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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332742/the-effects-of-dorso-lumbar-motion-restriction-on-emg-activity-of-selected-muscles-during-running
#1
Joseph J Morley, Edward Traum
The effects of restricting dorso-lumbar spine mobility on electromyographic activity of the erector spinae, quadriceps femoris, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles in runners was investigated. Thermoplastic casting material was fashioned into a rigid orthosis and used to restrict spinal motion during running. Volunteers ran on a treadmill at 2.78 m/sec, under normal conditions and with spinal motion restricted. Surface electromyographic data was collected during both sets of trials. Normal electromyographic data was also compared with previous authors to determine similarity with their electromyographic data...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298705/motor-modules-during-adaptation-to-walking-in-a-powered-ankle-exoskeleton
#2
Daniel A Jacobs, Jeffrey R Koller, Katherine M Steele, Daniel P Ferris
BACKGROUND: Modules of muscle recruitment can be extracted from electromyography (EMG) during motions, such as walking, running, and swimming, to identify key features of muscle coordination. These features may provide insight into gait adaptation as a result of powered assistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes (module size, module timing and weighting patterns) of surface EMG data during assisted and unassisted walking in an powered, myoelectric, ankle-foot orthosis (ankle exoskeleton)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289028/experience-does-not-influence-injury-related-joint-kinematics-and-kinetics-in-distance-runners
#3
Cristine E Agresta, Jillian Peacock, Jeffrey Housner, Ronald F Zernicke, Jessica Deneweth Zendler
PURPOSE: Increased running experience and more time spent running appears to be advantageous in reducing injury risk, although the reason behind this is unclear. It is plausible that more experience results in better running mechanics leading to less injuries. Running mechanics are often screened during clinical assessments and targeted for correction in gait retraining, particularly those thought to be global indicators of injury or those associated with elevated knee joint loading. Examining the biomechanics of runners who are less-injury prone can improve our understanding of the significance of faulty running mechanics in relation to injury...
December 20, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249454/biomechanical-consequences-of-running-with-deep-core-muscle-weakness
#4
Margaret E Raabe, Ajit M W Chaudhari
The deep core muscles are often neglected or improperly trained in athletes. Improper function of this musculature may lead to abnormal spinal loading, muscle strain, or injury to spinal structures, all of which have been associated with increased low back pain (LBP) risk. The purpose of this study was to identify potential strategies used to compensate for weakness of the deep core musculature during running and to identify accompanying changes in compressive and shear spinal loads. Kinematically-driven simulations of overground running were created for eight healthy young adults in OpenSim at increasing levels of deep core muscle weakness...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243945/coordination-in-gait-demonstration-of-a-spectral-approach
#5
Genevieve K R Williams, Domenico Vicinanza
Many important notions in Life Sciences are linked with the idea of cycles, periodicity, fluctuations and transitions. The aim of this paper is to use spectral analysis in a unique way to study and quantify whole body coordination during gait. A participant walked at 3 km/h and ran at 15 km/h on a treadmill for 2 minutes. Position of the approximate center of rotation of the toe, ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, elbow and wrist, heel, PSIS and head were collected (CODAmotion; 100 Hz). Fast Fourier Transform was performed on x-coordinate data of the 1) knee marker; 2) 4 markers attached to the free lower limb (toe, ankle, heel and knee); 3) left and right free lower limbs; 4) whole body (all markers)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240004/synchronizing-gait-with-cardiac-cycle-phase-alters-heart-rate-response-during-running
#6
Keren Constantini, Abigail S L Stickford, Jeffery L Bleich, Paul D Mannheimer, Benjamin D Levine, Robert F Chapman
Timing foot strike to occur in synchrony with cardiac diastole may reduce left ventricular afterload and promote coronary and skeletal muscle perfusion. PURPOSE: To assess heart rate (HR) and metabolic responses to running when foot strikes are timed to occur exclusively during 1) the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle, or 2) the diastolic phase. METHODS: Ten elite male distance runners performed a testing session on a treadmill at 4.72 m[BULLET OPERATOR]s while matching their steps to an auditory tone and wearing a chest strap that transmitted accelerometer and ECG signals...
December 12, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230404/experimental-gait-analysis-to-study-stress-distribution-of-the-human-foot
#7
Vidya K Nandikolla, Robin Bochen, Steven Meza, Allan Garcia
Researchers and clinicians are increasingly using plantar pressure and force measurement system to evaluate foot functions. This research evaluates the quality and reliability of a Tekscan HR mat to study the plantar pressures and forces acting during walking, running, jumping, and standing of healthy subjects. The following regions of the foot were investigated: heel, mid foot, metatarsophalangeal joint, hallux, and the toes. The arches of both feet of the three healthy subjects in the gait analysis were presented which addresses the balancing issues of the body during locomotion...
