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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768094/lower-limb-stiffness-testing-in-athletic-performance-a-critical-review
#1
Sean J Maloney, Iain M Fletcher
Stiffness describes the resistance of a body to deformation. In regard to athletic performance, a stiffer leg-spring would be expected to augment performance by increasing utilisation of elastic energy. Two-dimensional spring-mass and torsional spring models can be applied to model whole-body (vertical and/or leg stiffness) and joint stiffness. Various tasks have been used to characterise stiffness, including hopping, gait, jumping, sledge ergometry and change of direction tasks. Appropriate levels of reliability have been reported in most tasks, although they vary between investigations...
May 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730488/the-use-of-wearable-devices-for-walking-and-running-gait-analysis-outside-of-the-lab-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Lauren C Benson, Christian A Clermont, Eva Bošnjak, Reed Ferber
BACKGROUND: Quantitative gait analysis is essential for evaluating walking and running patterns for markers of pathology, injury, or other gait characteristics. It is expected that the portability, affordability, and applicability of wearable devices to many different populations will have contributed advancements in understanding the real-world gait patterns of walkers and runners. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify how wearable devices are being used for gait analysis in out-of-lab settings...
May 1, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722862/honeybees-prefer-to-steer-on-a-smooth-wall-with-tetrapod-gaits
#3
Jieliang Zhao, Fei Zhu, Shaoze Yan
Insects are well equipped in walking on complex three-dimensional terrain, allowing them to overcome obstacles or catch prey. However, the gait transition for insects steering on a wall remains unexplored. Here, we find that honeybees adopted a tetrapod gait to change direction when climbing a wall. On the contrary to the common tripod gait, honeybees propel their body forward by synchronously stepping with both middle legs and then both front legs. This process ensures the angle of the central axis of the honeybee to be consistent with the crawling direction...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720948/the-oxygen-consumption-and-metabolic-cost-of-walking-and-running-in-adults-with-achondroplasia
#4
David T Sims, Gladys L Onambélé-Pearson, Adrian Burden, Carl Payton, Christopher I Morse
The disproportionate body mass and leg length of Achondroplasic individuals may affect their net oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2 ) and metabolic cost (C) when walking at running compared to those of average stature (controls). The aim of this study was to measure submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 and C during a range of set walking speeds (SWS; 0.56 - 1.94 m⋅s-1 , increment 0.28 m⋅s-1 ), set running speeds (SRS; 1.67 - 3.33 m⋅s-1 , increment 0.28 m⋅s-1 ) and a self-selected walking speed (SSW)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708870/validation-of-freezing-of-gait-monitoring-using-smartphone
#5
Han Byul Kim, Hong Ji Lee, Woong Woo Lee, Sang Kyong Kim, Hyo Seon Jeon, Hye Young Park, Chae Won Shin, Won Jin Yi, Beomseok Jeon, Kwang S Park
BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a commonly observed motor symptom for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The symptoms of FOG include reduced step lengths or motor blocks, even with an evident intention of walking. FOG should be monitored carefully because it not only lowers the patient's quality of life, but also significantly increases the risk of injury. INTRODUCTION: In previous studies, patients had to wear several sensors on the body and another computing device was needed to run the FOG detection algorithm...
April 30, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708075/risk-factors-associated-with-musculoskeletal-injury-a-prospective-study-of-british-infantry-recruits
#6
Jagannath Sharma, R Heagerty, S Dalal, B Banerjee, T Booker
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injury (MSKI), a common problem in both military and physically active civilian populations has been suggested to result from both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate prospectively whether gait biomechanics, aerobic fitness level and smoking status as well as entry military selection test variables can be used to predict MSKI development during recruit training. METHOD: British infantry male recruits (n = 562) were selected for the study...
April 29, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677101/electromyographic-and-joint-kinematic-patterns-in-runner-s-dystonia
#7
Omar F Ahmad, Pritha Ghosh, Christopher Stanley, Barbara Karp, Mark Hallett, Codrin Lungu, Katharine Alter
Runner’s dystonia (RD) is a task-specific focal dystonia of the lower limbs that occurs when running. In this retrospective case series, we present surface electromyography (EMG) and joint kinematic data from thirteen patients with RD who underwent instrumented gait analysis (IGA) at the Functional and Biomechanics Laboratory at the National Institutes of Health. Four cases of RD are described in greater detail to demonstrate the potential utility of EMG with kinematic studies to identify dystonic muscle groups in RD...
