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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655204/trak2-a-novel-regulator-of-abca1-expression-cholesterol-efflux-and-hdl-biogenesis
#1
Nicole J Lake, Rachael L Taylor, Hugh Trahair, K N Harikrishnan, Joanne E Curran, Marcio Almeida, Hemant Kulkarni, Nigora Mukhamedova, Anh Hoang, Hann Low, Andrew J Murphy, Matthew P Johnson, Thomas D Dyer, Michael C Mahaney, Harald H H Göring, Eric K Moses, Dmitri Sviridov, John Blangero, Jeremy B M Jowett, Kiymet Bozaoglu
Aims: The recent failures of HDL-raising therapies have underscored our incomplete understanding of HDL biology. Therefore there is an urgent need to comprehensively investigate HDL metabolism to enable the development of effective HDL-centric therapies. To identify novel regulators of HDL metabolism, we performed a joint analysis of human genetic, transcriptomic, and plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration data and identified a novel association between trafficking protein, kinesin binding 2 (TRAK2) and HDL-C concentration...
June 26, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655202/small-rna-activity-in-archaeological-barley-shows-novel-germination-inhibition-in-response-to-environment
#2
Oliver Smith, Sarah A Palmer, Alan J Clapham, Pamela Rose, Yuan Liu, Jun Wang, Robin G Allaby
The recovery of ancient RNA from archaeological material could enable the direct study of micro-evolutionary processes. Small RNAs are a rich source of information because their small size is compatible with biomolecular preservation, and their roles in gene regulation make them likely foci of evolutionary change. We present here the small RNA fraction from a sample of archaeological barley generated using high-throughput sequencing that has previously been associated with localised adaptation to drought. Its microRNA profile is broadly similar to 19 globally distributed modern barley samples with the exception of three microRNAs (miRNA159, miRNA319, and miR396), all of which are known to have variable expression under stress conditions...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655199/proteins-involved-in-endocytosis-are-upregulated-by-ageing-in-the-normal-human-brain-implications-for-the-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Mouhamed Alsaqati, Rhian S Thomas, Emma J Kidd
The greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is advanced age, but the reason for this association remains unclear. Amyloid-beta (Aβ) is produced from amyloid precursor protein (APP) primarily after APP is internalised by clathrin-mediated or clathrin-independent endocytosis. Changes in endocytosis in AD have been identified. We hypothesised that endocytic protein expression is altered during ageing, thus influencing the likelihood of developing AD by increasing Aβ production. We explored how levels of endocytic proteins, APP, its metabolites, secretase enzymes and tau varied with age in cortical brain samples from men of three age ranges (young (20-30), middle-aged (45-55) and old (70-90)) with no symptoms of dementia...
June 26, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655193/the-importance-of-fermentative-conditions-for-the-biotechnological-production-of-lignin-modifying-enzymes-from-white-rot-fungi
#4
Francesca Martani, Fabrizio Beltrametti, Danilo Porro, Paola Branduardi, Marina Lotti
White-rot fungi are the main natural producers of lignin modifying enzymes, i.e. laccases and peroxidases, whose secretion and activity allows the depolymerization of lignin and the release of polysaccharides contained in lignocellulose. These enzymes are able to oxidize, in addition to lignin, a wide spectrum of natural and synthetic substrates, making their industrial and biotechnological application appealing. However, the complex regulation of the synthesis of lignin modifying enzymes, as well as the heterogeneous physiology of fungi in response to nutrients, make the use of white-rot fungi as production platforms challenging...
June 26, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655184/characterization-of-a-coupled-dna-replication-and-translesion-synthesis-polymerase-supraholoenzyme-from-archaea
#5
Matthew T Cranford, Aurea M Chu, Joshua K Baguley, Robert J Bauer, Michael A Trakselis
The ability of the replisome to seamlessly coordinate both high fidelity and translesion DNA synthesis requires a means to regulate recruitment and binding of enzymes from solution. Co-occupancy of multiple DNA polymerases within the replisome has been observed primarily in bacteria and is regulated by posttranslational modifications in eukaryotes, and both cases are coordinated by the processivity clamp. Because of the heterotrimeric nature of the PCNA clamp in some archaea, there is potential to occupy and regulate specific polymerases at defined subunits...
June 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655168/bmp4-uses-several-different-effector-pathways-to-regulate-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-the-epithelial-and-mesenchymal-tissue-compartments-of-the-developing-mouse-ureter
#6
Tamrat M Mamo, Anna B Wittern, Marc-Jens Kleppa, Tobias Bohnenpoll, Anna-Carina Weiss, Andreas Kispert
Heterozygous loss of Bmp4 results both in humans and mice in severe malformation of the urinary tract. These defects have at least partially been attributed to loss of expression of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme, yet the cellular and molecular function of this signal as well as its effector pathways in this tissue have remained incompletely resolved. Here, we show that mice with a conditional deletion of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme exhibited hydroureter and hydronephrosis at newborn stages due to functional and physical ureter obstruction...
