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Yuyan Gao, Li Li, David C Schwebel, Peishan Ning, Peixia Cheng, Guoqing Hu
Social medical insurance schemes are crucial for realizing universal health coverage and health equity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how reimbursement for injury-induced medical expenses is addressed in Chinese legislative documents relevant to social medical insurance. We retrieved legislative documents from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure and the Lawyee databases. Four types of social medical insurance schemes were included: urban employee basic medical insurance, urban resident basic medical insurance, new rural cooperative medical system, and urban and rural resident medical insurance...
2018: PloS One
Jacqueline H Wolf
In the late 19th-century United States and Europe, infants died at high rates from diarrhea. Physicians and social justice advocates responded to the public health crisis with attempts to clean up the water and cows' milk supplies, as well as social welfare legislation and assorted educational efforts to help mothers better care for their children. Most visible among the educational efforts were breastfeeding campaigns. A century later in developing countries, physicians and activists were confronted with a similar problem-infants dying from diarrhea due to the unethical advertising and marketing practices of formula companies...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
Boon Phiaw Kho, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Ching Jou Lim, Fahad Saleem
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this research were to determine extra-organisational challenges (e.g. market competition, governing policies) faced by community pharmacies in Sarawak, the coping strategies employed to deal with these challenges and explore potential legislative changes that can attenuate the intensity of these challenges. METHODS: Survey questionnaires (n = 184) were posted to all eligible community pharmacies in Sarawak, Malaysia. The questionnaire included sections on participants' demographic data, extra-organisational challenges faced, coping strategies employed and proposals to improve community pharmacy legislations...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Amy Y Carney
Public Health Nurses are the largest group of public health practitioners in both local and state health departments across the United States. Essential for the delivery of health services in the community, Public Health Nurses frequently provide care for underserved and vulnerable populations. Among these populations are the victims of campus sexual assault, a growing problem on college and university campuses. Both nationally and internationally, sexual assault has been described as a public health and human rights concern...
March 15, 2018: Public Health Nursing
Isatou K Jallow, John Britton, Tessa Langley
BACKGROUND: Annually, 600 000 deaths are attributed to exposure of non-smokers to secondhand smoke (SHS). These include 165 000 among children, about 60% of which occur in Africa and Southeast Asia. As of 2017, only seven countries in the African region had comprehensive smoke-free legislation covering all public places. Given the increasing prevalence of smoking in many low-income countries, preventing exposure to SHS is an urgent public health priority, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Leandro Nóbrega, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
New psychoactive substances (NPS), often referred as 'legal highs' or 'designer drugs', are derivatives and analogs of existing psychoactive drugs that are introduced in the recreational market to circumvent existing legislation on drugs of abuse. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art regarding chemical, molecular pharmacology, and in vitro and in vivo data on toxicokinetics of the potent synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP or flakka or zombie drug). Chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical effects of α-PVP were searched in PubMed (U...
March 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Caroline Daly, Eve Griffin, Darren M Ashcroft, Roger T Webb, Ivan J Perry, Ella Arensman
Background: Intentional drug overdose (IDO) is the most common form of hospital-treated self-harm, yet no national study has systematically classified the range of drugs involved using a validated system. We aimed to determine the profile of patients engaging in overdose, to identify drugs frequently used and to quantify the contributions of multiple drug use and alcohol involvement. Methods: Between 2012 and 2014, the National Self-Harm Registry, Ireland recorded 18 329 presentations of non-fatal IDO to Irish emergency departments...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Irene Papanicolas, Liana R Woskie, Ashish K Jha
Importance: Health care spending in the United States is a major concern and is higher than in other high-income countries, but there is little evidence that efforts to reform US health care delivery have had a meaningful influence on controlling health care spending and costs. Objective: To compare potential drivers of spending, such as structural capacity and utilization, in the United States with those of 10 of the highest-income countries (United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Australia, Japan, Sweden, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Denmark) to gain insight into what the United States can learn from these nations...
March 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
M T Adil, C Konstantinou, D J Porter, S Dolan
Objective: Quad bike or all-terrain vehicle (ATV) related injuries are a significant cause of trauma and may present with severe or fatal injuries. Most of the literature describing ATV related injuries come from North America and Australasia and data from the United Kingdom is scarce despite a high prevalence of ATV use. The aim of this study was to describe our single centre experience with ATV injuries over a 6-year period from 2010 to 2015. Materials and Methods: This is a cohort analysis of 65 patients who presented with ATV related injuries in South West Acute Hospital, UK between 2010 and 2015...
May 2017: Ulster Medical Journal
Anastasia Vlachou, Panayiota Stavroussi, Olga Roka, Evdokia Vasilou, Dimitra Papadimitriou, Chiara Scaratti, Asel Kadyrbaeva, Klemens Fheodoroff, Valentina Brecelj, Olga Svestkova, Beata Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Jon Erik Finnvold, Sonja Gruber, Matilde Leonardi
The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among the European working age population, as well as the implications for the individual and societal level, underline the need for policy guidelines targeting the effective inclusion of persons with chronic diseases in the workplace. The aim of the present paper was to explore the perspectives of European and National-level stakeholders on existing strategies for work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases, and to provide policy guidelines. A highly-structured interview protocol was distributed to 58 National level stakeholders (policy makers, professionals and employers) from seven European countries...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Santiago Celaya González, Daniel Rábago Gómez, Ismael Fuente Merino, Luis Quindós López, Núria Bon Carreras, María Trinidad Valero Castell, José Luis Gutierrez Villanueva, Carlos Sainz Fernández
Radon-222, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, responsible together with its progeny of around 50% of the average effective dose received by the population, has not been regulated by law until the recent Directive 2013/51 /Euratom. Its transposition into Spanish legislation was made in the recent RD 314/2016, which sets at limit value of 500 Bq l-1 for radon-222 in water for human consumption. Intercomparison exercises, such as those carried out by IPROMA SL and the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity of the Cantabria University (LARUC) in November 2015 and December 2016, represent the most useful tool available for detecting problems and taking corrective actions necessary for an efficient measurement by part of the laboratories...
