-retraining over a six-week period ("Combined" group; n = 12) examined in both footwear, or (2) a gait-retraining group only with no minimalist footwear exposure ("Control"; n = 12). Participants were assessed for loading rate, impact peak, vertical, knee and ankle stiffness, and foot-strike using 3D and kinetic analysis...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Vikas Kotagal
Parkinson disease is a chronic progressive syndrome with a broad array of clinical features. Different investigators have suggested the heterogeneous motor manifestations of early Parkinson disease can be conceptualized through a taxonomy of clinical subtypes including tremor-predominant and postural instability and gait difficulty-predominant subtypes. Although it is theoretically valuable to distinguish subtypes of Parkinson disease, the reality is that few patients fit these discrete categories well and many transition from exhibiting elements of one subtype to elements of another...
June 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Clare K Fitzpatrick, Chase Maag, Chadd W Clary, Amber Metcalfe, Jason Langhorn, Paul J Rullkoetter
A new six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) joint simulator has recently been developed which facilitates testing of implants under more realistic loading conditions than has been possible previously. However, typical wear testing can be very time-consuming, taking weeks or months to complete. A validated computational model is an ideal complement to these types of long-running tests. In this study, a computational counterpart to the new 6-DOF joint simulator was developed and validated. Total knee replacement components were evaluated in both physical and computational simulations, and joint mechanics were compared between the experiment and the model...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Ricky Watari, Dylan Kobsar, Angkoon Phinyomark, Sean Osis, Reed Ferber
BACKGROUND: Not all patients with patellofemoral pain exhibit successful outcomes following exercise therapy. Thus, the ability to identify patellofemoral pain subgroups related to treatment response is important for the development of optimal therapeutic strategies to improve rehabilitation outcomes. The purpose of this study was to use baseline running gait kinematic and clinical outcome variables to classify patellofemoral pain patients on treatment response retrospectively. METHODS: Forty-one individuals with patellofemoral pain that underwent a 6-week exercise intervention program were sub-grouped as treatment Responders (n=28) and Non-responders (n=13) based on self-reported measures of pain and function...
October 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Steven Lawrence Fernandes, G Josemin Bala
Biomechanics based human identification is a major area of research. Biomechanics based approaches depend on accurately recognizing humans using body movements, the accuracy of these approaches is enhanced by incorporating the knee-hip angle to angle relationships. Current biomechanics based models are developed by considering the biomechanics of human walking and running. In biomechanics the joint angle characteristics, also known as gait features play a vital role in identification of humans. In general, identification of humans can be broadly classified into two approaches: biomechanics based approach, also known as Gait Recognition and biometric based Composite Sketch Matching...
September 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Ryan T Lewinson, Jay T Worobets, Darren J Stefanyshyn
Footwear insoles/orthotics alter variables associated with musculoskeletal injury; however, their clinical effectiveness is inconclusive. One explanation for this is the possibility that control conditions may actually produce biomechanical changes that induce clinical responses. The purpose of this study was to compare insole/orthotic control conditions to identify if variables at the ground, ankle and knee that are associated with injury are altered relative to what participants would normally experience in their own shoes...
July 2016: Gait & Posture
Miao Tian, Huiju Park, Heekwang Koo, Qinwen Xu, Jun Li
Effects of work boots and load carriage (6.4 kg and 12.8 kg) on gait pattern were investigated. The protective work boots was examined by compared to running shoes through human performance tests with fifteen male participants. The loads were carried symmetrically and asymmetrically on shoulder and hand. Statistical data analysis shows the prolonged stance phase and decreased double support for work boots. A significantly increased ground reaction force was found in work boots conditions as the weight of loads increases...
July 21, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
James N Irvine, Justin W Arner, Eric Thorhauer, Ermias S Abebe, Jennifer D'Auria, Verena M Schreiber, Christopher D Harner, Scott Tashman
BACKGROUND: Bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) grafts are generally believed to heal more quickly than soft tissue grafts after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, but little is known about the time course of healing or motion of the grafts within the bone tunnels. HYPOTHESIS: Graft-tunnel motion will be greater in hamstring (HS) grafts compared with BTB grafts and will be less at 1 year than at 6 weeks. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
July 13, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Jan Stenum, Julia T Choi
Often, humans and other animals move in a manner that minimizes energy costs. It is more economical to walk at slow speeds, and to run at fast speeds. Here we asked whether humans select a gait that minimizes neuromuscular effort under novel and unfamiliar conditions, by imposing interlimb asymmetry during split-belt treadmill locomotion. The walk-run transition speed changed markedly across different gait conditions: forward, backward, hybrid (one leg forward, one leg backward), and forward with speed differences (one leg faster than the other)...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Apoorva Rajagopal, Christopher L Dembia, Matthew S DeMers, Denny D Delp, Jennifer L Hicks, Scott L Delp
OBJECTIVE: Musculoskeletal models provide a non-invasive means to study human movement and predict the effects of interventions on gait. Our goal was to create an open-source 3-D musculoskeletal model with high-fidelity representations of the lower limb musculature of healthy young individuals that can be used to generate accurate simulations of gait. METHODS: Our model includes bony geometry for the full body, 37 degrees of freedom to define joint kinematics, Hill-type models of 80 muscle-tendon units actuating the lower limbs, and 17 ideal torque actuators driving the upper body...
October 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
David J Saxby, Luca Modenese, Adam L Bryant, Pauline Gerus, Bryce Killen, Karine Fortin, Tim V Wrigley, Kim L Bennell, Flavia M Cicuttini, David G Lloyd
We explored the tibiofemoral contact forces and the relative contributions of muscles and external loads to those contact forces during various gait tasks. Second, we assessed the relationships between external gait measures and contact forces. A calibrated electromyography-driven neuromusculoskeletal model estimated the tibiofemoral contact forces during walking (1.44±0.22ms(-1)), running (4.38±0.42ms(-1)) and sidestepping (3.58±0.50ms(-1)) in healthy adults (n=60, 27.3±5.4years, 1.75±0.11m, and 69.8±14...
September 2016: Gait & Posture
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