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Strength Gains

Andrea Murillo, Nora A Kolter, Anssi Laurila, Germán Orizaola
1.In seasonal environments, modifications in the phenology of life-history events can alter the strength of time-constraints experienced by organisms. Offspring can compensate for a change in timing of hatching by modifying their growth and development trajectories. However, intra- and inter -specific interactions may affect these compensatory responses, in particular if differences in phenology between cohorts lead to significant priority effects (i.e. the competitive advantage that early hatching individuals have over late hatching ones)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Ashley Page, David Perry, Philip Young, Daniel A Mitchell, Bruno G Frenguelli, Patrick R Unwin
A vast range of interfacial systems exhibit charge heterogeneities on the nanoscale. These differences in local surface charge density are challenging to visualize, but recent work has shown the scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) to be a very promising tool to spatially resolve and map surface charge and topography via a hopping potential sweep technique with a single nanopipette probe, with harmonic modulation of a bias applied between quasi-reference counter electrodes in the nanopipette and bulk solution, coupled with lock-in detection...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Jeffrey L Crabtree, David Ohm, Jarrod M Wall, Joseph Ray
This pilot study explored the strengths and weaknesses of an informal education program and identified elements of the program valued by participants. Participants were men living in a minimum security prison who had been incarcerated for ten or more years. The outside researcher was joined by three former program participants as co-researchers. Together, they interviewed 27 residents who completed the informal education program. Interviews were transcribed and de-identified. Researchers used the summative content analysis approach to analyze the data...
October 24, 2016: Occupational Therapy International
Viviane Nart, André O'Reilly Beringhs, Maria Terezinha França, Brenda de Espíndola, Bianca Ramos Pezzini, Hellen Karine Stulzer
Mini-tablets are a new tendency in solid dosage form design for overcoming therapeutic obstacles such as impaired swallowing and polypharmacy therapy. Among their advantages, these systems offer therapeutic benefits such as dose flexibility and combined drug release patterns. The use of lipids in the formulation has also drawn considerable interest as means to modify the drug release from the dosage form. Therefore, this paper aimed at developing sustained release mini-tablets containing the highly soluble drugs captopril and metformin hydrochloride...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
M Arcan Ertürk, Xiaoping Wu, Yiğitcan Eryaman, Pierre-François Van de Moortele, Edward J Auerbach, Russell L Lagore, Lance DelaBarre, J Thomas Vaughan, Kâmil Uğurbil, Gregor Adriany, Gregory J Metzger
PURPOSE: To explore the potential of performing body imaging at 10.5 Tesla (T) compared with 7.0T through evaluating the transmit/receive performance of similarly configured dipole antenna arrays. METHODS: Fractionated dipole antenna elements for 10.5T body imaging were designed and evaluated using numerical simulations. Transmit performance of antenna arrays inside the prostate, kidneys and heart were investigated and compared with those at 7.0T using both phase-only radiofrequency (RF) shimming and multi-spoke pulses...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Matilde M Vaghi, Petra E Vértes, Manfred G Kitzbichler, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Febe E van der Flier, Naomi A Fineberg, Akeem Sule, Rashid Zaman, Valerie Voon, Prantik Kundu, Edward T Bullmore, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: A recent hypothesis has suggested that core deficits in goal-directed behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are caused by impaired frontostriatal function. We tested this hypothesis in OCD patients and control subjects by relating measures of goal-directed planning and cognitive flexibility to underlying resting-state functional connectivity. METHODS: Multiecho resting-state acquisition, combined with micromovement correction by blood oxygen level-dependent sensitive independent component analysis, was used to obtain in vivo measures of functional connectivity in 44 OCD patients and 43 healthy comparison subjects...
August 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
A D Surowka, M Töpperwien, M Bernhardt, J D Nicolas, M Osterhoff, T Salditt, D Adamek, M Szczerbowska-Boruchowska
Human dopaminergic system in general, and substantia nigra (SN) neurons, in particular, are implicated in the pathologies underlying the human brain aging. The interplay between aberrations in the structural organization and elemental composition of SN neuron bodies has recently gained in importance as selected metals: Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca were found to trigger oxidative-stress-mediated aberration in their molecular assembly due to concomitant protein (alpha-synuclein, tau-protein) aggregation, gliosis and finally oxidative stress...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Wen-Chyuan Chen, Yi-Ming Chen, Chi-Chang Huang, Yen-Dun Tzeng
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Naomi Priest, Laura Thompson, Tamara Mackean, Alison Baker, Elizabeth Waters
OBJECTIVE: Australian Indigenous children experience some of the most substantial health inequalities globally. In this context, research regarding their health and well-being has overemphasised physical illnesses with limited exploration of a diverse range of dimensions and determinants, particularly those based on Indigenous holistic understandings of health and well-being. This deficit-based approach has thus missed many strengths and assets of Indigenous children. This research aimed to gain insight into the perspectives of Indigenous children about their health and well-being in an urban setting in Australia...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
The application of physiological measures to conservation monitoring has been gaining momentum and, while a suite of physiological traits are available to ascertain disturbance and condition in wildlife populations, glucocorticoids (i.e., GCs; cortisol and corticosterone) are the most heavily employed. The interpretation of GC levels as sensitive indicators of population change necessitates that GCs and metrics of population persistence are linked. However, the relationship between GCs and fitness may be highly context-dependent, changing direction, or significance, depending on the GC measure, fitness metric, life history stage, or other intrinsic and extrinsic contexts considered...
