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Flexible Dieting

Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Sara Boucher, Olivia Edwards, Andrew Gray, Shyamala Nada-Raja, Jason Lillis, Tracy L Tylka, Caroline C Horwath
BACKGROUND: Middle-aged women are at risk of weight gain and associated comorbidities. Deliberate restriction of food intake (dieting) produces short-term weight loss but is largely unsuccessful for long-term weight management. Two promising approaches for the prevention of weight gain are intuitive eating (ie, eating in accordance with hunger and satiety signals) and the development of greater psychological flexibility (ie, the aim of acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]). OBJECTIVES: This pilot study investigated the usage, acceptability, and feasibility of "Mind, Body, Food," a Web-based weight gain prevention intervention prototype that teaches intuitive eating and psychological flexibility skills...
October 14, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Kevin D Kohl, M Eugenia Ciminari, Juan G Chediack, James O Leafloor, William H Karasov, Scott R McWilliams, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal
In nature, birds are faced with variable food sources that may differ in composition (protein vs. carbohydrates) and quality (highly digestible material vs. indigestible fiber). Studies in passerine birds and some commercial poultry demonstrate that the gastrointestinal tract can respond to varying diet composition and quality by changing morphology and/or activities of digestive enzymes. However, studies in additional avian species are warranted to understand generalities of these trends. We first fed juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), chickens (Gallus gallus), and quails (Coturnix coturnix) on either high-carbohydrate or high-protein diets...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Jonathan G Wynn, Kaye E Reed, Matt Sponheimer, William H Kimbel, Zeresenay Alemseged, Zelalem K Bedaso, Christopher J Campisano
One approach to understanding the context of changes in hominin paleodiets is to examine the paleodiets and paleohabitats of contemporaneous mammalian taxa. Recent carbon isotopic studies suggest that the middle Pliocene was marked by a major shift in hominin diets, characterized by a significant increase in C4 foods in Australopithecus-grade species, including Australopithecus afarensis. To contextualize previous isotopic studies of A. afarensis, we employed stable isotopes to examine paleodiets of the mammalian fauna contemporaneous with A...
October 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
Hannah Loher, Roland Kreis, Chris Boesch, Emanuel Christ
In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rui Li, Frederik J Steyn, Michael B Stout, Kevin Lee, Tanya R Cully, Juan C Calderón, Shyuan T Ngo
Metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle contributes to the aetiology and development of muscle diseases and metabolic diseases. As such, assessment of skeletal muscle cellular bioenergetics provides a powerful means to understand the role of skeletal muscle metabolism in disease and to identify possible therapeutic targets. Here, we developed a method that allows for the real-time assessment of cellular respiration in intact skeletal muscle fibre bundles obtained from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of adult mice...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Martha M Robbins, Chieko Ando, Katherine A Fawcett, Cyril C Grueter, Daniela Hedwig, Yuji Iwata, Jessica L Lodwick, Shelly Masi, Roberta Salmi, Tara S Stoinski, Angelique Todd, Veronica Vercellio, Juichi Yamagiwa
The question of whether any species except humans exhibits culture has generated much debate, partially due to the difficulty of providing conclusive evidence from observational studies in the wild. A starting point for demonstrating the existence of culture that has been used for many species including chimpanzees and orangutans is to show that there is geographic variation in the occurrence of particular behavioral traits inferred to be a result of social learning and not ecological or genetic influences...
2016: PloS One
A D McNeilly, A Gao, A Y Hill, T Gomersall, D J K Balfour, C Sutherland, C A Stewart
Previous studies have shown that rats fed a high calorie diet rich in saturated fat for 12weeks exhibit peripheral insulin resistance and impairments of behavioural flexibility when switched from an operant delayed matching to place (DMTP) schedule to a delayed non-matching to place (DNMTP) schedule. However, the metabolic changes evoked by feeding a high fat (HF) diet can be observed within two weeks of commencing the diet. The current study has confirmed that 4weeks exposure to an HF diet resulted in increased body weight, peripheral insulin resistance and plasma leptin...
September 3, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Salih Kuk, Yunus Uyar, Serkan Karaca, Süleyman Yazar
Microorganisms colonize tissues and organs such as the skin and gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary systems. These microorganisms are generally called as "human microbiota". Human microbiota mostly consists of commensal microorganisms. The commensal microorganisms located on and in the human body are bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and parasites. The microbiota genome is 100 times bigger in size than the human genome. Although the human genome is stationary, microbial genome has a compatible flexible variability during human life...
June 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
E N Fragoso-Moura, T F Luiz, R Z Coeti, A C Peret
The trophic ecology of ichthyofauna in a stream can be related to the presence or absence of riparian and aquatic vegetation, and mainly resource availability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the seasonal and ontogenetic variations for the trophic ecology of Hemigrammus marginatus in the Beija-Flor stream located at the Jataí Ecological Station in the municipality of Luiz Antônio-SP, Brazil. In order to attain this objective, the data collections were carried out on a monthly basis from August, 2011 to July, 2012...
August 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Sergio Polakof, Didier Rémond, Annick Bernalier-Donadille, Mathieu Rambeau, Estelle Pujos-Guillot, Blandine Comte, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux
PURPOSE: In the present study, we aimed to metabolically characterize the postprandial adaptations of the major tissues involved in energy, lipids and amino acids metabolisms in mini-pigs. METHOD: Mini-pigs were fed on high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) diet for 2 months and several tissues explored for metabolic analyses. Further, the urine metabolome was followed over the time to picture the metabolic adaptations occurring at the whole body level following overfeeding...
