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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731164/active-targeting-co-delivery-system-based-on-hollow-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-antitumor-therapy-in-ovarian-cancer-stem-like-cells
#1
Xin Guo, Nan Guo, Jianwen Zhao, Yunlang Cai
The combination of nanocarriers and chemotherapy drugs can release the chemotherapy drugs to the tumor tissue, which can enhance the antitumor effect and reduce the adverse reactions at the same time. In this study, a co-delivery system based on hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSN) was developed and characterized. We also investigated the in vitro effect of this system on CD117+CD44+A2780 cell line. HMSN was selected as the nanocarrier, with -COOH modified on the surface and doxorubicin (DOX), NVP-AEW 541 (NVP) loaded inside...
July 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731136/mhy451-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-by-ros-generation-in-hct116-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#2
Na Lam Hwang, Yong Jung Kang, Bokyung Sung, Seong Yeon Hwang, Jung Yoon Jang, Hye Jin Oh, Yu Ra Ahn, Do Hyun Kim, Su Jeong Kim, Sultan Ullah, Mohammad Akbar Hossain, Hyung Ryong Moon, Hae Young Chung, Nam Deuk Kim
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer and cause of cancer-related deaths. Despite advancements in conventional therapeutic approaches to CRC, most patients with CRC die of their disease. There is a need to develop novel therapeutic agents for this malignancy. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the anticancer effects and elucidate the underlying mechanism of MHY451 in HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells. Treatment with MHY451 inhibited cell growth in a time- and concentration-dependent manner...
July 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725928/structural-modification-of-cuminaldehyde-thiosemicarbazone-increases-inhibition-specificity-toward-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-and-sclerotia-development-in-aspergillus-flavus
#3
Francesca Degola, Franco Bisceglie, Marianna Pioli, Sabrina Palmano, Lisa Elviri, Giorgio Pelosi, Tiziana Lodi, Francesco Maria Restivo
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic mold that represents a serious threat for human and animal health due to its ability to synthesize and release, on food and feed commodities, different toxic secondary metabolites. Among them, aflatoxin B1 is one of the most dangerous since it is provided with a strong cancerogenic and mutagenic activity. Controlling fungal contamination on the different crops that may host A. flavus is considered a priority by sanitary authorities of an increasing number of countries due also to the fact that, owing to global temperature increase, the geographic areas that are expected to be prone to experience sudden A...
July 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725186/foxb1-regulates-negatively-the-proliferation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitors
#4
Yuanfeng Zhang, Elti Hoxha, Tianyu Zhao, Xunlei Zhou, Gonzalo Alvarez-Bolado
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC), neurons and astrocytes share a neural progenitor cell (NPC) in the early ventricular zone (VZ) of the embryonic neuroepithelium. Both switch to produce either of the three cell types and the generation of the right number of them undergo complex genetic regulation. The components of these regulatory cascades vary between brain regions giving rise to the unique morphological and functional heterogeneity of this organ. Forkhead b1 (Foxb1) is a transcription factor gene expressed by NPCs in specific regions of the embryonic neuroepithelium...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724375/bilateral-idiopathic-retinal-vasculitis-following-coxsackievirus-a4-infection-a-case-report
#5
Izumi Mine, Manzo Taguchi, Yutaka Sakurai, Masaru Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: Coxsackieviruses are members of a group of viruses called the enteroviruses, which may cause respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, erythema, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, and myositis. Unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy caused by coxsackievirus A16 has been associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease, but only a few reports describe retinitis associated with coxsackievirus serotype B3 or B4. We report a case of bilateral multifocal obstructive retinal vasculitis that developed after coxsackievirus A4 infection...
