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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088741/prevalence-and-correlates-of-fentanyl-contaminated-heroin-exposure-among-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-non-medically
#1
Alexandria Macmadu, Jennifer J Carroll, Scott E Hadland, Traci C Green, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: The rate of overdose deaths caused by fentanyl-contaminated heroin (FCH) use is increasing rapidly in the United States. We examined risk factors for exposure to FCH and experiences with FCH use among young adult non-medical prescription opioids (NMPO) users. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which enrolled young adults aged 18 to 29 reporting prior 30day NMPO use between January 2015 and February 2016...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086837/systemic-and-individual-factors-in-the-buprenorphine-treatment-seeking-process-a-qualitative-study
#2
Valerie M Hewell, Angel R Vasquez, Inna D Rivkin
BACKGROUND: Opioid use is a significant problem in Alaska. Medication-assisted treatment for opioid use, including buprenorphine, reduces withdrawal symptoms and the harm associated with opioid abuse. Understanding consumers' treatment-seeking process is important for addressing barriers to treatment, facilitating effective service utilization, and informing policy. METHODS: To understand treatment-seeking behavior, we examined the attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of those who would benefit from the medication-assisted treatment (MAT) buprenorphine...
January 11, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081025/transdermal-scopolamine-withdrawal-syndrome-case-report-in-the-pediatric-cerebral-palsy-population
#3
Nasim A Chowdhury, Mary Laura Sewatsky, Heakyung Kim
Sialorrhea in children with cerebral palsy (CP) results in aspiration, decreased social integration, and poor quality of life. Management options include transdermal anticholinergics such as the scopolamine patch. A controlled clinical trial has proven botulinum toxin (BTX) injections into the salivary glands are an effective alternative to transdermal anticholinergics with a safer side effect profile. Multiple studies of the injections in diverse populations demonstrate reduction in saliva production with improvement in quality of life and decrease in hospitalization-associated costs...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079573/medically-assisted-withdrawal-detoxification-considering-the-mother-infant-dyad
#4
Hendrée E Jones, Mishka Terplan, Marjorie Meyer
Recommendations for opioid agonist pharmacotherapy and against medically assisted withdrawal were based upon early reports that associated withdrawal with maternal relapse and fetal demise. Data from recent case series have called these recommendations into question. Although these data do not support an association between medically assisted withdrawal and fetal demise, relapse remains a significant clinical concern with reported rates ranging from 17% to 96% (average 48%). Given the high loss to follow-up in these studies, the actual relapse rate is likely even greater...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078168/concurrent-validity-of-caffeine-problems-and-diagnostic-criteria-for-substance-use-disorders
#5
Elizabeth Harstad, Georgios Sideridis, Lon Sherritt, Lydia A Shrier, Rosemary Ziemnik, Sharon Levy
Background: The DSM-5 proposes caffeine use disorder (CUD) as a condition for further study. The objective of this study was to report on the prevalence of CUD and rates of endorsement for each substance use disorder (SUD) criterion in relation to caffeine compared to alcohol and marijuana in a sample of adolescents presenting for medical care in the primary, adolescent, and substance use clinics at an academic medical center. Methods: A convenience sample of patients (N = 213; 66.7% female) aged 12-17 presenting for medical care completed the Composite Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module questionnaire, with questions regarding use of caffeine, alcohol, and marijuana...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Caffeine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073687/adverse-event-detection-using-the-fda-post-marketing-drug-safety-surveillance-system-cardiotoxicity-associated-with-loperamide-abuse-and-misuse
#6
Kimberley A Swank, Eileen Wu, Cindy Kortepeter, Jana McAninch, Robert L Levin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to identify and characterize post-marketing reports of cardiotoxicity, including torsades de pointes (TdP), associated with loperamide use. METHODS: We searched the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database for post-marketing reports of serious cardiac adverse events associated with loperamide use from December 28, 1976 (U.S. drug approval date), through December 14, 2015. We also conducted a Pubmed and Google Scholar search to identify additional published reports of cardiotoxicity associated with loperamide in the medical literature through February 11, 2016...
