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brachial plexus and anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927209/intraoperative-imaging-in-traumatic-peripheral-nerve-lesions-correlating-histologic-cross-sections-with-high-resolution-ultrasound
#1
S Shelby Burks, Iahn Cajigas, Jean Jose, Allan D Levi
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative ultrasound (US) has been used as a guide during surgery to better identify deep neuroanatomical structures. OBJECTIVE: To correlate histologic cross-sections from nerve samples taken at the time of surgery with axial, high-resolution US images at similar locations and validate this important tool for intraoperative guidance in nerve surgery. METHODS: Three subjects undergoing nerve repair procedures after traumatic nerve injuries were enrolled prospectively...
April 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921843/potential-proton-and-photon-dose-degradation-in-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-by-intratherapy-changes
#2
Kristin Stützer, Annika Jakobi, Anna Bandurska-Luque, Steffen Barczyk, Carolin Arnsmeyer, Steffen Löck, Christian Richter
PURPOSE: Evaluation of dose degradation by anatomic changes for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) relative to intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMRT) and identification of potential indicators for IMPT treatment plan adaptation. METHODS: For 31 advanced HNC datasets, IMPT and IMRT plans were recalculated on a computed tomography scan (CT) taken after about 4 weeks of therapy. Dose parameter changes were determined for the organs at risk (OARs) spinal cord, brain stem, parotid glands, brachial plexus, and mandible, for the clinical target volume (CTV) and the healthy tissue outside planning target volume (PTV)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871408/evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-the-topographical-anatomy-in-the-axillary-region-of-the-brachial-plexus-and-the-body-mass-index
#3
Omur Ozturk, Aysu Hayriye Tezcan, Ali Bilge, Hakan Ateş, Hatice Yagmurdur, Mesut Erbas
To investigate the topographic anatomy of the median, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves with respect to the axillary artery and to seek whether these configurations are associated with baseline descriptive data including age, gender, and body-mass index. This cross-sectional trial was carried out on 199 patients (85 women, 114 men; average age: 46.78 ± 15.45 years) in the department of anaesthesiology and reanimation of a tertiary care center. Topographic anatomy of the median, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves was assessed with ultrasonography...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865517/management-of-radiation-toxicity-in-head-and-neck-cancers
#4
REVIEW
Farzan Siddiqui, Benjamin Movsas
Head and neck cancers account for approximately 3% of all cancers in the United States with 62,000 new cases diagnosed annually. The global incidence is approximately 700,000 new cases a year. There has also been a recent increase in human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal cancers. External beam radiation therapy (RT) is commonly used as an effective therapy for head and neck (H&N) cancers. This is used as a definitive treatment (alone or in combination with chemotherapy) or as an adjuvant treatment after surgical resection of the tumors...
October 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833372/axonal-components-of-nerves-innervating-the-human-arm
#5
Bernhard Gesslbauer, Laura A Hruby, Aidan D Roche, Dario Farina, Roland Blumer, Oskar C Aszmann
OBJECTIVE: Axons traveling within the brachial plexus are responsible for the dexterous control of human arm and hand movements. Despite comprehensive knowledge on the topographical anatomy of nerves innervating the human upper limbs, the definite quantity of sensory and motor axons within this neural network remains elusive. Our aim was to perform a quantitative analysis of the axonal components of human upper limb nerves based on highly specific molecular features from spinal cord level to the terminal nerves at wrist level...
August 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820803/perioperative-breast-analgesia-a-qualitative-review-of-anatomy-and-regional-techniques
#6
Glenn E Woodworth, Ryan M J Ivie, Sylvia M Nelson, Cameron M Walker, Robert B Maniker
Breast surgery is exceedingly common and may result in significant acute as well as chronic pain. Numerous options exist for the control of perioperative breast pain, including several newly described regional anesthesia techniques, but anesthesiologists have an insufficient understanding of the anatomy of the breast, the anatomic structures disrupted by the various breast surgeries, and the theoretical and experimental evidence supporting the use of the various analgesic options. In this article, we review the anatomy of the breast, common breast surgeries and their potential anatomic sources of pain, and analgesic techniques for managing perioperative pain...
September 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732521/retroclavicular-approach-vs-infraclavicular-approach-for-plexic-bloc-anesthesia-of-the-upper-limb-study-protocol-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
P L Langlois, A F Gil-Blanco, D Jessop, Y Sansoucy, F D'Aragon, N Albert, P Echave
BACKGROUND: The coracoid approach is recognized as the simplest approach to perform brachial plexus anaesthesia, but needle visualization needs to be improved. With a different needle entry point, the retroclavicular approach confers a perpendicular angle between the ultrasound and the needle, which theoretically enhances needle visualization. This trial compares these two techniques. The leading hypothesis is that the retroclavicular approach is comparable to the infraclavicular coracoid approach in general aspects, but needle visualization is better with this novel approach...