July 19, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723898/fructose-1-6-bisphosphate-and-aldolase-mediate-glucose-sensing-by-ampk
#6
Chen-Song Zhang, Simon A Hawley, Yue Zong, Mengqi Li, Zhichao Wang, Alexander Gray, Teng Ma, Jiwen Cui, Jin-Wei Feng, Mingjiang Zhu, Yu-Qing Wu, Terytty Yang Li, Zhiyun Ye, Shu-Yong Lin, Huiyong Yin, Hai-Long Piao, D Grahame Hardie, Sheng-Cai Lin
The major energy source for most cells is glucose, from which ATP is generated via glycolysis and/or oxidative metabolism. Glucose deprivation activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but it is unclear whether this activation occurs solely via changes in AMP or ADP, the classical activators of AMPK. Here, we describe an AMP/ADP-independent mechanism that triggers AMPK activation by sensing the absence of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), with AMPK being progressively activated as extracellular glucose and intracellular FBP decrease...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723625/2-acetylamino-3-4-2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylcarbonylamino-phenyl-carbamoylsulfanyl-propionic-acid-a-glutathione-reductase-inhibitor-induces-g2-m-cell-cycle-arrest-through-generation-of-thiol-oxidative-stress-in-human-esophageal-cancer-cells
#7
Xia Li, Zhiming Jiang, Jianguo Feng, Xiaoying Zhang, Junzhou Wu, Wei Chen
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a highly malignant cancer with poor response to both of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 2-Acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylcarbonylamino) phenyl carbamoylsulfanyl] propionic acid (2-AAPA), an irreversible inhibitor of glutathione reductase (GR), is able to induce intracellular oxidative stress, and has shown anticancer activity in many cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2-AAPA on the cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis and aimed to explore its mechanism of action in human esophageal cancer TE-13 cells...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720067/hpv16-e6-e7-upregulates-hif-2%C3%AE-and-vegf-by-inhibiting-lkb1-in-lung-cancer-cells
#8
Jian-Shuang Shao, Jian Sun, Shiyu Wang, Katherine Chung, Jin Tong Du, Jason Wang, Xue-Shan Qiu, En-Hua Wang, Guang-Ping Wu
Long-term persistent infection of HPV16 E6/E7 is frequently associated with lung cancers, especially in non-smokers and in Asians. However, molecular mechanisms of HPV16 E6/E7 induction of lung cancer are not fully understood. Using bi-directional genetic manipulation and four well-established lung cancer cell lines, we showed HPV16 E6/E7 downregulated expression of liver kinase B1 at both protein and messenger RNA levels; liver kinase B1 downregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 2α at protein level but not at messenger RNA level, and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor at both protein and messenger RNA levels...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717350/properties-of-native-high-density-lipoproteins-inspire-synthesis-of-actively-targeted-in-vivo-sirna-delivery-vehicles
#9
Kaylin M McMahon, Michael P Plebanek, C Shad Thaxton
Efficient systemic administration of therapeutic short interfering RNA (siRNA) is challenging. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are natural in vivo RNA delivery vehicles. Specifically, native HDLs: 1) Load single-stranded RNA; 2) Are anionic, which requires charge reconciliation between the RNA and HDL, and 3) Actively target scavenger receptor type B-1 (SR-B1) to deliver RNA. Emphasizing these particular parameters, we employed templated lipoprotein particles (TLP), mimics of spherical HDLs, and self-assembled them with single-stranded complements of, presumably, any highly unmodified siRNA duplex pair after formulation with a cationic lipid...