January 7, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067594/nicotine-withdrawal-relapse-of-mental-illness-or-medication-side-effect-implementing-a-monitoring-tool-for-people-with-mental-illness-into-quitline-counseling
#7
Catherine J Segan, Amanda L Baker, Alyna Turner, Jill M Williams
BACKGROUND: Smokers with mental illness and their health care providers are often concerned that smoking cessation will worsen mental health. Smokers with mental illness tend to be more nicotine dependent and experience more severe symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, some of which are difficult to distinguish from psychiatric symptoms. In addition, smoking cessation can increase the blood levels and hence side-effects of some psychotropic medications. Improved monitoring of nicotine withdrawal and medication side-effects may help distinguish temporary withdrawal symptoms from psychiatric symptoms and facilitate targeted treatment to help smokers with mental illness manage the acute phase of nicotine withdrawal...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063864/the-end-of-life-experience-of-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipients
#8
Seth A Hollander, John Dykes, Sharon Chen, Lynsey Barkoff, Barbara Sourkes, Harvey Cohen, David N Rosenthal, Daniel Bernstein, Beth D Kaufman
CONTEXT: Despite advances in therapies, many pediatric heart transplant (Htx) recipients will die prematurely. We characterized the circumstances surrounding death in this cohort, including location of death and interventions performed in the final 24 hours. METHODS: We reviewed all patients who underwent Htx at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, survived hospital discharge, and subsequently died between 7/19/2007-9/13/2015. The primary outcome studied was location of death, characterized as inpatient, outpatient, or emergency department (ED)...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063660/deprescribing-a-narrative-review-of-the-evidence-and-practical-recommendations-for-recognizing-opportunities-and-taking-action
#9
REVIEW
Emily Reeve, Wade Thompson, Barbara Farrell
Deprescribing can be defined as the process of withdrawal or dose reduction of medications which are considered inappropriate in an individual. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of "deprescribing"; firstly discussing the potential benefits and harms followed by the barriers to and enablers of deprescribing. We also provide practical recommendations to recognise opportunities and strategies for deprescribing in practice. Studies focused on minimizing polypharmacy indicate that deprescribing may be associated with potential benefits including resolution of adverse drug reactions, improved quality of life and medication adherence and a reduction in drug costs...
January 4, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063325/a-pilot-trial-of-in-vivo-nrt-sampling-to-increase-medication-adherence-in-community-corrections-smokers
#10
Karen L Cropsey, Peter S Hendricks, Samantha Schiavon, Aaron Sellers, Morgan Froelich, Richard C Shelton, Matthew J Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Individuals in the criminal justice system demonstrate high rates of cigarette use (70-80%) and low adherence to smoking cessation medication. Educational approaches have not been shown to promote adherence or cessation, though medication sampling has boosted both use and cessation. The objective of the present study was to determine whether In vivo nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sampling approach increases NRT adherence among criminal justice smokers during a subsequent quit attempt...
December 27, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062186/protective-effects-of-atorvastatin-against-morphine-induced-tolerance-and-dependence-in-mice
#11
Nasim Sadat Pajohanfar, Ehsan Mohebbi, Abolfazl Rad, Akbar Pejhan, Samad Nazemi, Bahareh Amin
[Background] In this study, we evaluated the effects of atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering medication on morphine-induced tolerance and dependence in mice. [Methods] Tolerance was induced by subcutaneous administration of morphine (20 mg/kg) to animals, twice a day for 9 days. Atorvastatin was given at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, 30 min before each morphine administration, once daily for 9 days. Hot plate test was employed to assess antinociceptive effect of morphine on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9. Dependence was evaluated by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome...
January 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061017/feasibility-and-safety-of-extended-release-naltrexone-treatment-of-opioid-and-alcohol-use-disorder-in-hiv-clinics-a-pilot-feasibility-randomized-trial
#12
P Todd Korthuis, Paula J Lum, Pamela Vergara-Rodriguez, Keith Ahamad, Evan Wood, Lynn E Kunkel, Neal L Oden, Robert Lindblad, James L Sorensen, Virgilio Arenas, Doan Ha, Raul N Mandler, Dennis Mccarty
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: HIV-infected persons with substance use disorders are least likely to benefit from advances in HIV treatment. Integration of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) into HIV clinics may increase engagement in the HIV care continuum by decreasing substance use. We aimed to compare 1) XR-NTX treatment initiation, 2) retention, and 3) safety of XR-NTX versus treatment as usual (TAU) for treating opioid use disorder (OUD) and/or alcohol use disorder (AUD) in HIV clinics...
January 6, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059433/a-12-week-extension-study-to-assess-the-safety-and-tolerability-of-naloxegol-in-patients-with-noncancer-pain-and-opioid-induced-constipation
#13
Lynn Webster, Raj Tummala, Ulysses Diva, Jaakko Lappalainen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term safety and tolerability of naloxegol with placebo in patients with opioid-induced constipation (OIC) and noncancer pain. DESIGN: Twelve-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group phase 3 extension study (KODIAC-07, NCT01395524). SETTING: Clinical investigation centers in the United States. PATIENTS: Adult outpatients (N = 302) with confirmed OIC who had completed a 12-week pivotal phase 3 study (KODIAC-04, NCT01309841)...
