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Flexible Dieting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156179/dietary-management-of-obesity-cornerstones-of-healthy-eating-patterns
#1
REVIEW
Alissa D Smethers, Barbara J Rolls
Several dietary patterns, both macronutrient and food based, can lead to weight loss. A key strategy for weight management that can be applied across dietary patterns is to reduce energy density. Clinical trials show that reducing energy density is effective for weight loss and weight loss maintenance. A variety of practical strategies and tools can help facilitate successful weight management by reducing energy density, providing portion control, and improving diet quality. The flexibility of energy density gives patients options to tailor and personalize their dietary pattern to reduce energy intake for sustainable weight loss...
January 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146140/patient-experiences-of-dietary-management-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-focus-group-study
#2
Jaimon T Kelly, Katrina L Campbell, Tammy Hoffmann, Dianne P Reidlinger
OBJECTIVE: People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) contend with complex dietary recommendations. The challenge in practice is for clinicians to provide individualized support with the frequency and consistency required to sustain dietary changes. This study aimed to describe the experiences of patients with managing dietary recommendations, including their perspectives on the potential to use telehealth to support dietary management in CKD. DESIGN: Focus group study...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138256/low-neonatal-plasma-n-6-n-3-pufa-ratios-regulate-offspring-adipogenic-potential-and-condition-adult-obesity-resistance
#3
Michael C Rudolph, Matthew R Jackman, David M Presby, Julie A Houck, Patricia G Webb, Ginger C Johnson, Taylor K Soderborg, Becky A de la Houssaye, Ivana V Yang, Jacob E Friedman, Paul S MacLean
Adipose tissue expansion (ATE) progresses rapidly during postnatal life, influenced by both prenatal maternal factors and postnatal developmental cues. The ratio of n-6 relative to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is thought to regulate perinatal adipogenesis, but the cellular mechanisms and long-term effects are not well understood. We lowered the fetal and postnatal n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio exposure in wildtype offspring, under standard maternal dietary fat amounts, to test effects of low n-6/n-3 ratios on offspring adipogenesis and adipogenic potential...
November 14, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123172/transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-responses-to-short-term-nutrient-exercise-stress-in-humans
#4
R C Laker, C Garde, D M Camera, W J Smiles, J R Zierath, J A Hawley, R Barrès
High fat feeding impairs skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility and induces insulin resistance, whereas exercise training exerts positive effects on substrate handling and improves insulin sensitivity. To identify the genomic mechanisms by which exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious effects of high fat feeding, we investigated the transcriptional and epigenetic response of human skeletal muscle to 9 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) alone (Sed-HFD) or in combination with resistance exercise (Ex-HFD), using genome-wide profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109277/gut-microbiomes-and-reproductive-isolation-in-drosophila
#5
Philip T Leftwich, Naomi V E Clarke, Matthew I Hutchings, Tracey Chapman
Experimental studies of the evolution of reproductive isolation (RI) in real time are a powerful way in which to reveal fundamental, early processes that initiate divergence. In a classic speciation experiment, populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura were subjected to divergent dietary selection and evolved significant positive assortative mating by diet. More recently, a direct role for the gut microbiome in determining this type of RI in Drosophila melanogaster has been proposed. Manipulation of the diet, and hence the gut microbiome, was reported to result in immediate assortative mating by diet, which could be eliminated by reducing gut microbes using antibiotics and recreated by adding back Lactobacillus plantarum We suggest that the evolutionary significance of this result is unclear...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101347/radiocarbon-analysis-reveals-expanded-diet-breadth-associates-with-the-invasion-of-a-predatory-ant
#6
Wataru Suehiro, Fujio Hyodo, Hiroshi O Tanaka, Chihiro Himuro, Tomoyuki Yokoi, Shigeto Dobata, Benoit Guénard, Robert R Dunn, Edward L Vargo, Kazuki Tsuji, Kenji Matsuura
Invasions are ecologically destructive and can threaten biodiversity. Trophic flexibility has been proposed as a mechanism facilitating invasion, with more flexible species better able to invade. The termite hunting needle ant Brachyponera chinensis was introduced from East Asia to the United States where it disrupts native ecosystems. We show that B. chinensis has expanded dietary breadth without shifting trophic position in its introduced range. Transect sampling of ants and termites revealed a negative correlation between the abundance of B...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066546/adaptation-to-chronic-nutritional-stress-leads-to-reduced-dependence-on-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Berra Erkosar, Sylvain Kolly, Jan R van der Meer, Tadeusz J Kawecki
Numerous studies have shown that animal nutrition is tightly linked to gut microbiota, especially under nutritional stress. In Drosophila melanogaster, microbiota are known to promote juvenile growth, development, and survival on poor diets, mainly through enhanced digestion leading to changes in hormonal signaling. Here, we show that this reliance on microbiota is greatly reduced in replicated Drosophila populations that became genetically adapted to a poor larval diet in the course of over 170 generations of experimental evolution...