November 15, 2016: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713965/dihydroartemisinin-and-gefitinib-synergistically-inhibit-nsclc-cell-growth-and-promote-apoptosis-via-the-akt-mtor-stat3-pathway
#10
Hong Jin, Ai-Ying Jiang, Han Wang, Yong Cao, Yan Wu, Xiao-Feng Jiang
Non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is among the leading causes of cancer‑associated mortality worldwide. In clinical practice, therapeutic strategies based on drug combinations are often used for the treatment of various types of cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the combination of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and gefitinib on NSCLC. Cell Counting kit 8 assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Transwell assays were performed to investigate cellular migration and invasion, and cellular apoptosis was evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick‑end labeling assay...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713952/exploration-of-the-sequential-gene-changes-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-induced-by-carboplatin-via-microarray-analysis
#11
Shuqing Wei, Jianwu Liu, Yuxia Shi, Xi Zhang, Yongming Yang, Qingzhen Song
The purpose of the current study was to explore the carboplatin‑induced sequential changes in gene expression and screen out key genes, which were associated with effects of carboplatin on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The microarray dataset GSE13525 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 6 EOC cell samples separately treated with carboplatin at 24, 30 and 36 h (case group), and 6 samples treated with phosphate‑buffered saline at the same time points (control group). A total of 3 sets of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were respectively identified in case samples at 24, 30 and 36 h compared with the control group via the Limma package, and separately recorded as DEG‑24, DEG‑30 and DEG‑36...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713391/apoptosis-induced-via-gamma-delta-t-cell-antigen-receptor-blocking-antibodies-a-cautionary-tale
#12
Indrani Dutta, Lynne-Marie Postovit, Gabrielle M Siegers
Mechanistic studies contribute greatly to our understanding of γδ T cell (γδTc) biology, aiding development of these cells as immunotherapeutic agents. The antibody blocking assay is an accepted method to determine the receptors involved in γδTc killing of tumor targets. Effectors and/or targets are preincubated with microgram quantities of monoclonal antibodies (mAb), often described by commercial sources to be useful for blocking assays. We and others have used such assays extensively in the past, correlating decreases in cytotoxicity against specific targets with involvement of the blocked receptor(s)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711253/the-capacity-of-silage-inoculant-bacteria-to-bind-aflatoxin-b1-in-vitro-and-in-artificially-contaminated-corn-silage
#13
Z X Ma, F X Amaro, J J Romero, O G Pereira, K C Jeong, A T Adesogan
The objectives were to examine the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-binding capacity of silage bacteria and factors affecting the responses. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effects of bacterial strain and population on the AFB1-binding capacity of 10 bacteria. When applied at 10(6) cfu/mL to an in vitro medium, only Lactobacillus plantarum PT5B bound the AFB1 and the binding capacity was low (4%). When applied at 10(9) cfu/mL, all 10 bacteria bound AFB1, but L. plantarum R2014 (Lp) and EQ12, Lactobacillus buchneri R1102 (Lb), and Pediococcus acidilactici R2142 and EQ01 (Pa) had the greatest capacity (23...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708379/chemical-genomics-structure-elucidation-and-in-vivo-studies-of-the-marine-derived-anticlostridial-ecteinamycin
#14
Thomas P Wyche, René F Ramos Alvarenga, Jeff S Piotrowski, Megan N Duster, Simone R Warrack, Gabriel Cornilescu, Travis J De Wolfe, Yanpeng Hou, Doug R Braun, Gregory A Ellis, Scott W Simpkins, Justin Nelson, Chad L Myers, James Steele, Hirotada Mori, Nasia Safdar, John L Markley, Scott Raymond Rajski, Tim S Bugni
A polyether antibiotic, ecteinamycin (1) was isolated from a marine Actinomadura sp., cultivated from the ascidian Ectein-ascidia turbinata. 13C-enrichment, high resolution NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling enabled elucidation of the structure of 1 which was validated on the basis of comparisons with its recently reported crystal structure. Importantly, ec-teinamycin demonstrated potent activity against the toxigenic strain of Clostridium difficile NAP1/B1/027 (MIC = 59 ng/μL), as well as other toxigenic and non-toxigenic C...
July 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708087/resveratrol-induced-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activation-is-cell-type-dependent-lessons-from-basic-research-for-clinical-application
#15
Fan Lan, Karen A Weikel, Jose M Cacicedo, Yasuo Ido
Despite the promising effects of resveratrol, its efficacy in the clinic remains controversial. We were the first group to report that the SIRT1 activator resveratrol activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (Diabetes 2005; 54: A383), and we think that the variability of this cascade may be responsible for the inconsistency of resveratrol's effects. Our current studies suggest that the effect of SIRT1 activators such as resveratrol may not be solely through activation of SIRT1, but also through an integrated effect of SIRT1-liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-AMPK...
