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Wederson Santos
This article discusses the main advances and challenges for understanding and evaluating disability as a restriction for social participation. This new understanding has its origins in the 2006 WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health - ICF, the 2001 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and more recently, the July 2015 Brazilian Inclusion of People with Disabilities Act (IPDA), also known as the Statute on Persons with Disabilities. The change in the understanding of disability from a merely biomedical perspective, to an understanding that is based on oppression and social inequality reinforces the idea that disability is not an individual attribute, but the result of a society that is not prepared for human diversity...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Tuany Defaveri Begossi, Janice Zarpellon Mazo
The scope of this study was to analyze the legal norms that have underpinned the alignment of organizational structures in the area of sports directed to individuals with disabilities in Brazil. The theoretical and methodological benchmark of the New Cultural History was based on the analysis of legal documents, as well as oral sources, which consist of three interviews with athletes who have experienced the period before the creation of the Brazilian Paralympic Committee. These sources were subjected to the technique of document analysis...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Jose Gonçalo Pais Estrela da Silveira Zúquete, Edinilsa Ramos de Souza, Suely Ferreira Deslandes
This study focuses on concepts involved in women trafficking for sexual exploitation according to representatives of government and nongovernmental institutions working with policies to confront and prevent trafficking and assist victims in Brazil and Portugal. An exploratory qualitative study was performed to identify the institutional discourses on women trafficking using thematic analysis. Interviewees displayed conceptual imprecision concerning women trafficking, sometimes ignoring the rights of sex workers to migrate and work in other countries...
October 20, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Carrie L Anderson, Heiko Becher, Volker Winkler
The study aimed to describe worldwide levels and trends of tobacco control policy by comparing low and middle income countries with other income categories from 2007 to 2014 and to analyze the corresponding relation to recent changes in smoking prevalence. Policy measure data representing years 2007 to 2014 were collected from all available World Health Organization (WHO) reports on the global tobacco epidemic. Corresponding policy percentage scores (PS) were calculated based on MPOWER measures. Age-standardized smoking prevalence data for years 2010 and 2015 were collected from the WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michael Heit, Nayera Guirguis, Nadine Kassis, Michelle Takase-Sanchez, Janet Carpenter
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this illustrative review is to provide guidance for the measurement of socioeconomic position when conducting health disparities research in urogynecology study populations. METHODS: Deidentified data were extracted from existing investigational review board-approved research databases for illustrative purposes. Attributes collected included the study participant's marital status, level of educational attainment (in number of years of school completed) and occupation as well as the study participant's last/only spouses' level of education and occupation...
October 25, 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Valerio Dimonte, Alvisa Palese, Paolo Chiari, Dario Laquintana, Gianni Tognoni, Paola Di Giulio
. The debate on the development of advanced nursing competences. The dossier aims to describe and disentagle the present Italian and international debate on the development and recognition of advanced nursing competences. Following a general brief description of the legislative national background, the attention is first of all focused on the lack of clarity on the definition of advanced competence, which is further complicated by the issue of their formal, contractual and economic recognition. To explore these issues a list of contributions is presented and some proposals are formulated to favor a better oriented development of the debate: a...
July 2016: Assistenza Infermieristica e Ricerca: AIR
Wei Liu, Changhong Liu, Feng Chen, Jianbo Yang, Lei Zheng
Discrimination of genetically modified organisms is increasingly demanded by legislation and consumers worldwide. The feasibility of a non-destructive discrimination of glyphosate-resistant and conventional soybean seeds and their hybrid descendants was examined by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system combined with chemometrics. Principal component analysis (PCA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) and PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) models with the first and second derivative and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation pre-treatments were applied to classify soybean seeds based on genotype...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Roya Kelishadi, Armindokht Shahsanai, Mostafa Qorbani, Gelayol Ardalan, Parinaz Poursafa, Ramin Heshmat, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh
BACKGROUND: Exposure to smoking or passive smoking is one of serious health problems especially in the pediatric age group. OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence and determinants of passive smoking in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents according to their socioeconomic status (SES). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011 - 2012 among 14880 students aged 6 - 18 years, living in 30 provinces in Iran...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Kerry McBroom
One thousand people die every day in India as a result of TB, a preventable and treatable disease, even though the Constitution of India, government schemes, and international law guarantee available, accessible, acceptable, quality health care. Failure to address the spread of TB and to provide quality treatment to all affected populations constitutes a public health and human rights emergency that demands action and accountability. As part of a broader strategy, health activists in India employ Public Interest Litigation (PIL) to hold the state accountable for rights violations and to demand new legislation, standards for patient care, accountability for under-spending, improvements in services at individual facilities, and access to government entitlements in marginalized communities...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Gitau Mburu, Enrique Restoy, Evaline Kibuchi, Paula Holland, Anthony D Harries
