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Electromagnetic Radiation

Carlos Gonzalez-Ballestero, Johannes Feist, Eduardo Gonzalo Badía, Esteban Moreno, Francisco J Garcia-Vidal
When a collection of quantum emitters interacts with an electromagnetic field, the whole system can enter into the collective strong coupling regime in which hybrid light-matter states, i.e., polaritons can be created. Only a small portion of excitations in the emitters are coupled to the light field, and there are many dark states that, in principle, retain their pure excitonic nature. Here we theoretically demonstrate that these dark states can have a delocalized character, which is inherent to polaritons, despite the fact that they do not have a photonic component...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Aram Gragossian, Denis V Seletskiy, Mansoor Sheik-Bahae
The interaction of intense near- and mid-infrared laser pulses with rare gases has produced bursts of radiation with spectral content extending into the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray region of electromagnetic spectrum. On the other end of the spectrum, laser-driven gas plasmas has been shown to produce coherent sub-harmonic optical waveforms, covering from terahertz (THz) to mid- and near-infrared frequency spectral band. Both processes can be enhanced via a combination of a driving field and its second harmonic...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
N R Datta, S Krishnan, D E Speiser, E Neufeld, N Kuster, S Bodis, H Hofmann
Effective multimodal cancer management requires the optimal integration of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, alone or in combination, are integral parts of various cancer treatment protocols. Hyperthermia at 39-45°C is a potent radiosensitiser and has been shown to improve therapeutic outcomes in various tumours through its synergy with chemotherapy. Gene silencing approaches, using small interfering RNAs and microRNAs, are also being explored in clinical trials in oncology...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Mohammed Reza M Hashemi, Shang-Hua Yang, Tongyu Wang, Nelson Sepúlveda, Mona Jarrahi
Engineered metamaterials offer unique functionalities for manipulating the spectral and spatial properties of electromagnetic waves in unconventional ways. Here, we report a novel approach for making reconfigurable metasurfaces capable of deflecting electromagnetic waves in an electronically controllable fashion. This is accomplished by tilting the phase front of waves through a two-dimensional array of resonant metasurface unit-cells with electronically-controlled phase-change materials embedded inside. Such metasurfaces can be placed at the output facet of any electromagnetic radiation source to deflect electromagnetic waves at a desired frequency, ranging from millimeter-wave to far-infrared frequencies...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Christoph Boehmert, Peter Wiedemann, Rodney Croft
Many radiation health agencies communicate precautionary measures regarding the use of mobile communication devices, e.g. the use of a headset while talking on the phone. These precautionary messages have, however, been shown to unintentionally increase risk perceptions about radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs). The current study tested two potential ways of amending precautionary messages in order to minimise this unintentional effect. Firstly, the messages' potential to be perceived as inconsistent and thereby raise suspicions was addressed; secondly, the effectiveness of the precautions was explained...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Katharina Gläser, Martina Rohland, Thomas Kleine-Ostmann, Thorsten Schrader, Helga Stopper, Henning Hintzsche
Exposure to electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency range is ubiquitous, mainly due to the worldwide use of mobile communication devices. With improving technologies and affordability, the number of cell phone subscriptions continues to increase. Therefore, the potential effect on biological systems at low-intensity radiation levels is of great interest. While a number of studies have been performed to investigate this issue, there has been no consensus reached based on the results. The goal of this study was to elucidate the extent to which cells of the hematopoietic system, particularly human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), were affected by mobile phone radiation...
October 6, 2016: Radiation Research
Thomas Lemaire, Joe Wiart, Philippe De Doncker
The spatial structure of the vertical component of the electric field emitted by base stations in the Brussels region (Belgium) is measured, and studied using the variogram. A relationship between the variogram shape and base station antenna density in each measurement area is found; the variogram range and sill level are shown to depend on cellular base stations' antenna density, following exponential laws. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
October 5, 2016: Bioelectromagnetics
Emilio Jirillo, Thea Magrone
Our recent findings have demonstrated that electromagnetic radiations (EMR) (1.8 GHz radiofrequency) are able to in vitro induce morphometrical and morphological modifications of human leukocytes from normal donors. In view of the evidence that polyphenols exert many beneficial effects on plants, animals and humans, we reasoned that they may act as protective agents against EMR-mediated alterations of human leukocytes. In this direction, our data will show that 1 h pre-treatment of human healthy leukocytes with two polyphenol preparations from red grape before EMR exposure (1...
October 3, 2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Falin Xu, Qiongdan Bai, Kai Zhou, Li Ma, Jiajia Duan, Fangli Zhuang, Cuicui Xie, Wenli Li, Peng Zou, Changlian Zhu
To investigate the effects of exposure to an 1800 MHz electromagnetic field on cell death and cell proliferation in the developing brain, postnatal day 7 (P7) and P21 healthy Kunming mice were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. The experimental groups were exposed to an 1800 MHz electromagnetic field for 8 h daily for three consecutive days. The thymidine analog 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected intraperitoneally 1 h before each exposure session, and all animals were sacrificed 24 h after the last exposure...