June 26, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655163/microrna-21a-5p-pdcd4-axis-regulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-induced-neuroprotection-in-acute-glaucoma
#7
Wenru Su, Zuohong Li, Yu Jia, Yingting Zhu, Wenjia Cai, Peixing Wan, Yingying Zhang, Song Guo Zheng, Yehong Zhuo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to have promising therapeutic benefits for a variety of neurological diseases; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we showed that intravitreal infusion of MSCs promoted retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival in a mouse model of acute glaucoma, with significant inhibition of microglial activation, production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and reactive oxygen species, as well as caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. In vitro, MSCs inhibited both caspase-8-mediated RGC apoptosis and microglial activation, partly via the action of stanniocalcin 1 (STC1)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655161/dysfunction-of-pla2g6-and-cyp2c44-associated-network-signals-imminent-carcinogenesis-from-chronic-inflammation-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Meiyi Li, Chen Li, Wei-Xin Liu, Conghui Liu, Jingru Cui, Qingrun Li, Hong Ni, Yingcheng Yang, Chaochao Wu, Chunlei Chen, Xing Zhen, Tao Zeng, Mujun Zhao, Lei Chen, Jiarui Wu, Rong Zeng, Luonan Chen
Little is known about how chronic inflammation contributes to the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially the initiation of cancer. To uncover the critical transition from chronic inflammation to HCC and the molecular mechanisms at a network level, we analyzed the time-series proteomic data of woodchuck hepatitis virus/c-myc mice and age-matched wt-C57BL/6 mice using our dynamical network biomarker (DNB) model. DNB analysis indicated that the 5th month after birth of transgenic mice was the critical period of cancer initiation, just before the critical transition, which is consistent with clinical symptoms...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655144/up-regulation-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen-related-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-and-its-clinical-relevance
#9
Muqing Zhou, Zhiming Jin, Yiwen Liu, Yiqing He, Yan Du, Cuixia Yang, Yingzhi Wang, Jiajie Hu, Lian Cui, Feng Gao, Manlin Cao
Serum carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is dysregulated in various malignant tumors and has been associated with tumor progression. However, the expression and regulatory mechanisms of serum CEACAM1 in gastrointestinal cancer are still unclear. The expression ratio of the CEACAM1-L and CEACAM1-S isoforms has seldom been investigated in gastrointestinal cancer. In this study, we intended to explore the expression and diagnostic value of CEACAM1 in gastrointestinal cancer. Serum CEACAM1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
June 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655035/cosmetics-regulations-and-the-public-health-understanding-the-safety-of-medical-and-other-products
#10
Robert M Califf, Jonathan McCall, Daniel B Mark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 26, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654986/association-between-initial-use-of-e-cigarettes-and-subsequent-cigarette-smoking-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Samir Soneji, Jessica L Barrington-Trimis, Thomas A Wills, Adam M Leventhal, Jennifer B Unger, Laura A Gibson, JaeWon Yang, Brian A Primack, Judy A Andrews, Richard A Miech, Tory R Spindle, Danielle M Dick, Thomas Eissenberg, Robert C Hornik, Rui Dang, James D Sargent
Importance: The public health implications of e-cigarettes depend, in part, on whether e-cigarette use affects the risk of cigarette smoking. Objective: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies that assessed initial use of e-cigarettes and subsequent cigarette smoking. Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the 2016 Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 22nd Annual Meeting abstracts, the 2016 Society of Behavioral Medicine 37th Annual Meeting & Scientific Sessions abstracts, and the 2016 National Institutes of Health Tobacco Regulatory Science Program Conference were searched between February 7 and February 17, 2017...
June 26, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654985/transcriptomic-profiling-of-posterior-polymorphous-corneal-dystrophy
#12
Doug D Chung, Ricardo F Frausto, Benjamin R Lin, Evelyn M Hanser, Zack Cohen, Anthony J Aldave
Purpose: To investigate the molecular basis of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) by examining the PPCD transcriptome and the effect of decreased ZEB1 expression on corneal endothelial cell (CEnC) gene expression. Methods: Next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of corneal endothelium from two PPCD-affected individuals (one with PPCD3 and one of unknown genetic cause) compared with two age-matched controls, and primary human CEnC (pHCEnC) transfected with siRNA-mediated ZEB1 knockdown...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654984/osteoprotegerin-is-a-new-regulator-of-inflammation-and-angiogenesis-in-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#13
Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar, Sofie Struyf, Ghulam Mohammad, Mieke Gouwy, Pieter Rytinx, Mohammad Mairaj Siddiquei, Cristina Hernández, Kaiser Alam, Ahmed Mousa, Gert De Hertogh, Ghislain Opdenakker, Rafael Simó
Purpose: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a novel regulator of endothelial cell function, angiogenesis, and vasculogenesis. We correlated expression levels of OPG with those of the angiogenic and inflammatory factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). We also examined expression of OPG in retinas from diabetic rats and diabetic patients and measured production of OPG by human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMEC) and investigated its angiogenic activity...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654913/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-is-a-negative-modulator-of-glucagon-secretion
#14