October 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059188/intraspecific-variation-in-feeding-strategies-of-galapagos-sea-lions-a-case-of-trophic-specialization
#8
Diego Páez-Rosas, Stella Villegas-Amtmann, Daniel Costa
The trophic behavior of marine predators varies according to the level of competition to which they are exposed. In general, populations that inhabit lower productivity systems face a strong intraspecific competition, which contributes to the development of different foraging strategies to maximize nutritional efficiency. Given the high trophic flexibility of Zalophus wollebaeki, this species is considered appropriate for the analysis of such behavior. Furthermore, this trophic flexibility has allowed them to persist in a seemingly marginal ecosystem...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057118/multiclinic-observations-on-the-simplified-diet-in-pku
#9
REVIEW
Laurie Bernstein, Casey Burns, Melissa Sailer-Hammons, Angela Kurtz, Frances Rohr
Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism that historically has been treated with a strict phenylalanine-restricted diet where all foods are weighed and measured. This is cumbersome and difficult for patients and caregivers, especially patients with high phenylalanine blood concentrations who often have neurocognitive deficits. The Simplified Diet is an alternative approach that allows for increased flexibility, promotes healthy food choices, and is easier to manage than a traditional diet for PKU. This paper describes the implementation of the Simplified Diet and outlines education, counseling strategies, and challenges encountered by three metabolic clinics in the United States...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038790/db-db-mice-exhibit-features-of-human-type-2-diabetes-that-are-not-present-in-weight-matched-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-western-diet
#10
Susan J Burke, Heidi M Batdorf, David H Burk, Robert C Noland, Adrianna E Eder, Matthew S Boulos, Michael D Karlstad, J Jason Collier
To understand features of human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) that can be recapitulated in the mouse, we compared C57BL/6J mice fed a Western-style diet (WD) to weight-matched genetically obese leptin receptor-deficient mice (db/db). All mice were monitored for changes in body composition, glycemia, and total body mass. To objectively compare diet-induced and genetic models of obesity, tissue analyses were conducted using mice with similar body mass. We found that adipose tissue inflammation was present in both models of obesity...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034969/experience-with-mad-on-children-with-epilepsy-in-egypt-after-classic-kd-failure
#11
O F El Rashidy, M F Nassar, Y G El Gendy, S M Deifalla, S Gaballa
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Modified Atkins diet (MAD) is a less restrictive type of ketogenic diet (KD) as compared to the classic one. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 9 months MAD treatment on the growth and seizure control in patients with intractable epilepsy as well as the quality of life (QoL) of their mothers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 15 patients with intractable epilepsy who could not tolerate their classic KD management plan...
October 16, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034600/no-adverse-programming-by-post-weaning-dietary-fructose-of-body-weight-adiposity-glucose-tolerance-or-metabolic-flexibility
#12
Lianne M S Bouwman, José M S Fernández-Calleja, Hans J M Swarts, Inge van der Stelt, Annemarie Oosting, Jaap Keijer, Evert M van Schothorst
SCOPE: Metabolic programming can occur not only in the perinatal period, but also post-weaning. This study aimed to assess whether fructose, in comparison to glucose, in the post-weaning diet programs body weight, adiposity, glucose tolerance, metabolic flexibility and health at adult age. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three-week-old male and female C57BL6/JRccHsd mice were given an intervention diet with 32 en% glucose or fructose for only three weeks. Next, all animals were switched to the same 40 en% high fat diet for nine weeks...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989739/prey-selection-and-dietary-flexibility-of-three-species-of-mammalian-predator-during-an-irruption-of-non-cyclic-prey
#13
Emma E Spencer, Thomas M Newsome, Christopher R Dickman
Predators often display dietary shifts in response to fluctuating prey in cyclic systems, but little is known about predator diets in systems that experience non-cyclic prey irruptions. We tracked dietary shifts by feral cats (Felis catus), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and dingoes (Canis dingo) through a non-cyclic irruption of small mammalian prey in the Simpson Desert, central Australia. We predicted that all three predators would alter their diets to varying degrees as small mammals declined post irruption, and to test our predictions we live-trapped small mammals through the irruption event and collected scats to track predator diets...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981230/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-nephrolithiasis-and-prevention-of-recurrences
#14
I Simon, F Legrand, J M Des Grottes, F Cotton, J Nortier, T Roumeguère
