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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913354/a-novel-elastic-force-field-to-influence-mediolateral-foot-placement-during-walking
#1
Elizabeth Nyberg, Jordan Broadway, Christian Finetto, Jesse Dean
Bipedal gait can be stabilized through mechanically-appropriate mediolateral foot placement, although this strategy is disrupted in a subset of neurologically injured individuals with balance deficits. The goal of the present work was to develop a device to influence mediolateral foot placement during treadmill walking. We created a novel force-field using a combination of passive elasticity and active control; wires in series with extension springs run parallel to the treadmill belts and can be rapidly repositioned to exert mediolateral forces on the legs of users...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903628/the-role-of-plantigrady-and-heel-strike-in-the-mechanics-and-energetics-of-human-walking-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-human-foot
#2
James T Webber, David A Raichlen
Human bipedal locomotion is characterized by a habitual heel-strike (HS) plantigrade gait, yet the significance of walking foot-posture is not well understood. To date, researchers have not fully investigated the costs of non-heel-strike (NHS) walking. Therefore, we examined walking speed, walk-to-run transition speed, estimated locomotor costs (lower limb muscle volume activated during walking), impact transient (rapid increase in ground force at touchdown) and effective limb length (ELL) in subjects (n=14) who walked at self-selected speeds using HS and NHS gaits...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901247/anabolic-steroids-for-rehabilitation-after-hip-fracture-in-older-people
#3
Vaqas Farooqi, Maayken E L van den Berg, Ian D Cameron, Maria Crotty
BACKGROUND: Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events) of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885098/energy-costs-and-performance-of-transfemoral-amputees-and-non-amputees-during-walking-and-running-a-pilot-study
#4
Larry J Mengelkoch, Jason T Kahle, M Jason Highsmith
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available concerning the effects of prosthetic foot components on energy costs and ambulatory performance for transfemoral amputees. OBJECTIVES: Compare energy costs (VO2; gait economy) and ambulatory performance (self-selected walking speeds, self-selected running speeds, peak running speeds) differences during walking and running for transfemoral amputees and matched, non-amputee runners. STUDY DESIGN: Repeated measures...
November 24, 2016: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877137/an-extreme-mountain-ultra-marathon-decreases-the-cost-of-uphill-walking-and-running
#5
Gianluca Vernillo, Aldo Savoldelli, Spyros Skafidas, Andrea Zignoli, Antonio La Torre, Barbara Pellegrini, Guido Giardini, Pietro Trabucchi, Grégoire P Millet, Federico Schena
Purpose: To examine the effects of the world's most challenging mountain ultramarathon (MUM, 330 km, cumulative elevation gain of +24,000 m) on the energy cost and kinematics of different uphill gaits. Methods: Before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the competition, 19 male athletes performed three submaximal 5-min treadmill exercise trials in a randomized order: walking at 5 km·h(-1), +20%; running at 6 km·h(-1), +15%; and running at 8 km·h(-1), +10%. During the three trials, energy cost was assessed using an indirect calorimetry system and spatiotemporal gait parameters were acquired with a floor-level high-density photoelectric cells system...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870693/limb-salvage-with-intrepid-dynamic-exoskeletal-orthosis-versus-transtibial-amputation-a-comparison-of-functional-gait-outcomes
#6
Katharine I Mangan, Trevor D Kingsbury, Brittney N Mazzone, Marilynn P Wyatt, Kevin M Kuhn
OBJECTIVES: To determine if there is a difference in functional gait outcomes between patients with limb injuries treated with either transtibial amputation or limb preservation with the Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis. DESIGN: Retrospective prognostic study. SETTING: Tertiary referral military hospital. PATIENTS: This study included 10 transtibial amputees and 10 limb preservation patients using the Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis who were matched by body mass index after excluding for nontraumatic, proximal ipsilateral, contralateral, spine, or traumatic brain injuries...
