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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911262/magnetic-resonance-elastography-vs-transient-elastography-in-detection-of-fibrosis-and-noninvasive-measurement-of-steatosis-in-patients-with-biopsy-proven-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Charlie C Park, Phirum Nguyen, Carolyn Hernandez, Ricki Bettencourt, Kimberly Ramirez, Lynda Fortney, Jonathan Hooker, Ethan Sy, Mosab H Alquiraish, Mark A Valasek, Emily Rizo, Lisa Richards, David Brenner, Claude B Sirlin, Rohit Loomba
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) techniques and ultrasound-based transient elastography (TE) can be used in noninvasive diagnosis of fibrosis and steatosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a prospective study to compare the performance of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) vs TE for in diagnosis of fibrosis, and MRI-based proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) analysis vs TE-based controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) for diagnosis of steatosis in patients undergoing biopsy to assess NAFLD...
October 27, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910784/hepatoprotective-effect-of-tricholoma-giganteum-agaricomycetes-in-a-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-rat-model
#2
Ramar Govindaraj, Michael Gabriel Paulraj, Erenius Toppo, Perumal Pandikumar, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu, Naif Abdhullah Al-Dhabi
Different concentrations of standardized ethanolic extract from the basidiocarps of Tricholoma giganteum Massee (TgEtOH) were screened for hepatoprotective effects in an animal model of rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fed a high-fat and high-fructose diet. After 4 weeks of treatment with TgEtOH, the relative liver weights, serum lipid concentrations, and biochemical profiles were found to be normal in treated animals compared with those given a standard drug. The macroscopic and histopathological studies clearly indicated that 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract was effective in ameliorating the abnormalities of NAFLD...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909908/obesity-and-liver-cancer
#3
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Sabrina Schlesinger
Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909723/inhibition-of-jnk-suppresses-autophagy-and-attenuates-insulin-resistance-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Hua Yan, Yanqiong Gao, Ying Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease, the pathological process of which is complex. Activation of the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is associated with the mechanism underlying obesity-induced insulin resistance. Furthermore, the JNK signaling pathway and dysfunctional autophagy serve important roles in hepatic lipid metabolism. However, the exact role of JNK in autophagy and obesity‑induced insulin resistance is not fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which the JNK signaling pathway regulates autophagy and insulin resistance in fatty liver...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909717/restorative-effects-of-hydroxysafflor-yellow%C3%A2-a-on-hepatic-function-in-an-experimental-regression-model-of-hepatic-fibrosis-induced-by-carbon-tetrachloride
#5
Yanuo Li, Yan Shi, Yan Sun, Luying Liu, Xianyong Bai, Dong Wang, Hongxing Li
Hepatic fibrosis is a reversible pathological process, in which fibrotic tissue is excessively deposited in the liver during the repair process that follows hepatic injury. Early prevention or treatment of hepatic fibrosis has great significance on the treatment of chronic hepatic diseases. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a water-soluble monomer extracted from safflower, which serves numerous pharmacological roles. However, it remains to be elucidated how HSYA regulates hepatic fibrogenesis. The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible mechanisms underlying the effects of HSYA on the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909053/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-ca2-depletion-differentially-modulate-the-sterol-regulatory-protein-pcsk9-to-control-lipid-metabolism
#6
Paul Lebeau, Ali Al-Hashimi, Sudesh Sood, Sarka Lhotak, Pei Yu, Gabriel Gyulay, Guillaume Pare, S R Wayne Chen, Bernardo Trigatti, Annik Pratt, Nabil Seidah, Richard C Austin
Accumulating evidence implicates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as a mediator of impaired lipid metabolism, thereby contributing to fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. Previous studies demonstrated that ER stress can activate the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP2), an ER localized transcription factor that directly upregulates sterol-regulatory genes, including PCSK9. Given that PCSK9 contributes to atherosclerosis by targeting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) degradation, our present study investigates a novel mechanism by which ER stress plays a role in lipid metabolism by examining its ability to modulate PCSK9 expression...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#7
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908750/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-based-therapies-reduce-obesity-and-metabolic-syndromes-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#8
Chien-Wei Lee, Wei-Ting Hsiao, Oscar K Lee
Obesity is an alarming global health problem that results in multiaspect metabolic syndromes in both genders and most age groups. The lack of effective therapies for obesity and its associated metabolic syndrome is an urgent societal issue. To elucidate whether mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapies can ameliorate high-fat diet-induced obesity and compare the effectiveness of several methodological approaches, we transplanted human MSCs, MSC-derived brown adipocytes (M-BA), and MSC lysateinto obese mice...