April 20, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673341/runners-with-patellofemoral-pain-demonstrate-sub-groups-of-pelvic-acceleration-profiles-using-hierarchical-cluster-analysis-an-exploratory-cross-sectional-study
#8
Ricky Watari, Sean T Osis, Angkoon Phinyomark, Reed Ferber
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that distinct and homogenous sub-groups of gait patterns exist among runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP), based on gait analysis. However, acquisition of 3D kinematic data using optical systems is time consuming and prone to marker placement errors. In contrast, axial segment acceleration data can represent an overall running pattern, being easy to acquire and not influenced by marker placement error. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if pelvic acceleration patterns during running could be used to classify PFP patients into homogeneous sub-groups...
April 19, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670502/analysis-of-big-data-in-gait-biomechanics-current-trends-and-future-directions
#9
Angkoon Phinyomark, Giovanni Petri, Esther Ibáñez-Marcelo, Sean T Osis, Reed Ferber
The increasing amount of data in biomechanics research has greatly increased the importance of developing advanced multivariate analysis and machine learning techniques, which are better able to handle "big data". Consequently, advances in data science methods will expand the knowledge for testing new hypotheses about biomechanical risk factors associated with walking and running gait-related musculoskeletal injury. This paper begins with a brief introduction to an automated three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical gait data collection system: 3D GAIT, followed by how the studies in the field of gait biomechanics fit the quantities in the 5 V's definition of big data: volume, velocity, variety, veracity, and value...
2018: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666760/barefoot-running-does-not-affect-simple-reaction-time-an-exploratory-study
#10
Nicholas J Snow, Jason F L Blair, Graham Z MacDonald, Jeannette M Byrne, Fabien A Basset
Background: Converging evidence comparing barefoot (BF) and shod (SH) running highlights differences in foot-strike patterns and somatosensory feedback, among others. Anecdotal evidence from SH runners attempting BF running suggests a greater attentional demand may be experienced during BF running. However, little work to date has examined whether there is an attentional cost of BF versus SH running. Objective: This exploratory study aimed to examine whether an acute bout of BF running would impact simple reaction time (SRT) compared to SH running, in a sample of runners naïve to BF running...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623734/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-activity-and-lameness-in-commercial-broiler-production
#11
Guro Vasdal, Judit Vas, Ruth C Newberry, Randi Oppermann Moe
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of commercially applied environmental enrichments on behavior and lameness in broilers. Two consecutive flocks of broilers were observed at 16 days and 30 days of age to investigate differences between enriched (peat, bales of lucerne hay, and elevated platforms) and control birds with regards to behavioral activities and lameness. More running (p < .001), worm running (p = .006), play fighting (p = .015), dust bathing (p = .009), and ground pecking while standing (p < ...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623042/estimation-of-vertical-ground-reaction-forces-and-sagittal-knee-kinematics-during-running-using-three-inertial-sensors
#12
Frank J Wouda, Matteo Giuberti, Giovanni Bellusci, Erik Maartens, Jasper Reenalda, Bert-Jan F van Beijnum, Peter H Veltink
Analysis of running mechanics has traditionally been limited to a gait laboratory using either force plates or an instrumented treadmill in combination with a full-body optical motion capture system. With the introduction of inertial motion capture systems, it becomes possible to measure kinematics in any environment. However, kinetic information could not be provided with such technology. Furthermore, numerous body-worn sensors are required for a full-body motion analysis. The aim of this study is to examine the validity of a method to estimate sagittal knee joint angles and vertical ground reaction forces during running using an ambulatory minimal body-worn sensor setup...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614001/relationships-between-habitual-cadence-footstrike-and-vertical-loadrates-in-runners
#13
Erin E Futrell, Steve T Jamison, Adam S Tenforde, Irene S Davis
Excessive vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) loadrates have been linked with running injuries. Increasing cadence (CAD) has been shown to reduce loadrates; however relationships between habitual cadence and loadrates across a population of runners have not been examined. PURPOSE: To examine the relationships between habitual running cadence and vertical loadrates in healthy and injured runners using habitual footstrike patterns. As CAD increased, we expected vertical loadrates would decrease...