July 27, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Daniel Stäb, Steffen Bollmann, Christian Langkammer, Kristian Bredies, Markus Barth
With the advent of ultra-high field MRI scanners in clinical research, susceptibility based MRI has recently gained increasing interest because of its potential to assess subtle tissue changes underlying neurological pathologies/disorders. Conventional, but rather slow, three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences are typically employed to assess the susceptibility of tissue. 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) represents a fast alternative but generally comes with echo-time restrictions, geometrical distortions and signal dropouts that can become severe at ultra-high fields...
October 20, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Karen Schipper, Minne Bakker, Tineke Abma
PURPOSE: The aim of this article is to describe how fatigue affects the lives of people with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD), how they experience fatigue, and how they deal with it in order to attune rehabilitation care to patients' needs. METHOD: A qualitative study, consisting of 25 semistructured interviews with patients with FSHD and severe fatigue (as measured with the checklist individual strength (CIS) fatigue questionnaire), was conducted to gain insight into the experiences of patients with fatigue...
October 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Xiaoyu Zhuang, Bing Zhao, Shu Liu, Fengrui Song, Fengchao Cui, Zhiqiang Liu, Yunqi Li
Misfolding and aggregation of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is implicated in the etiology amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The use of small molecules may stabilize the spatial structure of SOD1 dimer, thus preventing its dissociation and aggregation. In this study, "native" mass spectrometry (MS) was used to study the non-covalent interactions between SOD1 and flavonoid compounds. MS experiments were performed on a quadruple time-of-flight (Q-ToF) mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source and T-wave ion mobility...
October 19, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Stephen J Nicholas, Steven J Lee, Michael J Mullaney, Timothy F Tyler, Takumi Fukunaga, Christopher D Johnson, Malachy P McHugh
BACKGROUND: The functional benefits of double-row (DR) versus single-row (SR) rotator cuff repair are not clearly established. PURPOSE: To examine the effect of DR versus SR rotator cuff repair on functional outcomes and strength recovery in patients with full-thickness tears. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Forty-nine patients were randomized to DR or SR repairs; 36 patients (13 women, 23 men; mean age, 62 ± 7 years; 20 SR, 16 DR) were assessed at a mean 2...
October 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Sebastián Miranda-Rojas, Paulina Sierra-Rosales, Alvaro Muñoz-Castro, Ramiro Arratia-Pérez, José Heráclito Zagal, Fernando Mendizábal
The need of deeper insights regarding the inner working of catalysts represents a current challenge in the search of new ways to tune their activities towards new chemical transformations. Within this field, metallophthalocyanines-based (MPc) electrocatalysis has gained tremendous attention due to their versatility, low cost, great stability and excellent turn-over properties. In this concern, here we present a quantum chemical study of the formation of supramolecular complexes based on the adsorption of MPcs on gold substrates, and the effect of the substrate on their electrocatalytic properties...
October 17, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Hien Van Nguyen, Van Hong Nguyen, Beom-Jin Lee
The objectives of the present study were to develop a controlled-release bilayered tablet of aceclofenac (AFN) 200mg with dual release and to gain a mechanistic understanding of the enhanced sustained release capability achieved by utilizing a binary mixture of the sustained release materials. Different formulations of the sustained-release layer were formulated by employing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as the major retarding polymers. The in vitro dissolution studies of AFN bilayered tablets were carried out in intestinal fluid (pH 6...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Virginia E M Zweigenthal, Emma Marquez, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Public health (PH) approaches underpin the management and transformation of health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the Master of Public Health (MPH) rarely being a prerequisite for health service employment in South Africa, many physicians pursue MPH qualifications. OBJECTIVES: This study identifies their motivations and career intentions and explored MPH programme strengths and gaps in under- and post-graduate PH training. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was completed by physicians graduating with an MPH between 2000 and 2009 and those enrolled in the programme in 2010 at the University of Cape Town...
2016: Global Health Action
Jared B Shaw, Tzu-Yung Lin, Franklin E Leach, Aleksey V Tolmachev, Nikola Tolić, Errol W Robinson, David W Koppenaal, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić
We provide the initial performance evaluation of a 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer operating at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The spectrometer constructed for the 21T system employs a commercial dual linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled to a FTICR spectrometer designed and built in-house. Performance gains from moving to higher magnetic field strength are exemplified by the measurement of peptide isotopic fine structure, complex natural organic matter mixtures, and large proteins...
October 12, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Liliana R Cisneros Castillo, Andrei-Dumitru Oancea, Christian Stüllein, Anne Régnier-Vigouroux
Multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTSs) embedded in a matrix are re-emerging as a powerful alternative to monolayer-based cultures. The primary information gained from a three-dimensional model is the invasiveness of treatment-exposed MCTSs through the acquisition of light microscopy images. The amount and complexity of the acquired data and the bias arisen by their manual analysis are disadvantages calling for an automated, high-throughput analysis. We present a universal algorithm we developed with the scope of being robust enough to handle images of various qualities and various invasion profiles...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thomas I Talpalar, Adolfo E Talpalar
Hyperbaric environments induce the high pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS) characterized by hyperexcitability of the central nervous system (CNS) and memory impairment. Human divers and other animals experience the HPNS at pressures beyond 1.1 MPa. High pressure depresses synaptic transmission and alters its dynamics in various animal models. Medial perforant path (MPP) synapses connecting the medial entorhinal cortex with the hippocampal formation are suppressed by 50% at 10.1MPa. Reduction of synaptic inputs is paradoxically associated with enhanced ability of dentate gyrus (DG)' granule cells (GCs) to generate spikes at high pressure...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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