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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097064/phalangeal-joints-kinematics-during-ostrich-struthio-camelus-locomotion
#1
Rui Zhang, Qiaoli Ji, Gang Luo, Shuliang Xue, Songsong Ma, Jianqiao Li, Lei Ren
The ostrich is a highly cursorial bipedal land animal with a permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint supported by only two toes. Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running ostriches have been examined, these studies have been largely limited to above the metatarsophalangeal joint. In this study, kinematic data of all major toe joints were collected from gaits with double support (slow walking) to running during stance period in a semi-natural setup with two selected cooperative ostriches. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of locomotor gait on toe joint kinematics...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095075/a-pilot-study-using-entropy-as-a-non-invasive-assessment-of-running
#2
Andrew M Murray, Joong Hyun Ryu, John Sproule, Anthony P Turner, Phil Graham-Smith, Marco Cardinale
PURPOSE: Running performance is influenced by the interaction of biomechanical and physiological factors. Miniaturised accelerometers worn by the athlete can be used to quantify mechanical aspects of running and be used as a non-invasive tool to assess training status and progression. The aim of this study was to define and validate a method to assess running regularity and allow the estimation of an individual's V̇O2 and/or blood lactate [La]b based on data collected with accelerometers and heart rate (HR)...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063387/effects-of-chronic-ankle-instability-on-kinetics-kinematics-and-muscle-activity-during-walking-and-running-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Gabriel Moisan, Martin Descarreaux, Vincent Cantin
The aim of this study is to systematically review and appraise studies assessing the effects of chronic ankle instability (CAI) on kinetics, kinematics and muscle activity during walking and running. The primary search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, AMED and SPORTDiscus. Only studies that compared participants with CAI with healthy participants and assessed kinetics, kinematics or muscle activity during walking or running were included. The risk of bias assessment was conducted using a modified version of the Quality Index checklist...
December 29, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018651/stability-in-skipping-gaits
#4
Emanuel Andrada, Roy Müller, Reinhard Blickhan
As an alternative to walking and running, humans are able to skip. However, adult humans avoid it. This fact seems to be related to the higher energetic costs associated with skipping. Still, children, some birds, lemurs and lizards use skipping gaits during daily locomotion. We combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations to test whether stability and robustness motivate this choice. Parameters for modelling were obtained from 10 male subjects. They locomoted using unilateral skipping along a 12 m runway...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018127/influence-of-j-curve-spring-stiffness-on-running-speeds-of-segmented-legs-during-high-speed-locomotion
#5
Runxiao Wang, Wentao Zhao, Shujun Li, Shunqi Zhang
Both the linear leg spring model and the two-segment leg model with constant spring stiffness have been broadly used as template models to investigate bouncing gaits for legged robots with compliant legs. In addition to these two models, the other stiffness leg spring models developed using inspiration from biological characteristic have the potential to improve high-speed running capacity of spring-legged robots. In this paper, we investigate the effects of "J"-curve spring stiffness inspired by biological materials on running speeds of segmented legs during high-speed locomotion...
