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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772294/a-model-of-the-dynamics-of-household-vegetarian-and-vegan-rates-in-the-u-k
#1
James Waters
Although there are many studies of determinants of vegetarianism and veganism, there have been no previous studies of how their rates in a population jointly change over time. In this paper, we present a flexible model of vegetarian and vegan dietary choices, and derive the joint dynamics of rates of consumption. We fit our model to a pseudo-panel with 23 years of U.K. household data, and find that while vegetarian rates are largely determined by current household characteristics, vegan rates are additionally influenced by their own lagged value...
May 14, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767157/dietary-glutamine-glutamic-acid-and-nucleotide-supplementation-accelerate-carbon-turnover-%C3%AE-13-c-on-stomach-of-weaned-piglets
#2
Amanda D Assoni, Alessandro B Amorim, Mayra A D Saleh, Marcos L P Tse, Dirlei A Berto
The use of stable isotope analysis as a tool for characterization of carbon turnover (δ13 C) in piglet's tissues by tracing its feeding system has drawn attention. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the influence of dietary glutamine, glutamic acid and nucleotides supplementation on carbon turnover in fundic-stomach region of weaned piglets at an average age of 21 days. The diets consisted of additive-free diet - control (C); 1% glutamine (G); 1% glutamic acid (GA) and 1% nucleotides (Nu). At weaning day (day 0: baseline), 3 piglets were slaughtered to quantify the δ13 C of stomach...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760898/difference-in-plasticity-of-resting-metabolic-rate-the-proximate-explanation-to-different-niche-breadth-in-sympatric-ficedula-flycatchers
#3
S Eryn McFarlane, Murielle Ålund, Päivi M Sirkiä, Anna Qvarnström
Variation in relative fitness of competing recently formed species across heterogeneous environments promotes coexistence. However, the physiological traits mediating such variation in relative fitness have rarely been identified. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is tightly associated with life history strategies, thermoregulation, diet use, and inhabited latitude and could therefore moderate differences in fitness responses to fluctuations in local environments, particularly when species have adapted to different climates in allopatry...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753989/guinea-pig-for-meat-production-a-systematic-review-of-factors-affecting-the-production-carcass-and-meat-quality
#4
REVIEW
Davinia Sánchez-Macías, Lida Barba-Maggi, Antonio Morales-delaNuez, Julio Palmay-Paredes
In developing countries, interest in guinea pig farming is growing exponentially because it provides a regular source of high quality animal protein for domestic consumption. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are prolific animals, grow and are capable of reproduction on a flexible diet, and are adaptable to a wide range of climates. This article mainly reviews findings on guinea pig meat production, including factors affecting raising guinea pigs, carcass and meat quality. We also present some studies that describe biological and pathologic effects on carcass component composition...
May 5, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739863/effects-of-high-fat-diet-and-ampk-modulation-on-the-regulation-of-whole-body-lipid-metabolism
#5
Milena Schonke, Julie Massart, Juleen R Zierath
Metabolic flexibility, the capacity to adapt to fuel availability for energy production, is crucial for maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis. An inability to adequately promote fatty acid utilization is associated with lipid accumulation in peripheral tissues and contributes to the development of insulin resistance. In vivo assays to quantify whole-body lipid oxidation in mouse models of insulin resistance are lacking. We describe a method for assessing whole-body fatty acid oxidation in vivo , as well as tissue-specific lipid uptake in conscious mice...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727720/the-relationship-between-dietary-restraint-and-binge-eating-examining-eating-related-self-efficacy-as-a-moderator
#6
Jake Linardon
Although dietary restraint has been shown to be a robust predictor of binge eating among women, many women report elevated levels of dietary restraint but do not concurrently exhibit symptoms of binge eating. Moderating variables could therefore interact with dietary restraint to affect its relation to binge eating. One potential factor that may attenuate this relationship is eating-related self-efficacy, defined as the tendency to feel confident in the ability to control eating behaviour under a diverse set of circumstances (e...
May 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725011/gut-microbiomes-of-wild-great-apes-fluctuate-seasonally-in-response-to-diet
#7
Allison L Hicks, Kerry Jo Lee, Mara Couto-Rodriguez, Juber Patel, Rohini Sinha, Cheng Guo, Sarah H Olson, Anton Seimon, Tracie A Seimon, Alain U Ondzie, William B Karesh, Patricia Reed, Kenneth N Cameron, W Ian Lipkin, Brent L Williams
The microbiome is essential for extraction of energy and nutrition from plant-based diets and may have facilitated primate adaptation to new dietary niches in response to rapid environmental shifts. Here we use 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of wild western lowland gorillas and sympatric central chimpanzees and demonstrate compositional divergence between the microbiotas of gorillas, chimpanzees, Old World monkeys, and modern humans. We show that gorilla and chimpanzee microbiomes fluctuate with seasonal rainfall patterns and frugivory...