July 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677632/ultrasonographic-diagnosis-of-thoracic-outlet-syndrome-secondary-to-brachial-plexus-piercing-variation
#8
Vanessa Leonhard, Gregory Caldwell, Mei Goh, Sean Reeder, Heather F Smith
Structural variations of the thoracic outlet create a unique risk for neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) that is difficult to diagnose clinically. Common anatomical variations in brachial plexus (BP) branching were recently discovered in which portions of the proximal plexus pierce the anterior scalene. This results in possible impingement of BP nerves within the muscle belly and, therefore, predisposition for nTOS. We hypothesized that some cases of disputed nTOS result from these BP branching variants...
July 4, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549367/-transfer-of-the-long-head-of-triceps-for-elbow-flexion-in-braquial-plexus-sequelae
#9
E Vergara-Amador, F Vela-Rodríguez
The independent neurovascular anatomy of the long head of the triceps brachii and its suitability as a free muscle transfer have been extensively studied. Instead muscle transposition of the long head of the triceps brachii to enhance elbow flexion has been rarely described. We describe in this paper two cases of injury of brachial plexus sequel in which transposition was performed only on the long head of the triceps. The elbow flexion was improved, the extension was preserved.
November 2016: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452166/dorsal-scapular-artery-as-a-recipient-vessel-in-the-vessel-depleted-neck-during-free-tissue-transfer-in-head-and-neck-reconstruction
#10
Andrew J Rosko, Jesse T Ryan, Eric J Wizauer, Mohannad Ibrahim, Ashok Srinivasan, Chaz L Stucken, Matthew E Spector
BACKGROUND: The vessel-depleted neck poses a unique challenge to the microvascular surgeon. Using 3D modeling and cadaveric dissection, we describe the approach and advantages of a known but less frequently used recipient vessel, the dorsal scapular artery, during free tissue transfer. METHODS: Three patients with vessel-depleted necks required reconstruction with free tissue transfer. The dorsal scapular artery was used as a recipient vessel. Three-dimensional anatomic models were created and cadaveric dissections were performed to characterize the anatomy...
July 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428928/origin-branching-and-communications-of-the-intercostobrachial-nerve-a-meta-analysis-with-implications-for-mastectomy-and-axillary-lymph-node-dissection-in-breast-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Brandon Michael Henry, Matthew J Graves, Jakub R Pękala, Beatrice Sanna, Wan Chin Hsieh, R Shane Tubbs, Jerzy A Walocha, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN), which usually originates from the lateral cutaneous branch of the second intercostal nerve, innervates areas of the axilla, lateral chest, and medial arm. It is at risk for injury during operative procedures that are often used in the management of breast cancer and such injury has been associated with postoperative sensory loss and neuropathic pain, decreasing the quality of life. PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Biosciences Information Service (BIOSIS), and Web of Science were searched comprehensively...
March 17, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427870/all-endoscopic-brachial-plexus-complete-neurolysis-for-idiopathic-neurogenic-thoracic-outlet-syndrome-a-prospective-case-series
#12
Thibault Lafosse, Malo Le Hanneur, Laurent Lafosse
PURPOSE: To describe an all-endoscopic technique for infra- and supraclavicular brachial plexus (BP) neurolysis and to assess its functional outcomes for patients suffering from nonspecific neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS). METHODS: Between January 2010 and January 2013, 36 patients presenting an idiopathic nonspecific NTOS benefited from an endoscopic decompression in our institution. The inclusion criteria were a typical clinical NTOS and failure of a 6-month well-conducted nonsurgical treatment...
August 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417040/unusual-branching-pattern-of-the-lateral-cord-of-the-brachial-plexus-associated-with-neurovascular-compression-case-report
#13
Hitendra K Loh, Shikha Singh, Rajesh K Suri
The brachial plexus consists of a network of nerves that innervates the upper limbs and its musculature. We report a rare formation of the lateral cord of the brachial plexus observed during the dissection of a 47-year-old male cadaver at the Department of Anatomy, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi, India, in 2016. The lateral cord was exceptionally long with twin lateral pectoral nerves and twin lateral roots of the median nerve. The proximal lateral root of the median nerve was thin in comparison to the medial root of the median nerve...
