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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323619/fast-spiking-gaba-circuit-dynamics-in-the-auditory-cortex-predict-recovery-of-sensory-processing-following-peripheral-nerve-damage
#1
Jennifer Resnik, Daniel B Polley
Cortical neurons remap their receptive fields and rescale sensitivity to spared peripheral inputs following sensory nerve damage. To address how these plasticity processes are coordinated over the course of functional recovery, we tracked receptive field reorganization, spontaneous activity, and response gain from individual principal neurons in the adult mouse auditory cortex over a 50-day period surrounding either moderate or massive auditory nerve damage. We related the day-by-day recovery of sound processing to dynamic changes in the strength of intracortical inhibition from parvalbumin-expressing (PV) inhibitory neurons...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322960/sericin-binded-deprotenized-natural-rubber-film-containing-chitin-whiskers-as-elasto-gel-dressing
#2
Anyarat Watthanaphanit, Ratana Rujiravanit
Here, we aims to demonstrate a simple concept in biomaterials design by using natural resources solely as raw materials to fabricate elastic wound care dressing. Elasto-gel films comprise of silk sericin (SRC), natural rubber (NR), and chitin whisker (CTW) were developed. A glue-like protein SRC found in silk cocoons is beneficial for the treatment of wounds due to its superior skin moisturizing ability. However, the pure SRC film is generally difficult to be fabricated because of its weak structural feature...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322596/motor-imagery-during-action-observation-increases-eccentric-hamstring-force-an-acute-non-physical-intervention
#3
Matthew Scott, Stephen Taylor, Paul Chesterton, Stefan Vogt, Daniel Lloyd Eaves
PURPOSE: Rehabilitation professionals typically use motor imagery (MI) or action observation (AO) to increase physical strength for injury prevention and recovery. Here we compared hamstring force gains for MI during AO (AO + MI) against two pure MI training groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 3-week intervention physically fit adults imagined Nordic hamstring exercises in both legs and synchronized this with a demonstration of the same action (AO + MI), or they purely imagined this action (pure MI), or imagined upper-limb actions (pure MI-control)...
March 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316572/eccentric-ergometer-training-promotes-locomotor-muscle-strength-but-not-mitochondrial-adaptation-in-patients-with-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Norah J MacMillan, Sophia Kapchinsky, Yana Konokhova, Gilles Gouspillou, Riany de Sousa Sena, R Thomas Jagoe, Jacinthe Baril, Tamara E Carver, Ross E Andersen, Ruddy Richard, Hélène Perrault, Jean Bourbeau, Russell T Hepple, Tanja Taivassalo
Eccentric ergometer training (EET) is increasingly being proposed as a therapeutic strategy to improve skeletal muscle strength in various cardiorespiratory diseases, due to the principle that lengthening muscle actions lead to high force-generating capacity at low cardiopulmonary load. One clinical population that may particularly benefit from this strategy is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as ventilatory constraints and locomotor muscle dysfunction often limit efficacy of conventional exercise rehabilitation in patients with severe disease...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315898/modifiable-risk-factors-and-interventions-for-childhood-obesity-prevention-within-the-first-1-000-days
#5
Anne M Dattilo
Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315193/resistance-training-using-different-hypoxic-training-strategies-a-basis-for-hypertrophy-and-muscle-power-development
#6
REVIEW
Belén Feriche, Amador García-Ramos, Antonio J Morales-Artacho, Paulino Padial
The possible muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscle power benefits of resistance training under environmental conditions of hypoxia are currently being investigated.Nowadays, resistance training in hypoxia constitutes a promising new training strategy for strength and muscle gains. The main mechanisms responsible for these effects seem to be related to increased metabolite accumulation due to hypoxia. However, no data are reported in the literature to describe and compare the efficacy of the different hypertrophic resistance training strategies in hypoxia...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304092/mediation-of-cognitive-function-improvements-by-strength-gains-after-resistance-training-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-outcomes-of-the-study-of-mental-and-resistance-training
#7
Yorgi Mavros, Nicola Gates, Guy C Wilson, Nidhi Jain, Jacinda Meiklejohn, Henry Brodaty, Wei Wen, Nalin Singh, Bernhard T Baune, Chao Suo, Michael K Baker, Nasim Foroughi, Yi Wang, Perminder S Sachdev, Michael Valenzuela, Maria A Fiatarone Singh
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2peak ) and strength after progressive resistance training (PRT) mediate improvements in cognitive function. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, double-sham, controlled trial. SETTING: University research facility. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling older adults (aged ≥55) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (N = 100). INTERVENTION: PRT and cognitive training (CT), 2 to 3 days per week for 6 months...