November 12, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908430/evaluation-of-tissue-metal-and-trace-element-content-in-a-rat-model-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-using-icp-drc-ms
#9
Eugenia R Gatiatulina, Elizaveta V Popova, Valentina S Polyakova, Anastasia A Skalnaya, Eduard F Agletdinov, Alexandr A Nikonorov, Anatoly V Skalny, Alexey A Tinkov
The primary objective of the study was to assess the level of metals and trace elements in liver, serum, and hair of rats with diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometer (ICP-DRC-MS). 56 female 3-months-old Wistar rats divided into two equal groups were fed either standard (10% calories from fat) or high-fat high-carbohydrate diet (60% calories from fat in chow and 10% sucrose solution) for 6 weeks. Serum was examined for insulin resistance markers, lipid profile, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908400/low-hepatic-copper-content-and-pnpla3-polymorphism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-patients-without-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Albert Friedrich Stättermayer, Stefan Traussnigg, Elmar Aigner, Christian Kienbacher, Ursula Huber-Schönauer, Petra Steindl-Munda, Andreas Stadlmayr, Friedrich Wrba, Michael Trauner, Christian Datz, Peter Ferenci
INTRODUCTION: The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is multifactorial including metabolic, genetic (e.g. PNPLA3 [patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene]), viral factors and drugs. Besides, there is evidence for a role of copper deficiency. Aim of the study was to evaluate the role of hepatic copper content, PNPLA3 in NAFLD patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: One-hundred seventy-four NAFLD patients, who underwent liver biopsy for diagnostic work-up, were studied...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906803/naspghan-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#11
Miriam B Vos, Stephanie H Abrams, Sarah E Barlow, Sonia Caprio, Stephen R Daniels, Rohit Kohli, Marialena Mouzaki, Pushpa Sathya, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Shikha S Sundaram, Stavra A Xanthakos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent chronic liver disease that occurs in the setting of insulin resistance and increased adiposity. It has rapidly evolved into the most common liver disease seen in the pediatric population and is a management challenge for general pediatric practitioners, subspecialists and for health systems. In this guideline, the expert committee on NAFLD (ECON) reviewed and summarized the available literature, formulating recommendations to guide screening and clinical care of children with NAFLD...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906714/central-nervous-system-regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism
#12
Jennifer Taher, Sarah Farr, Khosrow Adeli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic lipid and lipoprotein metabolism is an important determinant of fasting dyslipidemia and the development of fatty liver disease. Although endocrine factors like insulin have known effects on hepatic lipid homeostasis, emerging evidence also supports a regulatory role for the central nervous system (CNS) and neuronal networks. This review summarizes evidence implicating a bidirectional liver-brain axis in maintaining metabolic lipid homeostasis, and discusses clinical implications in insulin-resistant states...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906700/update-on-lipid-species-and-paediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Jake P Mann, Ariel E Feldstein, Valerio Nobili
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the recent advances in our understanding of fatty acids and lipids in paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their future implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Data have been accumulated to suggest that ceramides are the main drivers of hepatic insulin resistance in NAFLD, and inhibition of ceramide synthesis improves histology in mice.Saturated fatty acids formed by de novo lipogenesis generate increased lipotoxicity compared with dietary-derived saturated fatty acids...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906428/the-epidemiology-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-connection-with-cardiovascular-disease-role-of-endothelial-dysfunction
#14
A Federico, M Dallio, M Masarone, M Persico, C Loguercio
The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered a predominant hepatopathy worldwide and a component of metabolic syndrome. It represents a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases, independently of the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity. For this reason, nowadays an epidemiological analysis and a research of the causes that correlate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular pathologies, are extremely useful. There are important epidemiological variations in relation to various geographical areas, and depending on different population groups, the prevalence of this pathology changes...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905898/physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-can-modulate-the-effect-of-the-pnpla3-variant-on-childhood-nafld-a-case-control-study-in-a-chinese-population
#15
Shuo Wang, Jieyun Song, Xiaorui Shang, Nitesh Chawla, Yide Yang, Xiangrui Meng, Haijun Wang, Jun Ma
BACKGROUND: The patatin like phospholipase containing domain 3 gene (PNPLA3) rs738409 C > G polymorphism, one of the most important gene polymorphisms involved in hepatic steatosis, has been reported to interact with different nutrients and dietary patterns on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), but no studies have focused on its interaction with physical activity or sedentary behavior. Therefore, this study aims at determining whether physical activity or sedentary behavior could modulate the effect of the PNPLA3 variant on childhood NAFLD...
