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Electromagnetic Fields

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080039/using-standing-gold-nanorod-arrays-as-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-sers-substrates-for-detection-of-carbaryl-residues-in-fruit-juice-and-milk
#1
Fouad K Alsammarraie, Mengshi Lin
In recent years, there have been increasing concerns about pesticide residues in various foods. On the other hand, there is growing attention in utilizing novel nanomaterials as highly sensitive, low-cost, and reproducible substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. The objective of this study was to develop a SERS method for the rapid detection of pesticides that were extracted from different types of food samples (fruit juice and milk). A new SERS substrate was prepared by assembling gold nanorods into standing arrays on a gold-coated silicon slide...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079264/electromagnetic-computation-and-modeling-in-mri
#2
REVIEW
Xin Chen, Michael Steckner
Electromagnetic (EM) computational modeling is used extensively during the development of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner, its installation, and use. MRI, which relies on interactions between nuclear magnetic moments and the applied magnetic fields, uses a range of EM tools to optimize all of the magnetic fields required to produce the image. The main field magnet is designed to exacting specifications but challenges in manufacturing, installation, and use require additional tools to maintain target operational performance...
January 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079081/sideband-cooling-beyond-the-quantum-backaction-limit-with-squeezed-light
#3
Jeremy B Clark, Florent Lecocq, Raymond W Simmonds, José Aumentado, John D Teufel
Quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic vacuum produce measurable physical effects such as Casimir forces and the Lamb shift. They also impose an observable limit-known as the quantum backaction limit-on the lowest temperatures that can be reached using conventional laser cooling techniques. As laser cooling experiments continue to bring massive mechanical systems to unprecedentedly low temperatures, this seemingly fundamental limit is increasingly important in the laboratory. Fortunately, vacuum fluctuations are not immutable and can be 'squeezed', reducing amplitude fluctuations at the expense of phase fluctuations...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078855/the-impact-of-electromagnetic-field-at-a-frequency-of-50-hz-and-a-magnetic-induction-of-2-5-mt-on-viability-of-pineal-cells-in-vitro
#4
A Koziorowska, E Pasiud, M Fila, M Romerowicz-Misielak
The impact of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the pineal gland has been described in numerous studies, but many questions still remain unanswered. The aim of the experiment described in this study was to evaluate the effect of EMF on the viability of the pineal gland cells of pig in vitro. Primary culture of the pineal gland cells has been exposed to the influence of an EMF at a frequency of 50 Hz with 1, 2 or 3 hours and for 3 hours every 2 or 3 days. After the experiment, viability of cells was assessed by MTT assay and compared to a control culture not exposed to electromagnetic fields...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078187/bioelectric-field-enhancement-the-influence-on-membrane-potential-and-cell-migration-in-vitro
#5
Marcy C Purnell, Terence J Skrinjar
Objective: The extracellular matrix consists of critical components that affect fibroblast polarization and migration. The existence of both intrinsic and extrinsic electrical signals that play essential roles in the development, physiology, regeneration, and pathology of cells was discovered over a century ago. In this study, we study how the Bioelectric Field Enhancement (BEFE) device and its generated electromagnetic field (EMF) by continuous direct current (DC) significantly affect the membrane potential and cell migration of fibroblasts in vitro...
December 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076951/a-multiscale-study-of-plasmonic-scattering-and-light-trapping-effect-in-silicon-nanowire-array-solar-cells
#6
Lingyi Meng, Yu Zhang, ChiYung Yam
Nanometallic structures that support surface plasmons provide new ways to confine light at deep-subwavelength scales. In this paper, the effect of light scattering in nanowire array solar cells is studied by a multiscale approach combining classical electromagnetics (EM) and quantum mechanical (QM) simulations. A photovoltaic device is constructed by integrating a silicon nanowire array with a plasmonic silver nanosphere. The light scatterings by plasmonic element and nanowire array are obtained via classical EM simulations while current-voltage characteristics and optical properties of the nanowire cells are evaluated quantum mechanically...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075341/a-non-invasive-multichannel-hybrid-fiber-optic-sensor-system-for-vital-sign-monitoring
#7
Marcel Fajkus, Jan Nedoma, Radek Martinek, Vladimir Vasinek, Homer Nazeran, Petr Siska
In this article, we briefly describe the design, construction, and functional verification of a hybrid multichannel fiber-optic sensor system for basic vital sign monitoring. This sensor uses a novel non-invasive measurement probe based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The probe is composed of two FBGs encapsulated inside a polydimethylsiloxane polymer (PDMS). The PDMS is non-reactive to human skin and resistant to electromagnetic waves, UV absorption, and radiation. We emphasize the construction of the probe to be specifically used for basic vital sign monitoring such as body temperature, respiratory rate and heart rate...
