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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214453/reciprocal-regulation-of-enos-h2s-and-co-synthesizing-enzymes-in-human-atheroma-correlation-with-plaque-stability-and-effects-of-simvastatin
#1
Fragiska Sigala, Panagiotis Efentakis, Dimitra Karageorgiadi, Konstadinos Filis, Paraskevas Zampas, Efstathios K Iliodromitis, George Zografos, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Ioanna Andreadou
The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying plaque destabilization remain obscure. We sought to elucidate the correlation between NO, H2S and CO-generating enzymes, nitro-oxidative stress and plaque stability in carotid arteries. Carotid atherosclerotic plaques were collected from 62 patients who had undergone endarterectomy due to internal artery stenosis. Following histological evaluation the plaques were divided into stable and unstable ones. To investigate the impact of simvastatin we divided patients with stable plaques, into those receiving and to those not receiving simvastatin...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214444/the-boosted-biomass-and-lipid-accumulation-in-chlorella-vulgaris-by-supplementation-of-synthetic-phytohormone-analogs
#2
Tingting Liu, Fei Liu, Chao Wang, Zhenyao Wang, Yuqin Li
This study attempted at maximizing biomass and lipid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris by supplementation of natural abscisic acid (ABA) or synthetic 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) hormone analogs. Amongst three tested additives, NAA-treatment performed remarkable promoting effect on cell growth and lipid biosynthesis. The favorable lipid productivity (418.6mg/L/d) of NAA-treated cells showed 1.48 and 2.24 times more than that of 2,4-D and ABA. NAA-treatment also positively modified the proportions of saturated (C16:0 and C18:0) and monounsaturated fatty acids (C18:1) which were prone to high-quality biofuels-making...
February 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214429/interplay-between-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-selenium-deficient-cardiomyocytes-in-chicken
#3
Jie Yang, Yuan Zhang, Sattar Hamid, Jingzeng Cai, Qi Liu, Hao Li, Rihong Zhao, Hong Wang, Shiwen Xu, Ziwei Zhang
Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency can cause heart dysfunction, however the exact mechanism remains unclear. To understand this mechanism, 180day-old chicks, divided into two groups, C (control group) and L (low Se group), were fed with either a Se-sufficient (0.23mg/kg) or Se-deficient (0.033mg/kg) diets for 25days, respectively. Heart tissues and blood samples were collected. In L group, the activities of serum creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase-myoglobin (CK-MB) increased and typical ultrastructural apoptotic features were observed...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214401/association-between-loss-of-bone-mass-due-to-short-sleep-and-leptin-sympathetic-nervous-system-activity
#4
Nagato Kuriyama, Masaaki Inaba, Etsuko Ozaki, Yutaro Yoneda, Daisuke Matsui, Kanae Hashiguchi, Teruhide Koyama, Komei Iwai, Isao Watanabe, Rika Tanaka, Chie Omichi, Shigeto Mizuno, Masao Kurokawa, Motoyuki Horii, Fumitoshi Niwa, Koichi Iwasa, Shinsuke Yamada, Yoshiyuki Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Sleep has been reported to be an important factor in bone metabolism, and sympathetic nervous system activity has been reported to regulate bone metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the association between sleep, sympathetic nervous system activity, and bone mass. METHODS: The study subjects were 221 individuals (108 males; 113 females; mean age: 55.1±7.0years) divided into two groups: those who slept for less than 6h a day (short sleep [SS] group), and those who slept 6h or longer (normal sleep [NS] group)...
February 10, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214398/effects-of-recirculation-in-a-three-tank-pilot-scale-system-for-pharmaceutical-removal-with-powdered-activated-carbon
#5
Victor Kårelid, Gen Larsson, Berndt Björlenius
The removal of pharmaceutically active compounds by powdered activated carbon (PAC) in municipal wastewater is a promising solution to the problem of polluted recipient waters. Today, an efficient design strategy is however lacking with regard to high-level overall, and specific, substance removal in the large scale. The performance of PAC-based removal of pharmaceuticals was studied in pilot-scale with respect to the critical parameters; contact time and PAC dose using one PAC product selected by screening in bench-scale...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214390/robust-peptidoglycan-growth-by-dynamic-and-variable-multi-protein-complexes
#6
REVIEW
Manuel Pazos, Katharina Peters, Waldemar Vollmer
In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli the peptidoglycan sacculus resides in the periplasm, a compartment that experiences changes in pH value, osmolality, ion strength and other parameters depending on the cell's environment. Hence, the cell needs robust peptidoglycan growth mechanisms to grow and divide under different conditions. Here we propose a model according to which the cell achieves robust peptidoglycan growth by employing dynamic multi-protein complexes, which assemble with variable composition from freely diffusing sets of peptidoglycan synthases, hydrolases and their regulators, whereby the composition of the active complexes depends on the cell cycle state - cell elongation or division - and the periplasmic growth conditions...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214378/calcium-signaling-through-l-type-calcium-channels-role-in-pathophysiology-of-spinal-nociceptive-transmission
#7
REVIEW
Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Houda Radwani, Franck Aby, Frédéric Nagy, Marc Landry Pascal Fossat