April 2, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597146/electromyography-comparison-of-the-effects-of-various-footwear-in-the-activity-patterns-of-the-peroneus-longus-and-brevis-muscles
#14
Andrea Roca-Dols, Marta Elena Losa-Iglesias, Rubén Sánchez-Gómez, Daniel López-López, Ricardo Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, César Calvo-Lobo
BACKGROUND: Peroneus longus and brevis (PLB) disorders are commonly in people with lateral ligamentous instability, ankle pain, lateral hindfoot pain and structures of the proximal compartment of the lower legs and their muscle activity is believed to be influenced by different footwear types. The proposal of this research is to evaluate the effects of five types of footwear with respect to the barefoot condition and analyze the activity patterns of PLB muscles in healthy subjects during the gait cycle...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570519/cystic-progression-of-a-cavernous-malformation-at-the-level-of-the-trigeminal-root-entry-zone-presenting-with-sudden-onset-of-trigeminal-neuralgia
#15
Carlo Giacobbo Scavo, Raffaelino Roperto, Guglielmo Cacciotti, Luciano Mastronardi
BACKGROUND: Cavernous malformations (CM) in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are rare, and most of them are solid and extend from the internal auditory canal into the CPA. In contrast, cystic CM arising in the CPA and not involving the internal auditory canal and dura of the skull base are extremely rare. The authors present an uncommon large cystic progression of a cavernous malformation at the level of the trigeminal root entry zone evolving to severe trigeminal neuralgia and brainstem compression...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567999/operating-length-and-velocity-of-human-vastus-lateralis-muscle-during-walking-and-running
#16
S Bohm, R Marzilger, F Mersmann, A Santuz, A Arampatzis
According to the force-length-velocity relationships, the muscle force potential during locomotion is determined by the operating fibre length and velocity. We measured fascicle and muscle-tendon unit length and velocity as well as the activity of the human vastus lateralis muscle (VL) during walking and running. Furthermore, we determined the VL force-length relationship experimentally and calculated the force-length and force-velocity potentials (i.e. fraction of maximum force according to the force-length-velocity curves) for both gaits...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547791/repeatability-of-spatiotemporal-plantar-pressure-and-force-parameters-during-treadmill-walking-and-running
#17
Corina Nüesch, Jan-Arie Overberg, Hermann Schwameder, Geert Pagenstert, Annegret Mündermann
BACKGROUND: Instrumented treadmills with integrated pressure mats measure spatiotemporal, pressure and force parameters and are often used to investigate changes in gait patterns due to injury or rehabilitation. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the within- and between-day repeatability of such an instrumented treadmill for spatiotemporal parameters, peak pressures and forces during walking and running? METHODS: Treadmill gait and running analysis were performed at 5...
March 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526593/distinct-contributions-of-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-nuclei-to-locomotor-control-in-the-freely-behaving-mouse
#18
Nicolas Josset, Marie Roussel, Maxime Lemieux, David Lafrance-Zoubga, Ali Rastqar, Frederic Bretzner
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) has been initially identified as a supraspinal center capable of initiating and modulating locomotion. Whereas its functional contribution to locomotion has been widely documented throughout the phylogeny from the lamprey to humans, there is still debate about its exact organization. Combining kinematic and electrophysiological recordings in mouse genetics, our study reveals that glutamatergic neurons of the cuneiform nucleus initiate locomotion and induce running gaits, whereas glutamatergic and cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus modulate locomotor pattern and rhythm, contributing to slow-walking gaits...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517187/training-for-mobility-with-exoskeleton-robot-in-person-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-pilot-study
#19
Patrizio Sale, Emanuele F Russo, Alessandra Scarton, Rocco S Calabrò, Stefano Masiero, Serena Filoni
BACKGROUND: Wearable robots are people-oriented robots designed to be worn all day, thus helping in the daily activities. They can assist in walking, running, jumping higher or even lifting objects too heavy in normal conditions. AIM: The aim of this report was thus to investigate the change in gait pattern trough 3D gait analysis subjects with Spinal Cord Injury (PwSCI) that underwent an adaptive training with a wearable Exoskeletal Device (ESD). The change in the quality of life was also investigate together with the possibility to wear these devices all day, to improve the mobility...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498884/alteration-of-knee-kinematics-after-anatomic-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-is-dependent-on-associated-meniscal-injury
#20
Berkcan Akpinar, Eric Thorhauer, James J Irrgang, Scott Tashman, Freddie H Fu, William J Anderst
BACKGROUND: Limited in vivo kinematic information exists on managing meniscal injury during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). HYPOTHESIS: Isolated anatomic ACLR restores knee kinematics, whereas ACLR in the presence of medial meniscal injury is associated with altered long-term knee kinematics. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: From March 2011 to December 2012, 49 of 57 participants in a clinical trial underwent anatomic ACLR with successful kinematic testing at 24 months after ACLR...
April 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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