despite fluctuations, the prevalence of nephrolithiasis has significantly increased during the last decades in industrialized nations worldwide (1 to 15 %), which has a significant impact on the cost of healthcare. This increased prevalence is mainly explained by diet modifications. Environmental, metabolic and genetic factors may also influence the formation of kidney stones. As a consequence, the medical management of this disease is preferentially multidisciplinary and involves urologists, nephrologists, radiologists, biologists and dietitians...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935986/consumption-of-crustaceans-by-megaherbivorous-dinosaurs-dietary-flexibility-and-dinosaur-life-history-strategies
#15
Karen Chin, Rodney M Feldmann, Jessica N Tashman
Large plant-eating dinosaurs are usually presumed to have been strictly herbivorous, because their derived teeth and jaws were capable of processing fibrous plant foods. This inferred feeding behavior offers a generalized view of dinosaur food habits, but rare direct fossil evidence of diet provides more nuanced insights into feeding behavior. Here we describe fossilized feces (coprolites) that demonstrate recurring consumption of crustaceans and rotted wood by large Late Cretaceous dinosaurs. These multi-liter coprolites from the Kaiparowits Formation are primarily composed of comminuted conifer wood tissues that were fungally degraded before ingestion...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921689/associations-between-eating-disorder-related-symptoms-and-participants-utilization-of-an-individualized-internet-based-prevention-and-early-intervention-program
#16
Sally Kindermann, Markus Moessner, Fikret Ozer, Stephanie Bauer
OBJECTIVE: Flexible, individualized interventions allow participants to adjust the intensity of support to their current needs. Between-persons, participants with greater needs can receive more intense support, within-persons, participants can adjust utilization to their current level of symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to analyze associations between ED-related symptoms and utilization of the individualized program ProYouth both between- and within-persons, aiming to investigate whether participants adapt utilization intensity to their current needs...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875504/zenker-s-diverticulum-submucosal-tunneling-endoscopic-septum-division-z-poem
#17
Oscar Víctor Hernandez Mondragón, Omar Michel Solórzano Pineda, Juan Manuel Blancas Valencia
BACKGROUND: Zenker diverticulum is characterized by dysphagia, weight loss and bronchoaspiration [1]. Open surgery has been the cornerstone of treatment, with good response but recurrence up to 35%.[2]. Rigid endoscopic diverticulotomy has similar results, but with conversion to open surgery up to 30%[3]. Flexible endoscopic diverticulotomy is safe, effective and can be performed in an endoscopic setting, but multiple sessions are needed because of uncomplete cut of the septum[4,5]. Z-POEM is a new procedure in which a total septum myotomy throughout a submucosal tunnel can be performed...
September 6, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873520/improvement-of-feed-pellet-characteristics-by-dietary-pre-gelatinized-starch-and-their-subsequent-effects-on-growth-and-physiology-in-tilapia
#18
Naga Kanmani, Nicholas Romano, Mahdi Ebrahimi, S M Nurul Amin, Mohd Salleh Kamarudin, Ali Karami, Vikas Kumar
A 9-week study was conducted to compare dietary corn starch (CS) or tapioca starch (TS), with or without being pre-gelatinized (PG), on the growth, feeding efficiencies, plasma and muscle biochemistry, intestinal short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and liver glycogen of triplicate groups of 20 red hybrid tilapia (Orecohromis sp.). Various pellet characteristics were evaluated, along with their surface and cross sectional microstructure. The PG diets had significantly higher water stability, bulk density, and protein solubility, along with a smoother surface...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867089/foodcase-a-system-to-manage-food-composition-consumption-and-tds-data
#19
Karl Presser, David Weber, Moira Norrie
Food and nutrition scientists, nowadays, need to manage an increasing amount of data regarding food composition, food consumption and Total Diet Studies (TDS). The corresponding datasets can contain information about several thousand different foods, in different versions from different studies. FoodCASE is a system that has been developed to manage these different datasets. It also support flexible means of linking between datasets and generally provide support for the different processes involved in the acquisition, management and processing of data...
January 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865855/could-predicting-fatty-acid-profile-by-mid-infrared-reflectance-spectroscopy-be-used-as-a-method-to-increase-the-value-added-by-milk-production-chains
#20
M Coppa, A Revello-Chion, D Giaccone, E Tabacco, G Borreani
The aims of this work were (1) to develop prediction equations from mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) to establish a detailed fatty acid (FA) composition of milk; (2) to propose a milk FA index, utilizing MIRS-developed equations, in which the precision of the FA-prediction equations is taken into account to increase the value of milk; and (3) to show application examples. A total of 651 bulk cow milk samples were collected from 245 commercial farms in northwest Italy. The results of the 651 gas chromatography analyses were used to establish (421 samples) and to validate (230 samples) the outcomes of the FA composition prediction that had been obtained by MIRS...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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