2016: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935430/human-runners-exhibit-a-least-variable-gait-speed
#6
Pei Hua Cher, Charles J Worringham, Ian B Stewart
This study characterises the relationship between gait variability and speed in runners using data from trunk accelerations in each axis. Twelve participants of varying fitness ran on the treadmill with three sessions of six randomly ordered self-selected speeds. A VO2max test was conducted on the fourth session. Running gait was tracked with inertial sensors. The occurrence of a mid-range speed was analysed for the anterior-posterior, vertical and lateral directional coefficient of variation (CV) of root mean square (RMS) acceleration data...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919170/validation-of-the-fitbit-one-garmin-vivofit-and-jawbone-up-activity-tracker-in-estimation-of-energy-expenditure-during-treadmill-walking-and-running
#7
Kym Price, Stephen R Bird, Noel Lythgo, Isaac S Raj, Jason Y L Wong, Chris Lynch
OBJECTIVES: To determine the validity of energy expenditure estimation made by the Fitbit One, Garmin Vivofit and Jawbone UP activity trackers during treadmill walking and running. Determining validity of such trackers will inform the interpretation of the data they generate. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: Fourteen adults walked at 0.70, 1.25, 1.80 ms(-1) and ran at 2.22, 2.78, 3.33 ms(-1) on a treadmill wearing a Fitbit One, Garmin Vivofit and Jawbone UP...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918678/gait-asymmetry-during-400-to-1000-m-high-intensity-track-running-in-relation-to-injury-history
#8
Rahel Ammann, Wolfgang Taube, Thomas Wyss
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to quantify gait asymmetry in well-trained runners, with and without previous injuries during interval training sessions incorporating different distances. METHODS: Twelve well-trained runners participated in eight high-intensity interval training sessions on a synthetic track over a 4-week period. The training consisted of 10 × 400 m, 8 × 600 m, 7 × 800 m, and 6 × 1000 m running. Using an inertial measurement unit, the ground contact time (GCT) of every step was recorded...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913354/a-novel-elastic-force-field-to-influence-mediolateral-foot-placement-during-walking
#9
Elizabeth Nyberg, Jordan Broadway, Christian Finetto, Jesse Dean
Bipedal gait can be stabilized through mechanically-appropriate mediolateral foot placement, although this strategy is disrupted in a subset of neurologically injured individuals with balance deficits. The goal of the present work was to develop a device to influence mediolateral foot placement during treadmill walking. We created a novel force-field using a combination of passive elasticity and active control; wires in series with extension springs run parallel to the treadmill belts and can be rapidly repositioned to exert mediolateral forces on the legs of users...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903628/the-role-of-plantigrady-and-heel-strike-in-the-mechanics-and-energetics-of-human-walking-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-human-foot
#10
James T Webber, David A Raichlen
Human bipedal locomotion is characterized by a habitual heel-strike (HS) plantigrade gait, yet the significance of walking foot-posture is not well understood. To date, researchers have not fully investigated the costs of non-heel-strike (NHS) walking. Therefore, we examined walking speed, walk-to-run transition speed, estimated locomotor costs (lower limb muscle volume activated during walking), impact transient (rapid increase in ground force at touchdown) and effective limb length (ELL) in subjects (n=14) who walked at self-selected speeds using HS and NHS gaits...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901247/anabolic-steroids-for-rehabilitation-after-hip-fracture-in-older-people
#11
Vaqas Farooqi, Maayken E L van den Berg, Ian D Cameron, Maria Crotty
BACKGROUND: Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events) of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885098/energy-costs-and-performance-of-transfemoral-amputees-and-non-amputees-during-walking-and-running-a-pilot-study
#12
Larry J Mengelkoch, Jason T Kahle, M Jason Highsmith
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available concerning the effects of prosthetic foot components on energy costs and ambulatory performance for transfemoral amputees. OBJECTIVES: Compare energy costs (VO2; gait economy) and ambulatory performance (self-selected walking speeds, self-selected running speeds, peak running speeds) differences during walking and running for transfemoral amputees and matched, non-amputee runners. STUDY DESIGN: Repeated measures...
November 24, 2016: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877137/an-extreme-mountain-ultra-marathon-decreases-the-cost-of-uphill-walking-and-running
#13
Gianluca Vernillo, Aldo Savoldelli, Spyros Skafidas, Andrea Zignoli, Antonio La Torre, Barbara Pellegrini, Guido Giardini, Pietro Trabucchi, Grégoire P Millet, Federico Schena
Purpose: To examine the effects of the world's most challenging mountain ultramarathon (MUM, 330 km, cumulative elevation gain of +24,000 m) on the energy cost and kinematics of different uphill gaits. Methods: Before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the competition, 19 male athletes performed three submaximal 5-min treadmill exercise trials in a randomized order: walking at 5 km·h(-1), +20%; running at 6 km·h(-1), +15%; and running at 8 km·h(-1), +10%. During the three trials, energy cost was assessed using an indirect calorimetry system and spatiotemporal gait parameters were acquired with a floor-level high-density photoelectric cells system...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870693/limb-salvage-with-intrepid-dynamic-exoskeletal-orthosis-versus-transtibial-amputation-a-comparison-of-functional-gait-outcomes
#14
Katharine I Mangan, Trevor D Kingsbury, Brittney N Mazzone, Marilynn P Wyatt, Kevin M Kuhn
OBJECTIVES: To determine if there is a difference in functional gait outcomes between patients with limb injuries treated with either transtibial amputation or limb preservation with the Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis. DESIGN: Retrospective prognostic study. SETTING: Tertiary referral military hospital. PATIENTS: This study included 10 transtibial amputees and 10 limb preservation patients using the Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis who were matched by body mass index after excluding for nontraumatic, proximal ipsilateral, contralateral, spine, or traumatic brain injuries...
