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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161755/kv-1-channel-expression-and-vasomotor-function-in-human-coronary-resistance-arteries
#1
Yoshinori Nishijima, Ankush Korishettar, Dawid S Chabowski, Sheng Cao, Xiaodong Zheng, David D Gutterman, David X Zhang
OBJECTIVES: KV channels are important regulators of vascular tone, but the identity of specific KV channels involved and their regulation in disease remain less well understood. We determined the expression of KV 1 channel subunits and their role in cAMP-mediated dilation in coronary resistance arteries from subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Human coronary arteries and arterioles (HCA) from non-CAD and CAD patients were assessed for mRNA and protein expression of KV 1 channel subunits with molecular techniques and for vasodilator response with isolated arterial myography...
November 21, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161703/expression-profile-of-notch3-in-mouse-spermatogonia
#2
Ryu Okada, Megumi Fujimagari, Eri Koya, Yoshikazu Hirose, Tomomi Sato, Yukio Nishina
Stable and sustainable spermatogenesis is supported by the strict regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC), which are a rare population of undifferentiated spermatogonia. It has been revealed that some signaling factors regulate the self-renewal of SSC; however, the molecular mechanism of SSC maintenance is still not completely understood. Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved juxtacrine signaling that plays important roles in the cell fate determination of various tissue stem cells...
January 22, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161701/yin-yang-1-dynamically-regulates-antiviral-innate-immune-responses-during-viral-infection
#3
Jie Zan, Hao Zhang, Ai-Ping Gu, Kai-Lun Zhong, Min-Yi Lu, Xiao-Xin Bai, Jin-Yang Zhang, Jun Cai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Type I interferon (IFN-1) production and IFN-1 signaling play critical roles in the host antiviral innate immune responses. Although transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) has been reported to have a dual activator/repressor role during the regulation of interferon beta (IFN-β) promoter activity, the roles of YY1 in the regulation of upstream signaling pathways leading to IFN-1 induction and IFN-1 signaling during viral infection remain to be elucidated. METHODS: The roles of YY1 in IFN-1 production and IFN-1 signaling were investigated using immunoblotting, real-time PCR, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated YY1 knockdown, YY1 overexpression by transient transfection, and co-immunoprecipitation, using mouse cells...
November 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161657/effects-of-local-lipopolysaccharide-administration-on-the-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-uterus-and-oviduct-of-rabbit-does
#4
Laura Menchetti, Olimpia Barbato, Iulia Elena Filipescu, Giovanna Traina, Leonardo Leonardi, Angela Polisca, Alessandro Troisi, Gabriella Guelfi, Federica Piro, Gabriele Brecchia
Inflammation of the uterus and oviduct is associated with reduced reproductive performance in humans and domestic animals. Toll-like receptors are expressed in various immune and non-immune cells and play a crucial role in innate immunity. Toll-like receptor - 4 (TLR4) can detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria leading to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and other inflammatory mediators. To investigate the effects of a local inflammation on the expression levels of TLR4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, 12 female rabbits received an intracervical infusion with either saline solution endotoxin-free (carrier, 2 mL; n = 6) or LPS (500 μg diluted in 2 mL of saline solution; n = 6)...
November 5, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161601/characterizing-emission-rates-of-regulated-pollutants-from-model-year-2012-heavy-duty-diesel-vehicles-equipped-with-dpf-and-scr-systems
#5
Yu Jiang, Jiacheng Yang, David Cocker, Georgios Karavalakis, Kent C Johnson, Thomas D Durbin
The regulated emissions of five 2012 and newer, low-mileage, heavy-duty Class 8 diesel trucks equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were evaluated over test cycles representing urban, highway, and stop-and-go driving on a chassis dynamometer. NOx emissions over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) ranged from 0.495 to 1.363g/mi (0.136 to 0.387g/bhp-hr) for four of the normal emitting trucks. For those trucks, NOx emissions were lowest over the cruise (0...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161589/mitosis-sans-mitosis-the-mitotic-oscillator-in-differentiation
#6
Miranda Stratton, Tim Stearns
Differentiation and proliferation are usually considered to be antagonistic partners in development. However, in a recent issue of Science, Al Jord et al. (2017) show that key regulators of the mitotic cycle are redeployed in differentiating multiciliated cells to promote ciliogenesis without mitotic progression.
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161587/versatile-scaffold-extrajunctional-roles-for-%C3%AE-catenin
#7
Srikanth Budnar, Alpha S Yap
α-catenin is a scaffolding molecule that can bind F-actin and other cytoskeletal proteins. It is best known for its contribution to cell-cell adhesion. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Vassilev et al. (2017) identify an extrajunctional pool of α-catenin that regulates RhoA signaling and controls directional migration of single cells.