December 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865154/a-narrow-bimalleolar-width-is-a-risk-factor-for-ankle-inversion-injury-in-male-military-recruits-a-prospective-study
#7
Hannah Rice, Michael Nunns, Carol House, Joanne Fallowfield, Adrian Allsopp, Sharon Dixon
BACKGROUND: Ankle inversion injuries are one of the most common and burdensome injuries in athletic populations. Research that prospectively identifies characteristics associated with this injury is lacking. This prospective study compared baseline anthropometric and biomechanical gait characteristics of military recruits who sustained an ankle inversion injury during training, with those who remained injury-free. METHODS: Bilateral plantar pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were recorded in 1065 male, injury-free military recruits, during barefoot running...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863443/gait-assessment-with-solesound-instrumented-footwear-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#8
Jacqueline Montes, Damiano Zanotto, Sally Dunaway Young, Rachel Salazar, Darryl C De Vivo, Sunil Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Gait impairment is common in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and is described using clinical assessments and instrumented walkways. Continuous over-ground walking has not been studied. METHODS: Nine SMA participants completed the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and 10-meter walk/run wearing instrumented footwear (SoleSound). Data were simultaneously collected using a reference system (GAITRite(TM) ). The root mean square error (RMSE) indicated criterion validity...
November 18, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848928/maximum-relative-speeds-of-living-organisms-why-do-bacteria-perform-as-fast-as-ostriches
#9
Nicole Meyer-Vernet, Jean-Pierre Rospars
Self-locomotion is central to animal behaviour and survival. It is generally analysed by focusing on preferred speeds and gaits under particular biological and physical constraints. In the present paper we focus instead on the maximum speed and we study its order-of-magnitude scaling with body size, from bacteria to the largest terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Using data for about 460 species of various taxonomic groups, we find a maximum relative speed of the order of magnitude of ten body lengths per second over a 10(20)-fold mass range of running and swimming animals...
November 15, 2016: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836308/targeting-the-underlying-causes-of-undernutrition-cost-effectiveness-of-a-multifactorial-personalized-intervention-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Rachel van der Pols-Vijlbrief, Hanneke A H Wijnhoven, Judith E Bosmans, Jos W R Twisk, Marjolein Visser
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Undernutrition in old age is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Treatment by caloric supplementation results in weight gain, but compliance is poor in the long run. Few studies targeted underlying causes of undernutrition in community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a multifactorial personalized intervention focused on eliminating or managing the underlying causes of undernutrition to prevent and reduce undernutrition in comparison with usual care...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833661/walk-for-life-the-national-clubfoot-project-of-bangladesh-the-four-year-outcomes-of-150-congenital-clubfoot-cases-following-ponseti-method
#11
Angela Margaret Evans, Mohommad Mamun Hossen Chowdhury, Mohommad Humayun Kabir, Md Fashiur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Congenital clubfoot deformity can cause significant disability, and if left untreated, may further impoverish those in developing countries, like Bangladesh. The Ponseti method has been strategically introduced in Bangladesh by a non-government organisation, Walk For Life (WFL). WFL has provided free treatment for over 17,500 Bangladeshi children with clubfeet since 2009, sustained by local ownership, and international support. This study assesses the 4-year results in children for whom treatment began before the age of 3 years...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821354/variability-of-segment-coordination-using-a-vector-coding-technique-reliability-analysis-for-treadmill-walking-and-running
#12
Jocelyn F Hafer, Katherine A Boyer
Coordination variability (CV) quantifies the variety of movement patterns an individual uses during a task and may provide a measure of the flexibility of that individual's motor system. While there is growing popularity of segment CV as a marker of motor system health or adaptability, it is not known how many strides of data are needed to reliably calculate CV. This study aimed to determine the number of strides needed to reliably calculate CV in treadmill walking and running, and to compare CV between walking and running in a healthy population...
November 2, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814970/a-kinematic-algorithm-to-identify-gait-events-during-running-at-different-speeds-and-with-different-footstrike-types
#13
Joe C Handsaker, Stephanie E Forrester, Jonathan P Folland, Matt I Black, Sam J Allen
Although a number of algorithms exist for estimating ground contact events (GCEs) from kinematic data during running, they are typically only applicable to heelstrike running, or have only been evaluated at a single running speed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of four kinematics-based algorithms to estimate GCEs over a range of running speeds and footstrike types. Subjects ran over a force platform at a range of speeds; kinetic and kinematic data was captured at 1000Hz, and kinematic data was downsampled to 250Hz...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813684/altered-vertical-ground-reaction-forces-in-participants-with-chronic-ankle-instability-while-running
#14
John Bigouette, Janet Simon, Kathy Liu, Carrie L Docherty
CONTEXT: Altered gait kinetics may increase the risk of long-term injuries in participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs) can provide insight into how body loading is altered. OBJECTIVE: To compare the components of vGRFs while running in participants with or without CAI. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: University biomechanics laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four experienced, college-aged runners...