August 27, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Guillaume Fontaine, Sylvie Cossette, Sonia Heppell, Louise Boyer, Tanya Mailhot, Marie-Josée Simard, Jean-Francois Tanguay
BACKGROUND: Brief motivational interviewing (MI) can contribute to reductions in morbidity and mortality related to coronary artery disease, through health behavior change. Brief MI, unlike more intensive interventions, was proposed to meet the needs of clinicians with little spare time. While the provision of face-to-face brief MI training on a large scale is complicated, Web-based e-learning is promising because of the flexibility it offers. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based e-learning platform for brief MI (MOTIV@CŒUR), which was evaluated by nurses in cardiovascular care...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Uliana Vladimirovna Karpiuk, Khaldun Mohammad Al Azzam, Zead Helmi Mahmoud Abudayeh, Viktoria Kislichenko, Ahmad Naddaf, Irina Cholak, Oksana Yemelianova
PURPOSE: To determine the elements in Bryonia alba L. roots, collected from the Crimean Peninsula region in Ukraine. METHODS: Dry ashing was used as a flexible method and all elements were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and graphite furnace. RESULTS: The average concentrations of the determined elements, expressed as mg/100 g dry weight of the sample, were as follow: 13.000 for Fe, 78.000 for Si, 88...
June 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Teresa Garcia-Pastor, Juan Jose Salinero, Daniel Sanz-Frias, German Pertusa, Juan Del Coso
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a multifactorial disease and our understanding of this disease is still incomplete. PURPOSE: The aim of this investigation was to examine the associations between body fat percentage and physical fitness, diet and active/sedentary behaviors in female and male adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 1389 Spanish adolescents (706 boys and 683 girls) aged between 14 and 17years. Individual body fat percentage was measured by means of bioelectrical impedance analysis and participants' physical fitness was determined by measuring cardiorespiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run test), muscular strength (handgrip dynamometry), muscular endurance (curl-up and 90° push up repetition tests) and muscular flexibility (sit-and-reach test)...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Yasmine Probst, Evan Morrison, Emma Sullivan, Hoa Khanh Dam
BACKGROUND: Standardizing the background diet of participants during a dietary randomized controlled trial is vital to trial outcomes. For this process, dietary modeling based on food groups and their target servings is employed via a dietary prescription before an intervention, often using a manual process. Partial automation has employed the use of linear programming. Validity of the modeling approach is critical to allow trial outcomes to be translated to practice. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the first-stage development of a tool to automatically perform dietary modeling using food group and macronutrient requirements as a test case...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Brian J Spiesman, Claudio Gratton
In plant-pollinator networks, foraging choices by pollinators help form the connecting links between species. Flexible foraging should therefore play an important role in defining network topology. Factors such as morphological trait complementarity limit a pollinator's pool of potential floral resources, but which potential resource species are actually utilized at a location depends on local environmental and ecological context. Pollinators can be highly flexible foragers, but the effect of this flexibility on network topology remains unclear...
June 2016: Ecology
Françoise Amélineau, David Grémillet, Delphine Bonnet, Tangi Le Bot, Jérôme Fort
The earth is warming at an alarming rate, especially in the Arctic, where a marked decline in sea ice cover may have far-ranging consequences for endemic species. Little auks, endemic Arctic seabirds, are key bioindicators as they forage in the marginal ice zone and feed preferentially on lipid-rich Arctic copepods and ice-associated amphipods sensitive to the consequences of global warming. We tested how little auks cope with an ice-free foraging environment during the breeding season. To this end, we took advantage of natural variation in sea ice concentration along the east coast of Greenland...
2016: PloS One
Amy R Johnson, Yuanyuan Qin, Alyssa J Cozzo, Alex J Freemerman, Megan J Huang, Liyang Zhao, Brante P Sampey, J Justin Milner, Melinda A Beck, Blossom Damania, Naim Rashid, Joseph A Galanko, Douglas P Lee, Matthew L Edin, Darryl C Zeldin, Patrick T Fueger, Brittney Dietz, Andreas Stahl, Ying Wu, Karen L Mohlke, Liza Makowski
OBJECTIVE: A novel approach to regulate obesity-associated adipose inflammation may be through metabolic reprogramming of macrophages (MΦs). Broadly speaking, MΦs dependent on glucose are pro-inflammatory, classically activated MΦs (CAM), which contribute to adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. In contrast, MΦs that primarily metabolize fatty acids are alternatively activated MΦs (AAM) and maintain tissue insulin sensitivity. In actuality, there is much flexibility and overlap in the CAM-AAM spectrum in vivo dependent upon various stimuli in the microenvironment...
July 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Pierce Hutton, Kevin McGraw
Allometry, the proportional scaling of log trait size with log body size, evolves to optimize allocation to growth of separate structures and is a major constraint on the functional limits of animal traits. While there are many studies demonstrating the rigidity of allometry across traits and taxa, comparatively less work has been done on allometric variation across environments within species. Rapidly changing environments, such as cities, may be prime systems for studying the flexibility of allometry because they uniquely alter many environmental parameters (e...
July 1, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Cheryl A D Wilga, Stephanye E Diniz, Preston R Steele, Jordan Sudario-Cook, Elizabeth R Dumont, Lara A Ferry
The diet of dusky smoothhound sharks, Mustelus canis, shifts over ontogeny from soft foods to a diet dominated by crabs. This may be accompanied by changes in the skeletal system that facilitates the capture and processing of large and bulky prey. The hyoid arch, for example, braces the jaws against the cranium, and generates suction for prey capture and intraoral transport. In this study, ontogenetic changes in the hyoid arch were investigated by quantifying size, mineralization, and stiffness to determine whether increasingly stiffer cartilages are associated with the dietary switch...
September 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
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