July 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706424/new-magnifying-endoscopic-classification-for-superficial-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Su Jin Kim, Gwang Ha Kim, Moon Won Lee, Hye Kyung Jeon, Dong Hoon Baek, Bong Eun Lee, Geun Am Song
AIM: To assess the accuracy of a new magnifying endoscopy (ME) classification for predicting depth of invasion of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC). METHODS: This study included a total of 70 lesions in 69 patients with SESCC who underwent ME with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI) before resection from August 2010 to July 2016. Accuracy of ME-NBI for predicting depth of invasion of SESCC was analyzed by using a new ME classification proposed by the Japan Esophageal Society (JES), and interobserver agreement was assessed...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706298/ckap2-phosphorylation-by-cdk1-cyclinb1-is-crucial-for-maintaining-centrosome-integrity
#17
Bum Ho Yoo, Du-Seock Kang, Chi-Hu Park, Kyeongjin Kang, Chang-Dae Bae
Previously, we have reported that CKAP2 is involved in the maintenance of centrosome integrity, thus allowing for proper mitosis in primary hepatocytes. To understand this biological process, we identified the mitosis-specific phosphorylation sites in mouse CKAP2 and investigated CKAP's possible role in cell cycle progression. Because we observed mouse CKAP2 depletion in amplified centrosomes and aberrant chromosomal segregation, which was rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type CKAP2, we focused on the centrosome duplication process among the various aspects of the cell cycle...
July 14, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701883/20s-protopanaxadiol-an-aglycosylated-ginsenoside-metabolite-induces-hepatic-stellate-cell-apoptosis-through-liver-kinase-b1-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activation
#18
Sang Mi Park, Eun Hye Jung, Jae Kwang Kim, Kyung Hwan Jegal, Chung A Park, Il Je Cho, Sang Chan Kim
BACKGROUND: Previously, we reported that Korean Red Ginseng inhibited liver fibrosis in mice and reduced the expressions of fibrogenic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The present study was undertaken to identify the major ginsenoside responsible for reducing the numbers of HSCs and the underlying mechanism involved. METHODS: Using LX-2 cells (a human immortalized HSC line) and primary activated HSCs, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assays were conducted to examine the cytotoxic effects of ginsenosides...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700115/lkb1-pro-oncogenic-activity-triggers-cell-survival-in-circulating-tumor-cells
#19
Elisabeth Katharina Trapp, Leonie Majunke, Beate Zill, Harald Sommer, Ulrich Andergassen, Julian Koch, Nadia Harbeck, Sven Mahner, Thomas Wolfram Paul Friedl, Wolfgang Janni, Brigitte Rack, Marianna Alunni-Fabbroni
During intravasation, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detach from the epithelium of origin and begin the Epithelial-to Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT) process, where they lose epithelial features and pass through the endothelium to enter circulation. Although detachment from the extracellular matrix is a strong source of metabolic stress, which induces anoikis, CTCs can survive. Recently, the tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1) has gained attention for its role as a proto-oncogene in restoring the correct ATP/AMP ratio during metabolic stress...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698955/role-of-natural-igm-autoantibodies-igm-naa-and-igm-anti-leukocyte-antibodies-igm-ala-in-regulating-inflammation
#20
Peter I Lobo
Natural IgM autoantibodies (IgM-NAA) are rapidly produced to inhibit pathogens and abrogate inflammation mediated by invading microorganisms and host neoantigens. IgM-NAA achieve this difficult task by being polyreactive with low binding affinity but with high avidity, characteristics that allow these antibodies to bind antigenic determinants shared by pathogens and neoantigens. Hence the same clones of natural IgM can bind and mask host neoantigens as well as inhibit microorganisms. In addition, IgM-NAA regulate the inflammatory response via mechanisms involving binding of IgM to apoptotic cells to enhance their removal and binding of IgM to live leukocytes to regulate their function...
July 12, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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