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are ubiquitous channels in the central nervous system. L-type calcium channels (LTCs) are mostly post-synaptic channels regulating neuronal firing and gene expression. They play a role in important physio-pathological processes such as learning and memory, Parkinson's disease, autism and, as recognized more recently, in the pathophysiology of pain processes. Classically, the fundamental role of these channels in cardiovascular functions has limited the use of classical molecules to treat LTC-dependent disorders...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214372/canonical-and-cellular-pathways-timing-gamete-release-in-acropora-digitifera-okinawa-japan
#8
Y Rosenberg, T Doniger, S Harii, F Sinniger, O Levy
Natural light cycles are important for synchronizing behavioral and physiological rhythms over varying time-periods in both plants and animals. An endogenous clock, regulated by positive and negative elements, interacting in feedback loops, control these rhythms. Many corals exhibit diel cycles of polyp expansion and contraction entrained by solar light patterns and monthly cycles of spawning or planulation that correspond to nocturnal lunar light cycles. However, despite considerable interest in studies of coral reproduction, there is currently not enough molecular information about the cellular pathways involved with synchronizing spawning/planulation in broadcast spawners and brooders...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214356/comparative-analysis-of-the-transcriptional-responses-to-low-and-high-temperature-in-three-rice-planthopper-species
#9
Hai-Jian Huang, Jian Xue, Ji-Chong Zhuo, Ruo-Lin Cheng, Hai-Jun Xu, Chuan-Xi Zhang
The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera, WBPH), and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) are important rice pests in Asia. These three species differ in thermal tolerance and exhibit quite different migration and overwintering strategies. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we sequenced and compared the transcriptome of the three species under different temperature treatments. We found that metabolism-, exoskeleton-, and chemosensory-related genes were modulated...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214350/upregulation-of-microrna-15a-contributes-to-pathogenesis-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-aaa-by-modulating-the-expression-of-cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor-2b-cdkn2b
#10
Peng Gao, Jiyuan Si, Bin Yang, Jixiang Yu
BACKGROUND The objective of the present study was to identify the association between miR-15a-5p and CDKN2B, and their roles in regulating the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). MATERIAL AND METHODS We searched the miRNA database online (www.mirdb.org) and used a luciferase reporter assay system to study the regulatory relationship between miR-15a-5p and CDKN2B. We also conducted real-time PCR and Western blot analysis to study the mRNA and protein expression level of CDKN2B among different patient groups (participants with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and normal controls) or cells treated with scramble control, miR-15a-5p mimics, CDKN2B siRNA, and miR-15a-5p inhibitors...
February 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214347/involvement-of-the-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-vav3-in-central-nervous-system-development-and-plasticity
#11
Annika Ulc, Christine Gottschling, Ina Schäfer, David Wegrzyn, Simon van Leeuwen, Veronika Luft, Jacqueline Reinhard, Andreas Faissner
Small GTP-hydrolysing enzymes (GTPases) of the RhoA family play manifold roles in cell biology and are regulated by upstream guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we focus on the GEFs of the Vav subfamily. Vav1 was originally described as a protooncogene of the hematopoietic lineage. The GEFs Vav2 and Vav3 are more broadly expressed in various tissues. In particular, the GEF Vav3 may play important roles in the developing nervous system during the differentiation of neural stem cells into the major lineages, namely neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes...
February 18, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214344/neferine-potentiates-the-antitumor-effect-of-cisplatin-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-via-a-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-pathway
#12
Kalai Selvi Sivalingam, Poornima Paramasivan, Ching Feng Weng, Viswanadha Vijaya Padma
Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of many types of solid tumors but its efficacy is often limited by the development of resistance and dose limiting toxicity. Neferine is an alkaloid isolated from seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera, it has recently been shown to have anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines. The present investigation is designed to study the chemosensitizing ability of neferine with cisplatin in A549 cells. Neferine potentiates the cisplatin induced apoptosis through the exploration of characteristic apoptotic morphological changes, induced sub-G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, ROS hypergeneration, significant loss of cellular antioxidant enzymes as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214341/angiopoietin-2-enhances-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stem-cells
#13
Mi-Lan Kang, Eun-Ah Kim, Se-Young Jeong, Gun-Il Im
Our previous studies revealed that co-transplantation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can enhance bone regeneration and angiogenesis. However, it is unclear which genes are involved in the regulation of osteogenesis and/or angiogenesis during the co-culturing of BMSCs and ADSCs. The expression patterns of genes associated with osteogenesis and/or angiogenesis were analyzed in osteogenesis-induced BMSCs and ADSCs using an oligonucleotide microarray. Significant difference in the expression patterns of several genes were identified from hierarchical clustering and analyzed on co-cultured BMSCs and ADSCs...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214335/the-role-of-c-ski-in-regulation-of-tgf%C3%AE-induced-human-cardiac-fibroblast-proliferation-and-ecm-protein-expression