Elettra Mancuso, Gaia C Mannino, Concetta Di Fatta, Anastasia Fuoco, Rosangela Spiga, Francesco Andreozzi, Giorgio Sesti
Glucagon secretion involves a combination of paracrine, autocrine, hormonal, and autonomic neural mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes often presents impaired glucagon suppression by insulin and glucose. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) has elevated homology with insulin, and regulates pancreatic β-cells insulin secretion. Insulin and IGF-1 receptors share considerable structure homology and function. We hypothesized the existence of a mechanism linking the inhibition of α-cells glucagon secretion to IGF-1. Herein, we evaluated the association between plasma IGF-1 and glucagon levels in 116 nondiabetic adults...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654912/identification-of-dysregulated-long-non-coding-rnas-micrornas-mrnas-in-tnm-i-stage-lung-adenocarcinoma
#15
Ziqiang Tian, Shiwang Wen, Yuefeng Zhang, Xinqiang Shi, Yonggang Zhu, Yanzhao Xu, Huilai Lv, Guiying Wang
Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the primary subtype in lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the aberrant expression profiling of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in TNM I stage (stage I) LUAD. The lncRNA/mRNA/miRNA expression profiling of stage I LUAD and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 4 patients were measured by RNA-sequencing. Total of 175 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs), 1321 differentially expressed mRNAs (DEMs) and 94 differentially expressed microRNAs (DEMIs) were identified in stage I LUAD...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654910/microrna16-regulates-glioma-cell-proliferation-apoptosis-and-invasion-by-targeting-wip1-atm-p53-feedback-loop
#16
Xiao-Hong Zhan, Qiu-Yan Xu, Rui Tian, Hong Yan, Min Zhang, Jing Wu, Wei Wang, Jie He
The present study aimed to investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of microRNA16 (miR-16) on proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of glioma cells. The cell models of miR-16 upregulation and Negative control group (NC group) were built. The cell functions of different groups were detected by colony formation assay, transwell chamber assay, proliferation, apoptosis and cycle experiments. The intracranial orthotopic transplantation animal models were built to different groups: miR-16 agomir group, miR-16 antagomir group and their NC group...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654907/knockdown-of-malat1-expression-inhibits-huvec-proliferation-by-upregulation-of-mir-320a-and-downregulation-of-foxm1-expression
#17
Jian-Yong Sun, Zheng-Wei Zhao, Wei-Miao Li, Guang Yang, Peng-Yu Jing, Pei Li, Hai-Zhou Dang, Zhao Chen, Yong-An Zhou, Xiao-Fei Li
Regulation of cancer angiogenesis could be a useful strategy in cancer therapy. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), and can induce cancer cell proliferation, while lncRNAs, generally are able to act as microRNA (miRNA) sponges. The latter is a type of competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) that regulates expression of the targeting miRNAs and protein-coding genes. This study investigated the proliferative role of MALAT1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the underlying molecular events...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654902/cryptotanshinone-inhibits-proliferation-yet-induces-apoptosis-by-suppressing-stat3-signals-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#18
Zhiguo Chen, Rujian Zhu, Jiayi Zheng, Chen Chen, Chi Huang, Junjie Ma, Chen Xu, Wei Zhai, Junhua Zheng
It has been established that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 serves as an oncoprotein in various human cancers; targeting it is therefore a reasonable approach for emerging cancer therapies. Cryptotanshinone, a natural compound extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been identified as a potential STAT3 inhibitor. However, its functional role in renal cell carcinomas remains largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the mode of action for cryptotanshinone. We found that cryptotanshinone substantially suppressed cancer cell growth while it promoted cell apoptosis by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3 at Tyr705 and its blocking nuclear translocation...
June 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654901/20-s-rg3-blocked-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-dnmt3a-mir-145-fscn1-in-ovarian-cancer
#19
Jie Li, Jiaojiao Lu, Zhongxue Ye, Xi Han, Xia Zheng, Huilian Hou, Wei Chen, Xu Li, Le Zhao
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the key mechanisms mediating cancer progression. MicroRNAs (miRs) are essential regulators of gene expression by suppressing translation or causing degradation of target mRNA. Growing evidence illustrates the crucial roles of miRs dysregulation in cancer development and progression. Here, we have found for the first time that the ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, a pharmacologically active component of Panax ginseng, potently increases miR-145 expression by downregulating methyltransferase DNMT3A to attenuate the hypermethylation of the promoter region in the miR-145 precursor gene...
June 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654898/effect-of-long-non-coding-rna-highly-up-regulated-in-liver-cancer-hulc-on-the-prognosis-of-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#20
Yong Li, Yi-Hong Liu, Xian Chen, Yan-Juan Zhu, Hai-Bo Zhang, Yan Li, Jian-Ping Bai, Li-Rong Liu, Yan-Chun Qu, Xin Qu
Some studies investigated the association between highly up-regulated in liver cancer (HULC) and the overall survival (OS) of cancer. However, the results were conflicted and inconclusive. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to determine the association between HULC and the OS of cancer. A comprehensive online search was conducted on Online electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Wanfang database) from the earliest date to Aug 30, 2016. The strength of the association was calculated with the HRs and respective 95% CIs...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
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