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161537/association-of-h3k79-monomethylation-an-epigenetic-signature-with-arsenic-induced-skin-lesions
#8
Pritha Bhattacharjee, Somnath Paul, Sandip Bhattacharjee, Ashok K Giri, Pritha Bhattacharjee
Arsenic, a non mutagenic carcinogen, poses a profound health risk upon prolonged exposure. The objective of the study was to analyze the post-translational modifications of the major histone H3 and the associated molecular crosstalk to identify the epigenetic signature of arsenic susceptibility. Herein, we identified significant upregulation of H3K79me1, in individuals with arsenic-induced skin lesion (WSL), and H3K79me1 was found to be regulated by the upstream methyltransferase DOT1L. Moreover, the downstream target molecule 53BP1, a tumor suppressor protein that has a docking preference for H3K79me1 at a site of a double-strand break (DSB), was downregulated, indicating greater DNA damage in the WSL group...
November 14, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161526/individualism-collectivism-social-self-control-and-adolescent-substance-use-and-risky-sexual-behavior
#9
Pallav Pokhrel, Brooke L Bennett, Sakshi Regmi, Bulat Idrisov, Artur Galimov, Leila Akhmadeeva, Steve Sussman
Individualism and collectivism are cultural syndromes that have been associated with adolescent problem behavior in studies conducted in the U.S. and Southeast Asia. However, research investigating the mechanisms of how cultural orientation impacts health risk behaviors has been limited. This study tested a new model explaining the relationship between cultural orientation (i.e., individualism, collectivism) and adolescent problem behavior (i.e., substance use and risky sex) in terms of interpersonal self-regulation (i...
November 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161506/multiplexed-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-and-gene-regulation-using-csy4-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Raphael Ferreira, Christos Skrekas, Jens Nielsen, Florian David
The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has greatly accelerated the field of strain engineering. However, insufficient efforts have been made towards developing robust multiplexing tools in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we exploit the RNA processing capacity of the bacterial endoribonuclease Csy4 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to generate multiple gRNAs from a single transcript for genome editing and gene interference applications in S. cerevisiae. In regards to genome editing, we performed a quadruple deletion of FAA1, FAA4, POX1 and TES1 reaching 96% efficiency out of 24 colonies tested...
November 21, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161470/resequencing-of-a-mutant-bearing-an-iron-starvation-recovery-phenotype-defines-slr1658-as-a-new-player-in-the-regulatory-network-of-a-model-cyanobacterium
#11
Hagit Zer, Ketty Margulis, Jens Georg, Yoram Shotland, Gergana Kostova, Laure Sultan, Wolfgang R Hess, Nir Keren
Photosynthetic microorganisms encounter an erratic nutrient environment characterized by periods of iron limitation and sufficiency. Surviving in such an environment requires mechanisms for handling these transitions. Our study identified a regulatory system involved in the process of recovery from iron limitation in cyanobacteria. We set out to study the role of bacterioferritin co-migratory proteins during transitions in iron bioavailability in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using knockout strains coupled with physiological and biochemical measurements...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161463/the-il-21-mtor-axis-blocks-treg-differentiation-and-function-by-suppression-of-autophagy-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#12
Hiroshi Kato, Andras Perl
OBJECTIVES: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has become a therapeutic target in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). mTOR regulates normal T-cell lineage specification, including development of regulatory cells (Tregs). Therefore, we investigated whether mTOR is activated within Tregs and causes their depletion and dysfunction in patients with SLE. METHODS: Activities of mTOR complexes 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2) were examined by phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, S6K, and Akt, respectively, in SLE patients relative to healthy control females age-matched for each experiment...