December 1, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904805/hypothesis-on-serenoa-repens-bartram-small-extract-inhibition-of-prostatic-5%C3%AE-reductase-through-an-in-silico-approach-on-5%C3%AE-reductase-x-ray-structure
#16
Paolo Governa, Daniela Giachetti, Marco Biagi, Fabrizio Manetti, Luca De Vico
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in men aged over 50 years old, with an incidence increasing to more than 80% over the age of 70, that is increasingly going to attract pharmaceutical interest. Within conventional therapies, such as α-adrenoreceptor antagonists and 5α-reductase inhibitor, there is a large requirement for treatments with less adverse events on, e.g., blood pressure and sexual function: phytotherapy may be the right way to fill this need. Serenoa repens standardized extract has been widely studied and its ability to reduce lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia is comprehensively described in literature...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904677/an-engineered-fgf21-variant-ly2405319-can-prevent-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-enhancing-hepatic-mitochondrial-function
#17
Ju Hee Lee, Yea Eun Kang, Joon Young Chang, Ki Cheol Park, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Jung Tae Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi, Minho Shong, Hyo Kyun Chung, Koon Soon Kim
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent obesity-related disease that affects large populations throughout the world due to excessive calorie intake and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. FGF21 is a starvation-induced pleiotropic hormone with various beneficial metabolic effects, and pharmacological treatment in rodents has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and decrease simple fatty liver disease...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904598/the-effects-of-low-carbohydrate-diets-on-liver-function-tests-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#18
REVIEW
Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Pamela J Surkan, Leila Azadbakht
BACKGROUND: Although several observational and experimental studies have examined the effects of low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), there are considerable inconsistencies among studies. We summarized the effect of LCDs on liver function tests, including intrahepatic lipid content (IHLC), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferases (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in patients with NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant publications until July 2014, resulting in ten relevant papers that were included in meta-analysis...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903831/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-hepatic-steatosis-fibrosis-and-inflammation-in-male-mice-with-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Hitoshi Watanabe, Yuka Inaba, Kumi Kimura, Shun-Ichiro Asahara, Yoshiaki Kido, Michihiro Matsumoto, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Shuichi Kaneko, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is increasing, novel dietary approaches are required for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the potential of mung bean protein isolate (MuPI) to prevent NAFLD progression. METHODS: In Expts. 1 and 2, the hepatic triglyceride (TG) concentration was compared between 8-wk-old male mice fed a high-fat diet (61% of energy from fat) containing casein, MuPI, and soy protein isolate and an MuPI-constituent amino acid mixture as a source of amino acids (18% of energy) for 4 wk...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903585/autophagy-in-chronic-liver-diseases-the-two-faces-of-janus
#20
Philippe Gual, Helene Gilgenkrantz, Sophie Lotersztajn
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the leading causes of cirrhosis and increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death. ALD and NAFLD share common pathogenic features extending from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis, steatofibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathophysiological mechanisms of the progression of NAFLD and ALD are complex and still unclear. Important links between the regulation of autophagy (Macroautophagy and Chaperome-mediated autophagy) and chronic liver diseases have been reported...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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