January 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074013/exposure-to-radiofrequency-electromagnetic-fields-from-wi-fi-in-australian-schools
#8
Ken Karipidis, Stuart Henderson, Don Wijayasinghe, Lydiawati Tjong, Rick Tinker
The increasing use of Wi-Fi in schools and other places has given rise to public concern that the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields from Wi-Fi have the potential to adversely affect children. The current study measured typical and peak RF levels from Wi-Fi and other sources in 23 schools in Australia. All of the RF measurements were much lower than the reference levels recommended by international guidelines for protection against established health effects. The typical and peak RF levels from Wi-Fi in locations occupied by children in the classroom were of the order of 10(-4) and 10(-2)% of the exposure guidelines, respectively...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072396/quantification-of-static-magnetic-field-effects-on-radiotherapy-ionization-chambers
#9
James Paul Agnew, Frank O'Grady, Ryan Young, Simon Duane, Geoff Budgell
Integrated magnetic resonance imaging and radiotherapy delivery machines are currently being developed, with some already in clinical use. It is anticipated that the strong magnetic field used in some MR-RT designs will have a significant impact on routine measurements of dose in the MR-linac performed using ionization chambers, which provide traceability back to a primary standard definition of dose. In particular, the presence of small air gaps around ionization chambers may introduce unacceptably high uncertainty into these measurements...
January 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071734/a-subwavelength-resolution-microwave-6-3%C3%A2-ghz-camera-based-on-a-metamaterial-absorber
#10
Yunsong Xie, Xin Fan, Yunpeng Chen, Jeffrey D Wilson, Rainee N Simons, John Q Xiao
The design, fabrication and characterization of a novel metamaterial absorber based camera with subwavelength spatial resolution are investigated. The proposed camera is featured with simple and lightweight design, easy portability, low cost, high resolution and sensitivity, and minimal image interference or distortion to the original field distribution. The imaging capability of the proposed camera was characterized in both near field and far field ranges. The experimental and simulated near field images both reveal that the camera produces qualitatively accurate images with negligible distortion to the original field distribution...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069774/analogies-between-optical-and-quantum-mechanical-angular-momentum
#11
Gerard Nienhuis
The insight that a beam of light can carry orbital angular momentum (AM) in its propagation direction came up in 1992 as a surprise. Nevertheless, the existence of momentum and AM of an electromagnetic field has been well known since the days of Maxwell. We compare the expressions for densities of AM in general three-dimensional modes and in paraxial modes. Despite their classical nature, these expressions have a suggestive quantum mechanical appearance, in terms of linear operators acting on mode functions...
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064222/pulsed-electromagnetic-field-stimulation-promotes-anti-cell-proliferative-activity-in-doxorubicin-treated-mouse-osteosarcoma-cells
#12
Yoshitaka Muramatsu, Takuya Matsui, Masataka Deie, Keiji Sato
AIM: We aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and doxorubicin therapy in a mouse osteosarcoma cell line (LM8 cells) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of PEMF (5 mT, 200 Hz) of different durations and doxorubicin on the proliferative activity of LM8 cells were measured by the MTT assay. Apoptotic-related factors such as cell-cycle phase, mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase 3/7 activity were investigated using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and apoptosis kits...
2, 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061923/electromagnetic-interference-in-implantable-defibrillators-in-single-engine-fixed-wing-aircraft
#13
Alexandra A J de Rotte, Peter van der Kemp, Peter A Mundy, Rienk Rienks, August A de Rotte
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the possible electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in the single-engine fixed-wing aircraft environment with implantable cardio-defibrillators (ICDs). Our hypothesis is that EMI in the cockpit of a single-engine fixed-wing aircraft does not result in erroneous detection of arrhythmias and the subsequent delivery of an inappropriate device therapy. METHODS: ICD devices of four different manufacturers, incorporated in a thorax phantom, were transported in a Piper Dakota Aircraft with ICAO type designator P28B during several flights...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060214/pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-for-postsurgical-pain-management-in-women-undergoing-cesarean-section-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Maryam Khooshideh, Seyedeh Sakineh Latifi Rostami, Mahdi Sheikh, Batool Ghorbani Yekta, Ali Shahriari
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in relation to reducing postoperative pain, analgesic use, and wound healing in patients undergoing Cesarean section (C-section). METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated 72 women who underwent elective C-section. Thirty-six patients were assigned to the active-PEMF and 36 to the sham-PEMF groups. The participants were asked to report their pain intensity on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours and 2, 4, and 7 days after surgery...