November 21, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161457/the-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-cyg12-is-required-for-the-acclimation-to-hypoxia-and-trophic-regimes-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#13
Melis Düner, Jan Lambertz, Carolin Mügge, Anja Hemschemeier
Oxygenic phototrophs frequently encounter environmental conditions that result in intracellular energy crises. Growth of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in hypoxia in the light depends on acclimatory responses of which the induction of photosynthetic cyclic electron flow is essential. The microalga cannot grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2 ) in the dark, although it possesses an elaborate fermentation metabolism. Not much is known about how the microalga senses and signals the lack of O2 or about its survival strategies during energy crises...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161428/arabidopsis-inositol-polyphosphate-multikinase-delays-flowering-time-through-mediating-transcriptional-activation-of-flowering-locus-c
#14
Sihong Sang, Yao Chen, Qiaofeng Yang, Peng Wang
Timely flowering is critical for successful reproduction and seed yield in plants. A diverse range of regulators have been found to control flowering time in response to environmental and endogenous signals. Among these regulators, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) acts as a central repressor of floral transition by blocking the expression of flowering integrator genes. Here, we report that Arabidopsis inositol polyphosphate multikinase (AtIPK2β) functions in flowering time control by mediating transcriptional regulation of FLC at the chromatin level...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161414/structural-diversity-of-the-nucleosome
#15
Masako Koyama, Hitoshi Kurumizaka
In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is compacted in chromatin, which generally suppresses transcription, replication, repair, and recombination. The fundamental unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, whose structure was first determined at atomic resolution in 1997. However, recent findings have revealed that the nucleosome is not a structurally homogenous entity. Nucleosomes containing histone variants often have subtle but clear differences in their structural and functional characteristics, as compared to the canonical nucleosome...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161413/nrf2-regulates-endothelial-glycolysis-and-proliferation-with-mir-93-and-mediates-the-effects-of-oxidized-phospholipids-on-endothelial-activation
#16
Suvi M Kuosmanen, Emilia Kansanen, Minna U Kaikkonen, Virve Sihvola, Kati Pulkkinen, Henna-Kaisa Jyrkkänen, Pauli Tuoresmäki, Juha Hartikainen, Mikko Hippeläinen, Hannu Kokki, Pasi Tavi, Sami Heikkinen, Anna-Liisa Levonen
Phospholipids, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC), are the major components of cell membranes. Their exposure to reactive oxygen species creates oxidized phospholipids, which predispose to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases and metabolic disorders through endothelial activation and dysfunction. Although the effects of oxidized PAPC (oxPAPC) on endothelial cells have been previously studied, the underlying molecular mechanisms evoking biological responses remain largely unknown...
November 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161383/basal-forebrain-gating-by-somatostatin-neurons-drives-prefrontal-cortical-activity
#17
Nelson Espinosa, Alejandra Alonso, Cristian Morales, Pedro Espinosa, Andrés E Chávez, Pablo Fuentealba
The basal forebrain provides modulatory input to the cortex regulating brain states and cognitive processing. Somatostatin-expressing neurons constitute a heterogeneous GABAergic population known to functionally inhibit basal forebrain cortically projecting cells thus favoring sleep and cortical synchronization. However, it remains unclear if somatostatin cells can regulate population activity patterns in the basal forebrain and modulate cortical dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that somatostatin neurons regulate the corticopetal synaptic output of the basal forebrain impinging on cortical activity and behavior...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161356/medial-orbitofrontal-cortex-mediates-effort-related-responding-in-rats
#18
Alexandra Münster, Wolfgang Hauber
The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161354/p140cap-regulates-gabaergic-synaptogenesis-and-development-of-hippocampal-inhibitory-circuits
#19
Isabella Russo, Daniela Gavello, Elisabetta Menna, David Vandael, Carola Veglia, Noemi Morello, Irene Corradini, Elisa Focchi, Annalisa Alfieri, Costanza Angelini, Federico Tommaso Bianchi, Alessandro Morellato, Andrea Marcantoni, Marco Sassoè-Pognetto, Matteo Maria Ottaviani, Latefa Yekhlef, Maurizio Giustetto, Stefano Taverna, Valentina Carabelli, Michela Matteoli, Emilio Carbone, Emilia Turco, Paola Defilippi
The neuronal scaffold protein p140Cap was investigated during hippocampal network formation. p140Cap is present in presynaptic GABAergic terminals and its genetic depletion results in a marked alteration of inhibitory synaptic activity. p140Cap-/- cultured neurons display higher frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) with no changes of their mean amplitude. Consistent with a potential presynaptic alteration of basal GABA release, p140Cap-/- neurons exhibit a larger synaptic vesicle readily releasable pool, without any variation of single GABAA receptor unitary currents and number of postsynaptic channels...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161344/nuclear-localization-of-eif4g3-suggests-a-role-for-the-xy-body-in-translational-regulation-during-spermatogenesis-in-mice
#20
Jianjun Hu, Fengyun Sun, Mary Ann Handel
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (EIF4G) is an important scaffold protein in the translation initiation complex. In mice mutation of the Eif4g3 gene causes male infertility, with arrest of meiosis at the end of meiotic prophase. This study documents features of the developmental expression and sub-cellular localization of EIF4G3 that might contribute to its highly specific role in meiosis and spermatogenesis. Quite unexpectedly, EIF4G3 is located in the nucleus of spermatocytes, where it is highly enriched in the XY body, the chromatin domain formed by the transcriptionally inactive sex chromosomes...
November 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
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