#14
Juan Wang, Liping Guo, Difei Shen, Xiao Xu, Jiaping Wang, Suxia Han, Wen He
Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by over-deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and over-proliferation of cardiac fibroblast, and contributes to both systolic and diastolic dysfunction in many cardiac pathophysiologic conditions. Transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) is as an essential inducing factor of cardiac fibrosis. C-Ski protein has been identified as an inhibitory regulator of TGFβ signaling. In the present study, we revealed the repressive effect of c-Ski on TGFβ1-induced human cardiac fibroblast (HCFB) proliferation and ECM protein increase (Collagen I and α-SMA)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214331/pomc-maintains-tumor-initiating-properties-of-tumor-tissue-derived-long-term-cultured-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#15
Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie
The identification and understanding of the molecular network of cancer stem cells (CSCs) have had a profound impact on our view of carcinogenesis and treatment strategy. Unfortunately, a major problem is that serial passages of CSCs from clinical solid tumor specimens currently are not available in any lab, and thus, reported data are difficult to confirm and intensively interrogated. Here, we have generated two tumor tissue-derived breast CSC (BCSC) lines that showed prolonged maintenance over 20 serial passages in vitro, while retaining their tumor-initiating biological properties...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214253/long-noncoding-rna-linc00673-is-activated-by-sp1-and-exerts-oncogenic-properties-by-interacting-with-lsd1-and-ezh2-in-gastric-cancer
#16
Mingde Huang, Jiakai Hou, Yunfei Wang, Min Xie, Chenchen Wei, Fengqi Nie, Zhaoxia Wang, Ming Sun
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators in a variety of human diseases, including cancers. However, the biological function of these molecules and the mechanisms responsible for their alteration in gastric cancer (GC) are not fully understood. In this study, we found that lncRNA LINC00673 is significantly upregulated in gastric cancer. Knockdown of LINC00673 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion and induced cell apoptosis, whereas LINC00673 overexpression had the opposite effect...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214243/synthetic-metabolic-bypass-for-a-metabolic-toggle-switch-enhances-acetyl-coa-supply-for-isopropanol-production-by-escherichia-coli
#17
Yuki Soma, Taiki Yamaji, Fumio Matsuda, Taizo Hanai
Almost all synthetic pathways for biofuel production are designed to require endogenous metabolites in glycolysis, such as phosphoenolpyruvate, pyruvate, and acetyl-CoA. However, such metabolites are also required for bacterial cell growth. To reduce the metabolic imbalance between cell growth and target chemical production, we previously constructed a metabolic toggle switch (MTS) as a conditional flux redirection tool controlling metabolic flux of TCA cycle toward isopropanol production. This approach succeeded to improve the isopropanol production titer and yield while ensuring sufficient cell growth...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214231/mechanisms-of-action-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-cytotoxic-flavokawain-derivatives
#18
Charlotte Thieury, Nicolas Lebouvier, Rémy Le Guével, Yann Barguil, Gaëtan Herbette, Cyril Antheaume, Edouard Hnawia, Yoshinori Asakawa, Mohammed Nour, Thierry Guillaudeux
22 Flavokawain derivatives (FKd) were obtained by one step syntheses in order to conduct a SAR study to understand the structural requirements for optimum and selective cytotoxicity. FKd and natural flavokawains A and B found into kava, a South Pacific traditional beverage, were evaluated against nine cancer and one healthy cell lines. The targeted cell cycle phases as well as the effects on the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle protein levels were investigated. Therapeutic improvements (more activity and selectivity) were achieved with FKd compared to natural flavokawains and notably with the 2',3,4',6'-tetramethoxychalcone (FKd 19)...
February 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214207/microrna-155-targets-map3k10-and-regulates-osteosarcoma-cell-growth
#19
Chuangjian Wang, Xiaobo Zhang, Chunlin Zhang, Fuying Zhai, Ying Li, Zongqiang Huang
Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer prevalent in young adults. Recent studies suggested that aberrant microRNA expression plays an essential role in osteosarcoma pathogenesis. In this study, we found miR-155 up-regulation in different osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS, Saos-2 and MG-63. Through bioinformatic prediction and analysis, we identified its target MAP3K10 that involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. This work demonstrates novel interaction between microRNA, intercellular MAPK signaling and apoptosis in osteosarcoma, which will provide targets for therapeutic development...
February 1, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214201/up-regulation-of-pim-3-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-patients-and-its-potential-therapeutic-role-in-copd-rat-modeling
#20
Cheng Yang, Li Li, Junhua Guo, Weiqiang Zhang, Wenbiao Zhu, Xinhui Rao, Wenjie Huang
BACKGROUND: Pim-3 belongs to the PIM kinase family and plays an important role in promoting inflammation, which is essential in the pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot, and RT-PCR analyses were performed to assess the expression of Pim-3 in both COPD and healthy lung tissue samples. SMA (Smooth Muscle Actin) and Cyclin D1 expression were detected by IHC. We also constructed animal models for the control, COPD, and Pim-3 inhibition groups, in order to analyze the effects of Pim-3 inhibition on COPD, and the role of Pim-3 in the p38 pathway...
January 29, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
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