March 9, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
M Say, A Beauchet, I Vouldoukis, P Beauchet, D Boudet, E Tella, E Mahé
BACKGROUND: The major risk factor is exposure to solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation, in particular during childhood and adolescence. In France a law was restricted tanning-bed access to adults (≥18 years) since 1997. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate teenagers' artificial tanning behaviour in 2016 and to compare results with those obtained in a similar survey performed in 2011. METHODS: The SOLADO 2011 and 2016 surveys were conducted in a general school in Antony and a technical school in Fontenay-aux-Roses (Paris suburb)...
March 13, 2018: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Sahra Gibbon, Waleska Aureliano
Within the context of a globalising agenda for genetic research where 'global health' is increasingly seen as necessarily informed by and having to account for genomics, the focus on rare genetic diseases is becoming prominent. Drawing from ethnographic research carried out separately by both authors in Brazil, this paper examines how an emerging focus on two different arenas of rare genetic disease, cancer genetics and a class of degenerative neurological diseases known as Ataxias, is subject to and a product of the dynamics of inclusion and exclusion as this concerns participation in research and access to health care...
April 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
Connie McGilloway, David Smith, Rose Galvin
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of sexual violence against adults with intellectual disability is significantly higher than in the general population. The aim of this systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis was to explore the barriers faced by adults with intellectual disability in reporting sexual assault from the perspective of different stakeholders. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Stergios Vakalis, Carlo Caligiuri, Konstantinos Moustakas, Dimitris Malamis, Massimiliano Renzi, Marco Baratieri
There is a growing market demand for small-scale biomass gasifiers that is driven by the economic incentives and the legislative framework. Small-scale gasifiers produce a gaseous fuel, commonly referred to as producer gas, with relatively low heating value. Thus, the most common energy conversion systems that are coupled with small-scale gasifiers are internal combustion engines. In order to increase the electrical efficiency, the operators choose dual fuel engines and mix the producer gas with diesel. The Wiebe function has been a valuable tool for assessing the efficiency of dual fuel internal combustion engines...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lee Verweel, Zahava R S Rosenberg-Yunger, Taranom Movahedi, Allan H Malek
Background: Canada legalized assisted dying with the passing of Bill C-14, Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD), in June 2016. This legislation has implications for health care professionals participating in MAiD. This research aims to understand the effect that MAiD has on pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in Canada. Methods: We conducted a thematic document analysis of pharmacy guidelines, position statements and standards of practice from pharmacy regulatory authorities across Canada...
March 2018: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
L Manyes, L Escrivá, M J Ruiz, A Juan-García
Several mycotoxins exert their effect on the immunological system; some are classified as immunotoxic. Jurkat T-cells were used to study toxic effects of beauvericin (BEA) and enniatin B (ENN B). Both are not legislated mycotoxins with increasing presence in feed and food. Concentrations studied were from 1 to 15 μM at 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell death by increasing the percentage of apoptotic/necrotic cells was: BEA > ENN B. IC50 values ranged from 3 to 7.5 μM for BEA. ENN B 15 μM decreased viability (21-29%)...
March 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
James Davison
Novel technological developments mean that gene editing - making deliberately targeted alterations in specific genes - is now a clinical reality. The inherited metabolic disorders, a group of clinically significant, monogenic disorders, provide a useful paradigm to explore some of the many ethical issues that arise from this technological capability. Fundamental questions about the significance of the genome, and of manipulating it by selection or editing, are reviewed, and a particular focus on the legislative process that has permitted the development of mitochondrial donation techniques is considered...
April 2018: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
Karim Sabeh, Milad Alam, Samuel Rosas, Shahrose Hussain, Michaela Schneiderbauer
INTRODUCTION: The growing trends of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) foreshadow an inevitable increase in the financial burden on healthcare expenditure estimated to almost nine billion dollars annually. This study aims to demonstrate the potential savings when using all-polyethylene (AP) compared to metal-backed (MB) tibial components and describes the cost variability amongst three major commercially available implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cost of AP versus MB implants was analyzed using a large nationwide database, Emergency Care Research Institute (ECRI)...
March 12, 2018: Surgical Technology International
Sekar Ayu Paramita, Chiho Yamazaki, Elsa Pudji Setiawati, Hiroshi Koyama
Indonesia has been decentralized since 2001, and we evaluated the distribution trends of physicians, puskesmas (community health centers), hospitals, and hospital beds in 34 provinces in Indonesia for 2000 to 2014. Inequality index of Gini showed improvement of the distribution of physicians and decreased from 0.38 to 0.29. The indices in distributions of hospitals and hospital beds also decreased from 0.26 to 0.17 and from 0.25 to 0.18, respectively. However, the index in the distribution of puskesmas increased from 0...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
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