May 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702118/improvement-in-gastrointestinal-symptoms-after-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-refractory-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Jeffrey M Lackner, James Jaccard, Laurie Keefer, Darren Brenner, Rebecca Firth, Gregory D Gudleski, Frank Hamilton, Leonard A Katz, Susan S Krasner, Chang-Xing Ma, Christopher Radziwon, Michael D Sitrin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is an urgent need for safe treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that relieve treatment-refractory symptoms and their societal and economic burden. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment that has not been broadly adopted into routine clinical practice. We performed a randomized controlled trial to assess clinical responses to home-based CBT compared with clinic-based CBT and patient education. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 436 patients with IBS, based on Rome III criteria, at 2 tertiary centers from August 23, 2010 through October 21, 2016...
April 24, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691161/experiences-and-perspectives-of-dietary-management-among-patients-on-hemodialysis-an-interview-study
#9
Jessica Stevenson, Allison Tong, Talia Gutman, Katrina L Campbell, Jonathan C Craig, Mark A Brown, Vincent W Lee
OBJECTIVES: Diet and fluid management can reduce mortality, serious comorbidities, and debilitating symptoms in patients on hemodialysis, but restrictions may also be a major burden, and nonadherence remains high. We aimed to describe the perspectives and experiences of patients on hemodialysis regarding their dietary management to understand both facilitators and barriers to adherence and to identify strategies to improve care. DESIGN AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 people on maintenance hemodialysis from six dialysis units in New South Wales, Australia...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691147/maternal-high-fat-diet-induces-early-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-alters-cardiac-metabolism-in-sprague-dawley-rat-offspring
#10
K A De Jong, S Barrand, R J Wood-Bradley, D L de Almeida, J K Czeczor, G D Lopaschuk, J A Armitage, S L McGee
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Maternal high fat diets (mHFD) have been associated with an increased offspring cardiovascular risk. Recently we found that the class IIa HDAC-MEF2 pathway regulates gene programs controlling fatty acid oxidation in striated muscle. This same pathway controls hypertrophic responses in the heart. We hypothesized that mHFD is associated with activation of signal controlling class II a HDAC activity and activation of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and cardiac hypertrophy in offspring...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679690/reduced-body-weight-or-increased-muscle-quality-which-is-more-important-for-improving-physical-function-following-exercise-and-weight-loss-in-overweight-and-obese-older-women
#11
Chad R Straight, Alison C Berg, Rachelle A Reed, Mary Ann Johnson, Ellen M Evans
The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of changes in muscle quality and body composition to changes in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) following a 6-month exercise and weight loss intervention in overweight and obese older women. Thirty-eight overweight and obese (BMI = 30.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2 ) older (age = 69.3 ± 4.1 y) women completed 6 months of multicomponent exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, balance and flexibility training) and weight loss (hypocaloric diet that reduced energy intake by ~500 kcal/d)...
April 19, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662017/use-of-unpalatable-forages-by-ruminants-the-influence-of-experience-with-the-biophysical-and-social-environment
#12
REVIEW
Roberto A Distel, Juan J Villalba
Unpalatable forage resources (low nutrient density, potentially toxic metabolites) are widespread and represent a challenge for ruminant nutrition, health, and welfare. Our objective was to synthesize the role of biophysical and social experience on the use of unpalatable forages by ruminants, and highlight derived behavioural solutions for the well-being of soils, plants, and animals. Environmental experiences early in life modulate gene expression and promote learning, which alters morpho-physiological and psychological mechanisms that modify behavioural responses and change food and habitat selection...
April 14, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656110/targeting-hepatic-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinases-restores-insulin-signaling-and-mitigates-chrebp-mediated-lipogenesis-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#13
Cheng-Yang Wu, Shih-Chia Tso, Jacinta L Chuang, Wen-Jun Gui, Mingliang Lou, Gaurav Sharma, Chalermchai Khemtong, Xiangbing Qi, R Max Wynn, David T Chuang
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases 1-4 (PDKs1-4) negatively regulate activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) by reversible phosphorylation. PDKs play a pivotal role in maintaining energy homeostasis and contribute to metabolic flexibility by attenuating PDC activity in various mammalian tissues. Cumulative evidence has shown that the up-regulation of PDK4 expression is tightly associated with obesity and diabetes. In this investigation, we test the central hypothesis that PDKs1-4 are a pharmacological target for lowering glucose levels and restoring insulin sensitivity in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
March 31, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625230/pleistocene-land-bridges-act-as-semipermeable-agents-of-avian-gene-flow-in-wallacea
#14
Kritika M Garg, Balaji Chattopadhyay, Peter R Wilton, Dewi Malia Prawiradilaga, Frank E Rheindt
Cyclical periods of global cooling have been important drivers of biotic differentiation throughout the Quaternary. Ice age-induced sea level fluctuations can lead to changing patterns of land connections, both facilitating and disrupting gene flow. In this study, we test if species with differing life histories are differentially affected by Quaternary land connections. We used genome-wide SNPs in combination with mitochondrial gene sequences to analyse levels of divergence and gene flow between two songbird complexes across two Wallacean islands that have been repeatedly connected during glaciations...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616679/variations-in-diet-composition-of-sympatric-trachypithecus-francoisi-and-macaca-assamensis-in-the-limestone-habitats-of-nonggang-china
#15
Qi-Hai Zhou, Zhong-Hao Huang, Hua Wei, Cheng-Ming Huang
Comparative studies of sympatric species are essential for understanding behavioral and ecological adaptation as well as the mechanisms that can reduce resource competition to allow coexistence. François' langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) and Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) are sympatric primate species found in the limestone seasonal rainforests of Nonggang Nature Reserve, southwestern Guangxi, China. To explore their different adaptation strategies, we collected data on diet using scan sampling at 15-min intervals...