March 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303048/studies-on-physico-chemical-and-cooking-characteristics-of-rice-bean-varieties-grown-in-ne-region-of-india
#8
Rejaul Hoque Bepary, D D Wadikar, Seuji Borah Neog, P E Patki
Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) is grown in South and Southeast Asia, and the bean has gained importance due to its nutritional strength in terms of dietary fiber, quality protein and minerals. In current study, the nutritional and functional components, cooking and thermo-gravimetric properties of eleven rice bean varieties from NE India were investigated. Results revealed that the major nutrients among the varieties ranged as follows: 54.21-60.49% carbohydrates, 15.64-21.60% protein, 1.22-2.3% fat, 5.53-6.56% crude fibre, 3...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302142/maximum-inspiratory-pressure-as-a-clinically-meaningful-trial-endpoint-for-neuromuscular-diseases-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Benedikt Schoser, Edward Fong, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Derralynn Hughes, John T Kissel, Shyam C Madathil, David Orlikowski, Michael I Polkey, Mark Roberts, Harm A W M Tiddens, Peter Young
Respiratory muscle strength is a proven predictor of long-term outcome of neuromuscular disease (NMD), including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and spinal muscular atrophy. Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), a sensitive measure of respiratory muscle strength, one of several useful tests of respiratory muscle strength, is gaining interest as a therapeutic clinical trial endpoint for NMD. In this comprehensive review we investigate the use of MIP as a measure of respiratory muscle strength in clinical trials of therapeutics targeting respiratory muscle, examine the correlation of MIP with survival, quality of life, and other measures of pulmonary function, and outline the role of MIP as a clinically significantly meaningful outcome measure...
March 16, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300461/evaluation-of-serial-casting-for-boys-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-case-report
#10
Kate Carroll, Katy de Valle, Andrew Kornberg, Monique Ryan, Rachel Kennedy
AIM: To report the effects of below-knee serial casting in two boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who presented with well-preserved strength and calf shortening. METHODS: Bilateral below-knee serial casts were applied over two weeks with follow-up of daily stretching and wearing of customized night splints. Outcome measures were performed at baseline, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-casting. These included measures of calf length, leg strength, motor function, endurance, and spatio-temporal gait parameters...
March 16, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299717/physical-activity-and-maximal-oxygen-uptake-in-adults-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#11
Itai Gross, Harry J Hirsch, Naama Constantini, Shachar Nice, Yehuda Pollak, Larry Genstil, Talia Eldar-Geva, Varda Gross Tsur
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is the most common genetic syndrome causing life-threatening obesity. Strict adherence to a low-calorie diet and regular physical activity are needed to prevent weight gain. Direct measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), the "gold standard" for assessing aerobic exercise capacity, has not been previously described in PWS. OBJECTIVES: Assess aerobic capacity by direct measurement of VO2 max in adults with PWS, and in age and BMI-matched controls (OC), and compare the results with values obtained by indirect prediction methods...
March 16, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298063/long-term-correction-in-sleep-disturbance-is-sustained-after-arthroscopic-rotator-cuff-repair
#12
John G Horneff, Fotios Tjoumakaris, Charles Wowkanech, Matthew Pepe, Bradford Tucker, Luke Austin
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is a major complaint of patients with rotator cuff disease that often leads them to seek treatment. The authors previously reported a prospective analysis of patients who underwent rotator cuff repair and found that sleep disturbance significantly improved at 3 months after surgery. That improvement in sleep was maintained at 6 months. HYPOTHESIS: In the current study, the authors sought to gain medium-term data on this same population at greater than 2 years...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294567/growth-hormone-secretagogues-prevent-dysregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-calcium-homeostasis-in-a-rat-model-of-cisplatin-induced-cachexia
#13
Elena Conte, Giulia Maria Camerino, Antonietta Mele, Michela De Bellis, Sabata Pierno, Francesco Rana, Adriano Fonzino, Roberta Caloiero, Laura Rizzi, Elena Bresciani, Khoubaib Ben Haj Salah, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Arcangela Giustino, Maria Addolorata Mariggiò, Mauro Coluccia, Domenico Tricarico, Marcello Diego Lograno, Annamaria De Luca, Antonio Torsello, Diana Conte, Antonella Liantonio
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with cancer types and, at the same time, is a serious and dose-limiting side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle loss is one of the main characteristics of cachexia that significantly contributes to the functional muscle impairment. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle decline observed in cachexia, but whether intracellular calcium homeostasis is affected in this situation remains uncertain...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293018/exploring-the-relationship-between-%C3%AE-actinin-3-deficiency-and-obesity-in-mice-and-humans