December 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865154/a-narrow-bimalleolar-width-is-a-risk-factor-for-ankle-inversion-injury-in-male-military-recruits-a-prospective-study
#15
Hannah Rice, Michael Nunns, Carol House, Joanne Fallowfield, Adrian Allsopp, Sharon Dixon
BACKGROUND: Ankle inversion injuries are one of the most common and burdensome injuries in athletic populations. Research that prospectively identifies characteristics associated with this injury is lacking. This prospective study compared baseline anthropometric and biomechanical gait characteristics of military recruits who sustained an ankle inversion injury during training, with those who remained injury-free. METHODS: Bilateral plantar pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were recorded in 1065 male, injury-free military recruits, during barefoot running...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863443/gait-assessment-with-solesound-instrumented-footwear-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#16
Jacqueline Montes, Damiano Zanotto, Sally Dunaway Young, Rachel Salazar, Darryl C De Vivo, Sunil Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Gait impairment is common in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and is described using clinical assessments and instrumented walkways. Continuous over-ground walking has not been studied. METHODS: Nine SMA participants completed the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and 10-meter walk/run wearing instrumented footwear (SoleSound). Data were simultaneously collected using a reference system (GAITRite(TM) ). The root mean square error (RMSE) indicated criterion validity...
November 18, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848928/maximum-relative-speeds-of-living-organisms-why-do-bacteria-perform-as-fast-as-ostriches
#17
Nicole Meyer-Vernet, Jean-Pierre Rospars
Self-locomotion is central to animal behaviour and survival. It is generally analysed by focusing on preferred speeds and gaits under particular biological and physical constraints. In the present paper we focus instead on the maximum speed and we study its order-of-magnitude scaling with body size, from bacteria to the largest terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Using data for about 460 species of various taxonomic groups, we find a maximum relative speed of the order of magnitude of ten body lengths per second over a 10(20)-fold mass range of running and swimming animals...
November 15, 2016: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836308/targeting-the-underlying-causes-of-undernutrition-cost-effectiveness-of-a-multifactorial-personalized-intervention-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Rachel van der Pols-Vijlbrief, Hanneke A H Wijnhoven, Judith E Bosmans, Jos W R Twisk, Marjolein Visser
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Undernutrition in old age is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Treatment by caloric supplementation results in weight gain, but compliance is poor in the long run. Few studies targeted underlying causes of undernutrition in community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a multifactorial personalized intervention focused on eliminating or managing the underlying causes of undernutrition to prevent and reduce undernutrition in comparison with usual care...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833661/walk-for-life-the-national-clubfoot-project-of-bangladesh-the-four-year-outcomes-of-150-congenital-clubfoot-cases-following-ponseti-method
#19
Angela Margaret Evans, Mohommad Mamun Hossen Chowdhury, Mohommad Humayun Kabir, Md Fashiur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Congenital clubfoot deformity can cause significant disability, and if left untreated, may further impoverish those in developing countries, like Bangladesh. The Ponseti method has been strategically introduced in Bangladesh by a non-government organisation, Walk For Life (WFL). WFL has provided free treatment for over 17,500 Bangladeshi children with clubfeet since 2009, sustained by local ownership, and international support. This study assesses the 4-year results in children for whom treatment began before the age of 3 years...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821354/variability-of-segment-coordination-using-a-vector-coding-technique-reliability-analysis-for-treadmill-walking-and-running
#20
Jocelyn F Hafer, Katherine A Boyer
Coordination variability (CV) quantifies the variety of movement patterns an individual uses during a task and may provide a measure of the flexibility of that individual's motor system. While there is growing popularity of segment CV as a marker of motor system health or adaptability, it is not known how many strides of data are needed to reliably calculate CV. This study aimed to determine the number of strides needed to reliably calculate CV in treadmill walking and running, and to compare CV between walking and running in a healthy population...
January 2017: Gait & Posture
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