February 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417038/anomalous-innervation-of-the-median-nerve-in-the-arm-in-the-absence-of-the-musculocutaneous-nerve
#14
Khursheed Raza, Seema Singh, Neerja Rani, Raghav Mishra, Kamakshi Mehta, Saroj Kaler
The brachial plexus innervates the upper extremities. While variations in the formation of the brachial plexus and its terminal branches are quite common, it is uncommon for the median nerve to innervate the muscles of the arm. During the dissection of an elderly male cadaver at the Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, in 2016, the coracobrachialis muscle was found to be supplied by a direct branch from the lateral root of the median nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve was absent...
February 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353299/an-unusual-case-of-accessory-head-of-coracobrachialis-muscle-involving-lateral-cord-of-brachial-plexus-and-its-clinical-significance
#15
Silvio Antonio Garbelotti, Sérgio Ricardo Marques, Paulo Ricardo Rocha, Valdemir Rodrigues Pereira, Luis Otavio Carvalho de Moraes
Knowledge of anatomical variations in the peripheral nervous system is key in the interpretation of unusual clinical signs or during physical or diagnostic imaging. This case study is a description of an anatomical variation between the coracobrachialis muscle and brachial plexus. In a routine dissection in the human anatomy laboratory, we were faced with an anatomical variation in the coracobrachialis muscle, observed in the upper right limb of a male cadaver. The coracobrachialis muscle had a common origin at the apex of the coracoid process and then divided into two heads...
March 29, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321484/rhabdomyolysis-resulting-in-concurrent-horner-s-syndrome-and-brachial-plexopathy-a-case-report
#16
Susan C Lee, Christian Geannette, Scott W Wolfe, Joseph H Feinberg, Darryl B Sneag
This case report describes a 29-year-old male who presented with immediate onset of Horner's syndrome and ipsilateral brachial plexopathy after sleeping with his arm dangling outside a car window for 8 h. Outside workup and imaging revealed rhabdomyolysis of the left neck musculature. Subsequent electrodiagnostic testing and high-resolution brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging at the authors' institution attributed the Horner's syndrome and concurrent brachial plexopathy to rhabdomyolysis of the longus colli and scalene musculature, which had compressed-and consequently scar tethered-the cervical sympathetic trunk and brachial plexus...
August 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135679/an-unusual-case-of-neurogenic-thoracic-outlet-syndrome
#17
Yash Vaidya, Rajan Vaithianathan
INTRODUCTION: Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is the most common manifestation of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), accounting for more than 95% of cases. It is usually caused by cervical ribs, anomalies in the scalene muscle anatomy or post-traumatic inflammatory changes causing compression of the brachial plexus. CASE PRESENTATION: We present an unusual case of nTOS caused by a cystic lymphangioma at the thoracic outlet, with only one case reported previously in the literature...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115867/sonographic-tracking-of-trunk-nerves-essential-for-ultrasound-guided-pain-management-and-research
#18
Ke-Vin Chang, Chih-Peng Lin, Chia-Shiang Lin, Wei-Ting Wu, Manoj K Karmakar, Levent Özçakar
Delineation of architecture of peripheral nerves can be successfully achieved by high-resolution ultrasound (US), which is essential for US-guided pain management. There are numerous musculoskeletal pain syndromes involving the trunk nerves necessitating US for evaluation and guided interventions. The most common peripheral nerve disorders at the trunk region include thoracic outlet syndrome (brachial plexus), scapular winging (long thoracic nerve), interscapular pain (dorsal scapular nerve), and lumbar facet joint syndrome (medial branches of spinal nerves)...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096728/high-resolution-imaging-of-neural-anatomy-and-pathology-of-the-neck
#19
REVIEW
Jeong Hyun Lee, Kai-Lung Cheng, Young Jun Choi, Jung Hwan Baek
The neck has intricately connected neural structures, including cervical and brachial plexi, the sympathetic system, lower cranial nerves, and their branches. Except for brachial plexus, there has been little research regarding the normal imaging appearance or corresponding pathologies of neural structures in the neck. The development in imaging techniques with better spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio has made it possible to see many tiny nerves to predict complications related to image-guided procedures and to better assess treatment response, especially in the management of oncology patients...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049512/a-stab-wound-to-the-axilla-illustrating-the-importance-of-brachial-plexus-anatomy-in-an-emergency-context-a-case-report
#20
Diogo Casal, Teresa Cunha, Diogo Pais, Inês Iria, Maria Angélica-Almeida, Gerardo Millan, José Videira-Castro, João Goyri-O'Neill
BACKGROUND: Although open injuries involving the brachial plexus are relatively uncommon, they can lead to permanent disability and even be life threatening if accompanied by vascular damage. We present a case report of a brachial plexus injury in which the urgency of the situation precluded the use of any ancillary diagnostic examinations and forced a rapid clinical assessment. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a Portuguese man who had a stabbing injury at the base of his left axilla...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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