February 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059536/phase-transitions-in-diffusion-of-light
#15
Roxana Rezvani Naraghi, Aristide Dogariu
It has been a long time belief that, with increasing the scattering strength of multiple scattering media, the transport of light gradually slows down and, eventually, comes to a halt corresponding to a localized state. Here we present experimental evidence that different stages emerge in this evolution, which cannot be described by classical diffusion with conventional scaling arguments. A microscopic model captures the relevant aspects of electromagnetic wave propagation and explains the competing mechanisms that prevent the three-dimensional wave localization...
December 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059238/hybrid-integrated-optical-waveguides-in-glass-for-enhanced-visible-photoluminescence-of-nanoemitters
#16
Josslyn Beltran Madrigal, Ricardo Tellez-Limon, Florent Gardillou, Denis Barbier, Wei Geng, Christophe Couteau, Rafael Salas-Montiel, Sylvain Blaize
Integrated optical devices able to control light-matter interactions on the nanoscale have attracted the attention of the scientific community in recent years. However, most of these devices are based on silicon waveguides, limiting their use for telecommunication wavelengths. In this contribution, we propose an integrated device that operates with light in the visible spectrum. The proposed device is a hybrid structure consisting of a high-refractive-index layer placed on top of an ion-exchanged glass waveguide...
December 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059173/geometric-phase-shaping-of-terahertz-vortex-beams
#17
Amalya Minasyan, Clément Trovato, Jérôme Degert, Eric Freysz, Etienne Brasselet, Emmanuel Abraham
We propose a topological beam-shaping strategy of terahertz (THz) beams using geometric phase elements made of space-variant birefringent slabs. Quasi-monochromatic THz vortex beams are produced and characterized both in amplitude and phase from the reconstructed real-time two-dimensional imaging of the electric field. Nonseparable superpositions of such vortex beams are also obtained and characterized by two-dimensional polarimetric analysis. These results emphasize the versatility of the spin-orbit electromagnetic toolbox to prepare on-demand structured light endowed with polarization-controlled orbital angular momentum content in the THz domain, which should find many uses in future THz technologies...
January 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056172/reconfigurable-three-dimensional-gold-nanorod-plasmonic-nanostructures-organized-on-dna-origami-tripod
#18
Pengfei Zhan, Palash K Dutta, Pengfei Wang, Gang Song, Mingjie Dai, Shu-Xia Zhao, Zhen-Gang Wang, Peng Yin, Wei Zhang, Baoquan Ding, Yonggang Ke
Distinct electromagnetic properties can emerge from the three-dimensional (3D) configuration of a plasmonic nanostructure. Furthermore, the reconfiguration of a dynamic plasmonic nanostructure, driven by physical or chemical stimuli, may generate a tailored plasmonic response. In this work, we constructed a 3D reconfigurable plasmonic nanostructure with controllable, reversible conformational transformation using bottom-up DNA self-assembly. Three gold nanorods (AuNRs) were positioned onto a reconfigurable DNA origami tripod...
January 9, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055825/a-figure-of-merit-for-design-and-optimization-of-inductive-power-transmission-links-for-millimeter-sized-biomedical-implants
#19
Ahmed Ibrahim, Mehdi Kiani
Power transmission efficiency (PTE) has been the key parameter for wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions. It has been suggested that for mm-sized implants increasing the power carrier frequency (fp) of the WPT link to hundreds of MHz improves PTE. However, increasing fp significantly reduces the maximum allowable power that can be transmitted under the specific absorption rate (SAR) constraints. This paper presents a new figure-of-merit (FoM) and a design methodology for optimal WPT to mm-sized implants via inductive coupling by striking a balance between PTE and maximum delivered power under SAR constraints (PL,SAR)...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054951/analysis-of-the-light-propagation-model-of-the-optical-voltage-sensor-for-suppressing-unreciprocal-errors
#20
Hui Li, Zhida Fu, Liying Liu, Zhili Lin, Wei Deng, Lishuang Feng
An improved temperature-insensitive optical voltage sensor (OVS) with a reciprocal dual-crystal sensing method is proposed. The inducing principle of OVS reciprocity degradation is expounded by taking the different temperature fields of two crystals and the axis-errors of optical components into consideration. The key parameters pertaining to the system reciprocity degeneration in the dual-crystal sensing unit are investigated in order to optimize the optical sensing model based on the Maxwell's electromagnetic theory...
January 3, 2017: Sensors
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