September 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811299/a-general-relationship-links-gait-mechanics-and-running-ground-reaction-forces
#15
Kenneth P Clark, Laurence J Ryan, Peter G Weyand
The relationship between gait mechanics and running ground reaction forces is widely regarded as complex. This viewpoint has evolved primarily via efforts to explain the rising-edge of vertical force-time waveforms observed during slow human running. Existing theoretical models do provide good rising-edge fits, but require more than a dozen input variables to sum the force contributions of four or more vague components of the body's total mass (mb). Here, we hypothesized that the force contributions of two discrete body mass components are sufficient to account for vertical ground reaction force-time waveforms patterns in full [stance foot and shank, m1=0...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802152/preferred-gait-and-walk-run-transition-speeds-in-ostriches-measured-using-gps-imu-sensors
#16
Monica A Daley, Anthony J Channon, Grant S Nolan, Jade Hall
The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is widely appreciated as a fast and agile bipedal athlete, and is a useful comparative bipedal model for human locomotion. Here, we used GPS-IMU sensors to measure naturally selected gait dynamics of ostriches roaming freely over a wide range of speeds in an open field and developed a quantitative method for distinguishing walking and running using accelerometry. We compared freely selected gait-speed distributions with previous laboratory measures of gait dynamics and energetics...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776927/the-energetic-cost-of-gait-retraining-a-pilot-study-of-the-acute-effect
#17
Andrew D Townshend, Melinda M Franettovich Smith, Mark W Creaby
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acute effect of gait retraining aimed at reducing tibial peak positive acceleration (PPA) on energetic cost (VO2). DESIGN: Intervention with a pre/post-test design. SETTING: University biomechanics laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: 12 healthy male runners (23.4 ± 5.3 years, 179.7 ± 4.3 cm, 75.6 ± 9.2 kg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tibial PPA and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured after a five minute baseline run and at the end of a gait retraining session aimed at minimizing tibial PPA...
August 21, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770818/progranulin-promotes-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-and-reinnervation-role-of-notch-signaling
#18
Christine Altmann, Verica Vasic, Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Annett Häussler, Ilka Wittig, Mirko H H Schmidt, Irmgard Tegeder
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury is a frequent cause of lasting motor deficits and chronic pain. Although peripheral nerves are capable of regrowth they often fail to re-innervate target tissues. RESULTS: Using newly generated transgenic mice with inducible neuronal progranulin overexpression we show that progranulin accelerates axonal regrowth, restoration of neuromuscular synapses and recovery of sensory and motor functions after injury of the sciatic nerve...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764714/propulsion-strategy-in-the-gait-of-primary-school-children-the-effect-of-age-and-speed
#19
Jillian Lye, Stephanie Parkinson, Nicola Diamond, Jenny Downs, Susan Morris
The strategy used to generate power for forward propulsion in walking and running has recently been highlighted as a marker of gait maturation and elastic energy recycling. This study investigated ankle and hip power generation as a propulsion strategy (PS) during the late stance/early swing phases of walking and running in typically developing (TD) children (15: six to nine years; 17: nine to 13years) using three-dimensional gait analysis. Peak ankle power generation at push-off (peakA2), peak hip power generation in early swing (peakH3) and propulsion strategy (PS) [peakA2/(peakA2+peakH3)] were calculated to provide the relative contribution of ankle power to total propulsion...
October 17, 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764226/crowd-sourced-amputee-gait-data-a-feasibility-study-using-youtube-videos-of-unilateral-trans-femoral-gait
#20
James Gardiner, Nuwan Gunarathne, David Howard, Laurence Kenney
Collecting large datasets of amputee gait data is notoriously difficult. Additionally, collecting data on less prevalent amputations or on gait activities other than level walking and running on hard surfaces is rarely attempted. However, with the wealth of user-generated content on the Internet, the scope for collecting amputee gait data from alternative sources other than traditional gait labs is intriguing. Here we investigate the potential of YouTube videos to provide gait data on amputee walking. We use an example dataset of trans-femoral amputees level walking at self-selected speeds to collect temporal gait parameters and calculate gait asymmetry...
2016: PloS One
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