November 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057111/-health-economic-evaluation-of-a-23-value-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccination-pilot-programme-among-elderly-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-in-china
#14
Y P Qiu, K Zhao, X Li, L W Shi, W D Guo, X R Qi, B Y Sui, R M Zhou
Objective: From the perspective of health economics, to evaluate 23 pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination programme among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient. Methods: In the pilot counties of the project of integrated care pathway for COPD patient (Hanbin district of Hanzhong city in Shanxi Province, Qianjian district of Qingqing city, Huandao district of Qindao city in Shangdong Province, Wen county of Jiaozuo city in Henan Province), information of insurance participants of New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCS) was collected by local NRCM information system, which included general information as well as records of medical care and medical fee...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051893/shame-in-medical-education-a-randomized-study-of-the-acquisition-of-intimate-examination-skills-and-its-effect-on-subsequent-performance
#15
Wolf E Hautz, Therese Schröder, Katja A Dannenberg, Maren März, Henrike Hölzer, Olaf Ahlers, Anke Thomas
THEORY: Although medical students are exposed to a variety of emotions, the impact of emotions on learning has received little attention so far. Shame-provoking intimate examinations are among the most memorable events for students. Their emotions, however, are rarely addressed during training, potentially leading to withdrawal and avoidance and, consequently, performance deficits. However, emotions of negative valance such as shame may be particularly valuable for learning, as they might prompt mental rehearsal...
January 4, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050235/primary-liver-injury-and-delayed-resolution-of-liver-stiffness-after-alcohol-detoxification-in-heavy-drinkers-with-the-pnpla3-variant-i148m
#16
Vanessa Rausch, Teresa Peccerella, Carolin Lackner, Eray Yagmur, Helmut-Karl Seitz, Thomas Longerich, Sebastian Mueller
AIM: To investigate the influence of PNPLA3 genotype in heavy drinkers on serum markers and liver stiffness (LS) during alcohol withdrawal and its association with histology. METHODS: Caucasian heavy drinkers (n = 521) with a mean alcohol consumption of 192.1 g/d (median alcohol consumption: 169.0 g/d; 95%CI: 179.0-203.3) were enrolled at the Salem Medical Center, University of Heidelberg. LS was measured by transient elastography (Fibroscan, Echosens SA, Paris, France)...
December 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044008/immediate-vs-gradual-discontinuation-in-antipsychotic-switching-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Navot Kantor, Hiroyuki Uchida, Takefumi Suzuki, Gary Remington
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic switching is routine in clinical practice, although it remains unclear which is the preferable switching method: immediate discontinuation of the current antipsychotic or a gradual tapering approach. The first strategy has been implicated in rebound/withdrawal symptoms and emergence/exacerbation of symptoms, whereas the gradual approach is thought to pose a risk of additive or synergistic side effects if employed in the context of a crossover approach. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched...
January 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043104/long-term-combination-therapy-with-%C3%AE-blockers-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-in-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-patient-adherence-and-causes-of-withdrawal-from-medication
#18
Hueih Ling Ong, Chun-Hou Liao, Hann-Chorng Kuo
PURPOSE: To investigate long-term therapeutic effects and patient adherence to a combination therapy of a 5α-reductase inhibitor and an α-blocker and to identify causes of withdrawal from medication in patients with clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS: BPH patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) receiving combination therapy with follow-ups for 1-12 years were retrospectively analyzed. Therapeutic effects were assessed at baseline and annually by measuring International Prostatic Symptoms Score, quality of life index, total prostate volume (TPV), maximal flow rate, voided volume, postvoid residual volume and prostate-specific antigen level...
December 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042369/oral-baclofen-withdrawal-resulting-in-progressive-weakness-and-sedation-requiring-intensive-care-admission
#19
Bret D Alvis, Christopher M Sobey
Baclofen is a common medication used as a muscle relaxant and antispasmodic. Baclofen-withdrawal syndrome has many symptoms such as sedation, somnolence, and weakness but can include psychological symptoms. We present a 62-year-old female whose oral baclofen was not continued at a skilled nursing facility after discharge following inpatient surgery that led to the development of altered mental status and respiratory insufficiency necessitating intensive care unit admission. Abrupt cessation of baclofen, no matter the mode of administration to the patient, can lead to baclofen-withdrawal syndrome...
January 2017: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041869/-palliative-care-after-neonatal-intensive-care-contributions-of-leonetti-law-and-remaining-challenges
#20
P Kuhn, L Dillenseger, N Cojean, B Escande, C Zores, D Astruc
The 2005 enactment of the "Patients' rights and end-of-life care" act, known as the Leonetti law, has been accompanied by practical changes in the processes of withdrawal and withholding of active life-sustaining treatments. This law has also promoted the implementation of palliative care in perinatal medicine to avoid unreasonable therapeutic interventions and to preserve the dying patient's quality of life and human dignity. Recently, a new law has been voted by the French National Assembly and new reflections on the ethical aspects of the end of life in neonatal medicine should resume again within the French Society of Neonatology in the working group on ethical issues in neonatology...
December 29, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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