Adherence to treatment is a key element for global TB control. Public health laws can be used to enforce isolation, adherence, and completion of TB treatment. However, the practical application of public health laws can potentially range from voluntary measures to involuntary detention approaches. This paper explores the potential risks and impacts of using detention approaches to enforce TB treatment adherence. In August 2015, we conducted a literature search regarding the application of public health laws to enforce adherence to TB treatment globally, and specifically in Kenya...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Leslie London, Helen Cox, Fons Coomans
The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress (REBSP) is a little-known but potentially valuable right that can contribute to rights-based approaches to addressing multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). We argue that better understanding of the REBSP may help to advance legal and civil society action for health rights. While the REBSP does not provide an individual entitlement to have a new drug developed for MDR-TB, it sets up entitlements to expect a state to establish a legislative and policy framework aimed at developing scientific capacity to address the most important health issues and at disseminating the outcomes of scientific research...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
P Engel, M F Almas, M L De Bruin, K Starzyk, S Blackburn, N A Dreyer
AIM: To describe and characterise the first cohort of Post-Authorisation Safety Study (PASS) protocols reviewed under the recent European Pharmacovigilance Legislation. METHODS: A systematic approach was used to compile all publicly available information on PASS protocols and assessments submitted from July 2012 to July 2015 from Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) minutes, European Medicines Agency (EMA) and European Network of Pharmacovigilance and Pharmacoepidemiology (ENCePP) webpages...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Samuel R Bagenstos
This article will discuss the legal obligations of medical schools to accommodate applicants and students with disabilities. The article begins by describing the problem of denial of medical education to such students, a problem that results from both discrimination in admissions and denial of accommodations to incumbent students with disabilities. The article then discusses the disability rights legislation that prohibits discrimination against-and requires reasonable accommodation of-qualified medical students with disabilities...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Małgorzata Stępień, Katarzyna Piwowarow, Mirosław P Czarkowski
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis B in Poland in 2014 in comparison with the previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The evaluation of the epidemiological situation was carried out on a basis of analysis of data from case-based reports on acute hepatitis B registered by sanitary and epidemiological stations, aggregate data derived from annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland”, data from annual bulletin “Vaccinations in Poland” and data on locally registered HBsAg carriers...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
William J Fielding
This article compares results from a study in 2014 with a similar study from 1998 (Fielding, 1999 ) to examine changes in the care of dogs in New Providence, The Bahamas. The results from a survey of 379 residents indicated a general lack of improvement in matters associated with the care of dogs during the past 16 years. For example, in 1998, it was estimated that 35% of caregivers had at least 1 dog sterilized, and in 2014, the corresponding figure was 37%. In 1998, 14% of households with dogs allowed their dogs to roam compared with 41...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
R Aubry
On February 2, 2016, the French parliament adopted legislation creating new rights for the terminally ill. The text modifies and reinforces the rights of patients to end-of-life care and strengthens the status of surrogate decision makers. Under the new regulations, advance directives become legally binding though not unenforceable. Two types of advance directives are distinguished depending on whether the person is suffering or not from a serious illness when drafting them. The attending physician must abide by the patient's advance directives except in three situations: there is a life-threatening emergency; the directives are manifestly inappropriate; the directives are not compatible with the patient's medical condition...
October 21, 2016: Revue Neurologique
Dale Fisher, Paul Wicks, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
The development of new therapies has a rich history, evolves quickly with societal trends, and will have an exciting future. The last century has seen an exponential increase in complex interactions between medical practitioners, pharmaceutical companies, governments and patients. We believe technology and societal expectations will open up the opportunity for more individuals to participate as information becomes more freely available and inequality less acceptable. Corporations must recognize that usual market forces do not function ideally in a setting where health is regarded as a human right, and as modern consumers, patients will increasingly take control of their own data, wellbeing, and even the means of production for developing their own treatments...
October 25, 2016: BMC Medicine
Andrew K Cordova, Robin Feldman
Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. 'The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Anna Sagan, Iwona Kowalska-Bobko, Anna Mokrzycka
Between 2006 and 2015, the Act on the State Emergency Medical System was the key act governing the organization, financing and provision of emergency care in Poland. From the moment it entered into force, it had been heavily criticized. The critique focused, among others, on the lack of provisions allowing for emergency medical services (EMS) to be performed outside the EMS units, the lack of a separate Act regulating the profession of a medical rescuer and the lack of a separate professional organization representing medical rescuers...
September 21, 2016: Health Policy
Francis Barchi, Madison T Little
BACKGROUND: Ethical and regulatory guidance on the collection and use of human biospecimens (HBS) for research forms an essential component of national health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rapid advances in genetic- and genomic-based technologies are fueling clinical trials involving HBS and the establishment of large-scale biobanks. METHODS: An extensive multi-level search for publicly available ethics regulatory guidance was conducted for each SSA country...
October 22, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
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