2017: Journal of Medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225659/speed-dependent-phase-shifts-and-gait-changes-in-cockroaches-running-on-substrates-of-different-slipperiness
#8
Tom Weihmann, Pierre-Guillaume Brun, Emily Pycroft
Background: Many legged animals change gaits when increasing speed. In insects, only one gait change has been documented so far, from slow walking to fast running, which is characterised by an alternating tripod. Studies on some fast-running insects suggested a further gait change at higher running speeds. Apart from speed, insect gaits and leg co-ordination have been shown to be influenced by substrate properties, but the detailed effects of speed and substrate on gait changes are still unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217625/reducing-gravity-takes-the-bounce-out-of-running
#9
Delyle T Polet, Ryan T Schroeder, John E A Bertram
In gravity below Earth normal, a person should be able to take higher leaps in running. We asked ten subjects to run on a treadmill in five levels of simulated reduced gravity and optically tracked center of mass kinematics. Subjects consistently reduced ballistic height compared to running in normal gravity. We explain this trend by considering the vertical takeoff velocity (defined as maximum vertical velocity). Energetically optimal gaits should balance energetic costs of ground-contact collisions (favouring lower takeoff velocity), and step frequency penalties such as leg swing work (favouring higher takeoff velocity, but less so in reduced gravity)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214168/how-well-can-modern-nonhabitual-barefoot-youth-adapt-to-barefoot-and-minimalist-barefoot-technology-shoe-walking-in-regard-to-gait-symmetry
#10
Y Xu, Q Hou, C Wang, T Simpson, B Bennett, S Russell
We aim to test how well modern nonhabitual barefoot people can adapt to barefoot and Minimalist Bare Foot Technology (MBFT) shoes, in regard to gait symmetry. 28 healthy university students (22 females/6 males) were recruited to walk on a 10-meter walkway randomly on barefoot, in MBFT shoes, and in neutral running shoes at their comfortable walking speed. Kinetic and kinematic data were collected using an 8-camera motion capture system. Data of joint angles, joint forces, and joint moments were extracted to compute a consecutive symmetry index...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213246/the-influence-of-footwear-on-the-modular-organization-of-running
#11
Alessandro Santuz, Antonis Ekizos, Lars Janshen, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Adamantios Arampatzis
For most of our history, we predominantly ran barefoot or in minimalist shoes. The advent of modern footwear, however, might have introduced alterations in the motor control of running. The present study investigated shod and barefoot running under the perspective of the modular organization of muscle activation, in order to help addressing the neurophysiological factors underlying human locomotion. On a treadmill, 20 young and healthy inexperienced barefoot runners ran shod and barefoot at preferred speed (2...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189099/creative-prosthetic-foot-selection-enables-successful-ambulation-in-stiletto-high-heels
#12
Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Delbert H Lipe, Christopher A Rábago
BACKGROUND: Walking in high heels presents biomechanical challenges, yet they remain part of many women's attire. However, women with a lower limb amputation are limited in available footwear options. Case description and methods: This case study is in response to one patient's assertion that she walked better and more symmetrically in heels than flat shoes with her below-knee prosthesis. She underwent gait analysis in athletic shoes and 10-cm stiletto high heels worn with a pediatric running foot to determine if these claims could be substantiated through biomechanical measures...
November 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181261/functional-outcomes-of-hip-arthroscopy-in-an-active-duty-military-population-utilizing-a-criterion-based-early-weight-bearing-progression
#13
K Aaron Shaw, Jeremy M Jacobs, J Richard Evanson, Josh Pniewski, Michelle L Dickston, Terry Mueller, John A Bojescul
Introduction: Hip arthroscopy allows surgeons to address intra-articular pathology of the hip while avoiding more invasive open surgical dislocation. However the post-operative rehabilitation protocols have varied greatly in the literature, with many having prolonged periods of limited motion and weight bearing. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe a criterion-based early weight bearing protocol following hip arthroscopy and investigate functional outcomes in the subjects who were active duty military...
October 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179051/differences-in-pattern-of-variability-for-lower-extremity-kinematics-between-walking-and-running
#14
Amanda Estep, Steven Morrison, Shane Caswell, Jatin Ambegaonkar, Nelson Cortes
This study characterizes walking and running patterns in healthy individuals using linear and nonlinear methods Seventeen individuals (12 males, 5 females) volunteered for the study. 3D kinematic data during walking (WA) and running (RU) on a motorized treadmill were captured using reflective markers placed on lower body (200Hz). A single 25s trial (5000 data points) was collected for each gait task. WA speed was 1.39±0.12m/s, whereas RU speed was 2.56±0.27m/s. Variables of interest included ankle plantar/dorsi flexion, knee flexion/extension, knee abduction/adduction, hip flexion/extension, and hip abduction/adduction angles...