October 3, 2016: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
Fuqiang Xing, Qiuqiang Zhan, Yiduo He, Jiesheng Cui, Sailing He, Guanyu Wang
Recent studies have reported that exposure of mammalian cells to microwave radiation may have adverse effects such as induction of cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying microwave induced mammalian cell apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism: exposure to 1800MHz microwave radiation induces p53-dependent cell apoptosis through cytochrome c-mediated caspase-3 activation pathway. We first measured intensity of microwave radiation from several electronic devices with an irradiation detector...
2016: PloS One
Konstantin Tamarov, Wujun Xu, Liubov Osminkina, Sergey Zinovyev, Pasi Soininen, Andrey Kudryavtsev, Maxim Gongalsky, Azha Gaydarova, Ale Närvänen, Victor Timoshenko, Vesa-Pekka Lehto
: One critical functionality of the carrier system utilized in targeted drug delivery is its ability to trigger the release of the therapeutic cargo once the carrier has reached its target. External triggering is an alluring approach as it can be applied in a precise spatiotemporal manner. In the present study, we achieved external triggering through the porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles (NPs) by providing a pulse of infrared or radiofrequency radiation. The NPs were grafted with a temperature responsive polymer whose critical temperature was tailored to be slightly above 37°C...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Yuan Zheng, G Wilson Miller, William A Tobias, Gordon D Cates
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides fine spatial resolution, spectral sensitivity and a rich variety of contrast mechanisms for diagnostic medical applications. Nuclear imaging using γ-ray cameras offers the benefits of using small quantities of radioactive tracers that seek specific targets of interest within the body. Here we describe an imaging and spectroscopic modality that combines favourable aspects of both approaches. Spatial information is encoded into the spin orientations of tiny amounts of a polarized radioactive tracer using pulses of both radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation and magnetic-field gradients, as in MRI...
2016: Nature
Yuri Y Shprits, Alexander Y Drozdov, Maria Spasojevic, Adam C Kellerman, Maria E Usanova, Mark J Engebretson, Oleksiy V Agapitov, Irina S Zhelavskaya, Tero J Raita, Harlan E Spence, Daniel N Baker, Hui Zhu, Nikita A Aseev
The dipole configuration of the Earth's magnetic field allows for the trapping of highly energetic particles, which form the radiation belts. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the acceleration mechanisms in the radiation belts, the loss processes remain poorly understood. Unique observations on 17 January 2013 provide detailed information throughout the belts on the energy spectrum and pitch angle (angle between the velocity of a particle and the magnetic field) distribution of electrons up to ultra-relativistic energies...
2016: Nature Communications
J Booth, V Caillet, N Hardcastle, C R Haddad, B Harris, K Szymura, C Crasta, R O'Brien, T Eade, P Keall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
P Keall, E Colvill, T Eade, P Juneja, A Kneebone, R O'Brien, P R Poulsen, J Booth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
K Grantham, H Wan, N M Maughan, D J Muccigrosso, H Schultejans, R Bera, P J Parikh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Mustafa Yorulmaz, Anneli Hoggard, Hangqi Zhao, Fangfang Wen, Wei-Shun Chang, Naomi J Halas, Peter Nordlander, Stephan Link
Plasmonic clusters can exhibit Fano resonances with unique and tunable asymmetric line shapes, which arise due to the coupling of bright and dark plasmon modes within each multiparticle structure. These structures are capable of generating remarkably large local electromagnetic field enhancements and should give rise to high hot carrier yields relative to other plasmonic nanostructures. While the scattering properties of individual plasmonic Fano resonances have been characterized extensively both experimentally and theoretically, their absorption properties, critical for hot carrier generation, have not yet been measured...
October 3, 2016: Nano Letters
Shin Ohtani, Akira Ushiyama, Machiko Maeda, Kenji Hattori, Naoki Kunugita, Jianqing Wang, Kazuyuki Ishii
We investigated the thermal effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) on the variation in core temperature and gene expression of some stress markers in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2.14 GHz wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) RF signals at a whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) of 4 W/kg, which causes behavioral disruption in laboratory animals, and 0.4 W/kg, which is the limit for the occupational exposure set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guideline...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Feng Tang, Pierre-Michel Adam, Salim Boutami
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is widely used to sensitively detect molecules or markers in pharmacology, biology, etc. We study numerically the possibility to realize SERS detections directly on a photonic chip. It is presented that a SERS sensor created by combining a gold slot waveguide and a Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub> strip waveguide can be designed to excite enhanced Raman effects and extract their scattering signals on a chip. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations, the SERS processes, excitation of surface plasmon in slots and radiation of induced Raman dipoles, are analyzed to simulate SERS detections in reality...
September 19, 2016: Optics Express
S Incerti, M Douglass, S Penfold, S Guatelli, E Bezak
Emerging radiotherapy treatments including targeted particle therapy, hadron therapy or radiosensitisation of cells by high-Z nanoparticles demand the theoretical determination of radiation track structure at the nanoscale. This is essential in order to evaluate radiation damage at the cellular and DNA level. Since 2007, Geant4 offers physics models to describe particle interactions in liquid water at the nanometre level through the Geant4-DNA Package. This package currently provides a complete set of models describing the event-by-event electromagnetic interactions of particles with liquid water, as well as developments for the modelling of water radiolysis...
September 19, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
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