#14
P J Houweling, Y D Berman, N Turner, K G R Quinlan, J T Seto, N Yang, M Lek, D G Macarthur, G Cooney, K N North
Obesity is a worldwide health crisis and the identification of genetic modifiers of weight gain is crucial in understanding this complex disorder. A common null polymorphism in the fast fiber-specific gene ACTN3 (R577X) is known to influence skeletal muscle function and metabolism. α-Actinin-3 deficiency occurs in an estimated 1.5 billion people worldwide, and results in reduced muscle strength and a shift towards a more efficient oxidative metabolism. The X-allele has undergone strong positive selection during recent human evolution and in this study we sought to determine whether ACTN3 genotype influences weight gain and obesity in mice and humans...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289956/investigation-of-the-morphological-transition-of-a-phospholipid-bilayer-membrane-in-an-external-electric-field-via-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#15
Zhe Kong, Hongbo Wang, Lijun Liang, Zhisen Zhang, Shibo Ying, Quan Hu, Jia-Wei Shen
Elucidating the mechanisms for morphological transitions of the phospholipid bilayer membrane during cellular activity should lead to greater understanding of these membrane transitions and allow us to optimize biotechnologies such as drug delivery systems in organisms. To investigate the mechanism for and the dynamics of morphological changes in the phospholipid membrane, we performed molecular dynamics simulation of a phospholipid membrane with and without membrane protein under the influence of electric fields with different strengths...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289883/global-reduction-of-information-exchange-during-anesthetic-induced-unconsciousness
#16
Christina Hamilton, Yuncong Ma, Nanyin Zhang
During anesthetic-induced unconsciousness (AIU), the brain undergoes a dramatic change in its capacity to exchange information between regions. However, the spatial distribution of information exchange loss/gain across the entire brain remains elusive. In the present study, we acquired and analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data in rats during wakefulness and graded levels of consciousness induced by incrementally increasing the concentration of isoflurane. We found that, regardless of spatial scale, the functional connectivity (FC) change (i...
March 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288334/trunk-biomechanics-during-hemiplegic-gait-after-stroke-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Tamaya Van Criekinge, Wim Saeys, Ann Hallemans, Silke Velghe, Pieter-Jan Viskens, Luc Vereeck, Willem De Hertogh, Steven Truijen
Stroke commonly results in trunk impairments that are associated with decreased trunk coordination and limited trunk muscle strength. These impairments often result in biomechanical changes during walking. Additionally, the so-called pelvic step might be influenced by these impairments. Therefore, the aim of this review was twofold. First, to gain more insight into trunk biomechanics during walking in stroke patients compared to healthy individuals. Second, to investigate the influence of walking speed on trunk biomechanics...
March 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286990/the-quest-for-new-drugs-to-prevent-osteoporosis-related-fractures
#18
REVIEW
T J de Villiers
There is a need for the development of new drugs to prevent osteoporosis-related fractures. Fractures are projected to increase and the present drugs have modest efficacy, significant side-effects and poor compliance. To illustrate the difficulties in the development of new drugs, the author reviews the fate of several drugs that have failed to gain regulatory approval. These drugs include arzoxifene, lasofoxifene, MK-5442, roncalceret and odanacatib. Romosozumab and abaloparatide are the only new drugs presently in phase-3 development...
April 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284944/citizen-sensor-networks-to-confront-government-decision-makers-two-lessons-from-the-netherlands
#19
Linda Carton, Peter Ache
This paper presents one emerging social-technical innovation: The evolution of citizen-sensor-networks where citizens organize themselves from the 'bottom up', for the sake of confronting governance officials with measured information about environmental qualities. We have observed how citizen-sensor-networks have been initiated in the Netherlands in cases where official government monitoring and business organizations leave gaps. The formed citizen-sensor-networks collect information about issues that affect the local community in their quality-of-living...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282484/a-systematic-review-of-isometric-lingual-strength-training-programs-in-adults-with-and-without-dysphagia
#20
Victoria S McKenna, Bin Zhang, Morgan B Haines, Lisa N Kelchner
Purpose: This systematic review summarizes the effects of isometric lingual strength training on lingual strength and swallow function in adult populations. Furthermore, it evaluates the designs of the reviewed studies and identifies areas of future research in isometric lingual strength training for dysphagia remediation. Method: A comprehensive literature search of 3 databases and additional backward citation search identified 10 studies for inclusion in the review...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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