April 3, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616239/cricopharyngeal-myotomy-with-thulium-laser-through-flexible-endoscopy-proof-of-concept-study
#16
Stefano Siboni, Alberto Aiolfi, Chiara Ceriani, Gian Eugenio Tontini, Luigi Bonavina
Background and study aims : Endoscopic treatment of Zenker's diverticulum has proven feasible, but electrocautery and CO 2 laser technology carry the risk of collateral thermal injury. Thulium laser septum incision may overcome this limitation. We describe for the first time the use of thulium laser through flexible endoscopy in a small cohort of patients with Zenker diverticulum. Patients and methods : Thulium laser septum division was performed via flexible endoscopy under general anesthesia in consecutive symptomatic patients with primary or recurrent Zenker diverticulum...
April 2018: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589625/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-extensively-hydrolyzed-casein-induced-browning-in-a-ucp-1-reporter-mouse-model-of-obesity
#17
Liufeng Mao, Jiwen Lei, Marieke H Schoemaker, Bingxiu Ma, Yan Zhong, Tim T Lambers, Eric A F Van Tol, Yulai Zhou, Tao Nie, Donghai Wu
Browning in adipose tissues, which can be affected by diet, may mitigate the detrimental effects of adiposity and improve longer-term metabolic health. Here, browning-inducing effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g., arachidonic acid (ARA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and extensively hydrolyzed casein (eHC) were investigated in uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp-1) reporter mice. To address the overall functionality, their potential role in supporting a healthy metabolic profile under obesogenic dietary challenges later in life was evaluated...
March 28, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546280/metabolic-inflexibility-is-an-early-marker-of-bed-rest-induced-glucose-intolerance-even-when-fat-mass-is-stable
#18
Floriane Rudwill, Donal O'Gorman, Etienne Lefai, Isabelle Chery, Alexandre Zahariev, Sylvie Normand, Allan F Pagano, Angèle Chopard, Anthony Damiot, Claire Laurens, Leanne Hodson, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas, Martina Heer, Petra Frings Meuthen, Judith Buehlmeier, Natalie Baecker, Laure Meiller, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Stéphane Blanc, Chantal Simon, Audrey Bergouignan
Context: The effects of energy balanced bed-rest on metabolic flexibility has not been thoroughly examined. Objective: We investigated the effects of 21-days bed-rest, with and without whey protein supplementation, on metabolic flexibility while maintaining energy balance. We further hypothesized protein supplementation mitigates metabolic inflexibility by preventing muscle atrophy. Design & Setting: Randomized cross-over longitudinal study conducted at the German Aerospace Center, Cologne, Germany...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540486/coenzyme-a-mediated-degradation-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4-promotes-cardiac-metabolic-flexibility-after-high-fat-feeding-in-mice
#19
Christopher Schafer, Zachary T Young, Catherine A Makarewich, Abdallah Elnwasany, Caroline S Kinter, Michael Kinter, Luke I Szweda
Cardiac energy is produced primarily by oxidation of fatty acids and glucose, with the relative contributions of each nutrient being sensitive to changes in substrate availability and energetic demand. A major contributor to cardiac metabolic flexibility is pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) which converts glucose-derived pyruvate to acetyl-CoA within the mitochondria. PDH is inhibited by phosphorylation dependent on the competing activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK1-4) and phosphatases (PDP1-2). A single high-fat meal increases cardiac PDK4 content and subsequently inhibits PDH activity, reducing pyruvate utilization when abundant fatty acids are available...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532214/development-and-feasibility-of-a-community-based-culturally-flexible-colorectal-cancer-prevention-program
#20
Margaret Raber, To Nhu Huynh, Karla Crawford, Stephanie Kim, Joya Chandra
Comprehensive cancer centers are an important community resource for cancer prevention education in their catchment areas. Colorectal cancer remains one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States, making prevention a priority. Colorectal cancer prevention targets include lifestyle modifications that are influenced by cultural norms, such as diet change, physical activity and screening behavior. Cancer centers must tailor prevention efforts to multiethnic catchment areas. This paper describes the development and feasibility of a comprehensive cancer center's approach to community-based colorectal cancer prevention in Houston, Texas, specifically targeting Hispanic and Asian populations...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Community Health
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