November 21, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172095/innovations-and-pitfalls-in-the-use-of-wearable-devices-in-the-prevention-and-rehabilitation-of-running-related-injuries
#15
Richard W Willy
Running-related injuries are common and are associated with a high rate of reoccurrence. Biomechanics and errors in applied training loads are often cited as causes of running-related injuries. Clinicians and runners are beginning to utilize wearable technologies to quantify biomechanics and training loads with the hope of reducing the incidence of running-related injuries. Wearable devices can objectively assess biomechanics and training loads in runners, yet guidelines for their use by clinicians and runners are not currently available...
October 6, 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169096/neuromuscular-compensatory-strategies-at-the-trunk-and-lower-limb-are-not-resolved-following-an-acl-reconstruction
#16
Grant Boggess, Kristin Morgan, Darren Johnson, Mary Lloyd Ireland, Jeffrey A Reinbolt, Brian Noehren
BACKGROUND: Following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), patients present with greater trunk ipsilateral lean, which may affect knee kinetics and increase re-injury risk. However, there has been little research into neuromuscular factors controlling the trunk and their relation to the knee between healthy and ACLR subjects. This is critical to establish in order to develop more directed and effective interventions. HYPOTHESIS: As compared to healthy control subjects, ACLR subjects will demonstrate increased erector spinae and rectus abdominis co-contraction, greater rectus abdominis force and greater hamstring force that is correlated to increased forward trunk lean...
November 13, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165377/a-novel-3d-pedestrian-navigation-method-for-a-multiple-sensors-based-foot-mounted-inertial-system
#17
Wei Yang, Chundi Xiu, Jianmin Zhang, Dongkai Yang
In this paper, we present a novel method for 3D pedestrian navigation of foot-mounted inertial systems by integrating a MEMS-IMU, barometer, and permanent magnet. Zero-velocity update (ZUPT) is a well-known algorithm to eliminate the accumulated error of foot-mounted inertial systems. However, the ZUPT stance phase detector using acceleration and angular rate is threshold-based, which may cause incorrect stance phase estimation in the running gait pattern. A permanent magnet-based ZUPT detector is introduced to solve this problem...
November 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153477/biomechanical-adaptations-during-running-differ-based-on-type-of-exercise-and-fitness-level
#18
Lindsay V Slater, Austin S Simpson, Silvia S Blemker, Jay Hertel, Susan A Saliba, Arthur L Weltman, Joseph M Hart
Lower extremity injuries are most common in more active and fit individuals, suggesting that adaptations from neuromuscular fatigue may differ depending on type of exercise and fitness level. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in gait in highly fit and recreationally active individuals before and after two exercise protocols. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were measured on the dominant leg during running before and after two exercise protocols (walking/sport) from 0 to 100% of gait in 24 healthy individuals divided into higher (n=13) and lower fitness (n=11) groups...
November 13, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124285/kinematics-and-arthrokinematics-in-the-chronic-acl-deficient-knee-are-altered-even-in-the-absence-of-instability-symptoms
#19
Chen Yang, Yasutaka Tashiro, Andrew Lynch, Freddie Fu, William Anderst
PURPOSE: To analyze the in vivo kinematics and arthrokinematics of chronic ACL-deficient (ACL-D) and unaffected contralateral knees during level walking and downhill running using dynamic biplane radiography. It was hypothesized that ACL-D knees would demonstrate increased anterior translation and internal rotation, and that ACL-deficiency would alter the tibiofemoral contact paths in comparison to the unaffected contralateral side. METHODS: Eight participants with unilateral chronic ACL-D without instability symptoms were recruited...
November 9, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121506/what-factors-determine-the-preferred-gait-transition-speed-in-humans-a-review-of-the-triggering-mechanisms
#20
Stacey M Kung, Philip W Fink, Stephen J Legg, Ajmol Ali, Sarah P Shultz
Human locomotion is a fundamental skill that is required for daily living, yet it is not completely known how human gait is regulated in a manner that seems so effortless. Gait transitions have been analyzed to gain insight into the control mechanisms of human locomotion since there is a known change that occurs as the speed of locomotion changes. Specifically, as gait speed changes, there is a spontaneous transition between walking and running that occurs at a particular speed. Despite the growing body of research on the determinants of this preferred transition speed and thus the triggering mechanisms of human gait transitions, a clear consensus regarding the control mechanisms of gait is still lacking...
November 6, 2017: Human Movement Science
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