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Flexible Dieting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349246/feasibility-of-a-novel-participatory-multi-sector-continuous-improvement-approach-to-enhance-food-security-in-remote-indigenous-australian-communities
#1
J Brimblecombe, R Bailie, C van den Boogaard, B Wood, S C Liberato, M Ferguson, J Coveney, R Jaenke, J Ritchie
Background: Food insecurity underlies and compounds many of the development issues faced by remote Indigenous communities in Australia. Multi-sector approaches offer promise to improve food security. We assessed the feasibility of a novel multi-sector approach to enhance community food security in remote Indigenous Australia. Method: A longitudinal comparative multi-site case study, the Good Food Systems Good Food for All Project, was conducted (2009-2013) with four Aboriginal communities...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305946/a-whole-grain-diet-reduces-peripheral-insulin-resistance-and-improves-glucose-kinetics-in-obese-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Steven K Malin, Emily L Kullman, Amanda R Scelsi, Jacob M Haus, Julianne Filion, Mangesh R Pagadala, Jean-Philippe Godin, Sunil Kochhar, Alastair B Ross, John P Kirwan
BACKGROUND: Whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes but mechanisms are unclear. PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that a WG diet reduces insulin resistance and improves glucose use in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes compared with an isocaloric-matched refined-grain diet. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial of 14 moderately obese adults (Age, 38±2 yrs.; BMI, 34.0±1.1kg/m2). Insulin resistance and glucose metabolism was assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test combined with isotopic tracers of [6,6-2H2]-glucose and [U-13C]-glucose, and indirect calorimetry...
January 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282813/extinction-and-reinstatement-of-an-operant-responding-maintained-by-food-in-different-models-of-obesity
#3
Aurelijus Burokas, Elena Martín-García, Jose Espinosa-Carrasco, Ionas Erb, Jerome McDonald, Cedric Notredame, Mara Dierssen, Rafael Maldonado
A major problem in treating obesity is the high rate of relapse to abnormal food-taking habits after maintaining an energy balanced diet. Alterations of eating behavior such as compulsive-like behavior and lack of self-control over food intake play a critical role in relapse. In this study, we used an operant paradigm of food-seeking behavior on two different diet-induced obesity models, a free-choice chocolate-mixture diet and a high-fat diet with face validity for a rapid development of obesity or for unhealthy food regularly consumed in our societies...
December 28, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275404/dietary-variation-in-diana-monkeys-cercopithecus-diana-the-effects-of-polyspecific-associations
#4
Erin E Kane, W Scott McGraw
Establishing dietary central tendencies and extremes remains an important goal of primate research. While habitat differences and spatial discontinuity are well-documented contributors to dietary variation, other factors including polyspecific associations may significantly impact diet through changes in strata use and/or increased feeding competition. Here, we examine polyspecific association with closely related species as a source of dietary variation in a rain forest primate. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) in Côte d'Ivoire's Taï Forest frequently participate in mixed-species groups...
December 23, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260929/switching-basal-insulins-in-type-2-diabetes-practical-recommendations-for-health-care-providers
#5
Sarah L Anderson, Jennifer M Trujillo, John E Anderson, Robert J Tanenberg
Basal insulin remains the mainstay of treatment of type 2 diabetes when diet changes and exercise in combination with oral drugs and other injectable agents are not sufficient to control hyperglycemia. Insulin therapy should be individualized, and several factors influence the choice of basal insulin; these include pharmacological properties, patient preferences, and lifestyle, as well as health insurance plan formularies. The recent availability of basal insulin formulations with longer durations of action has provided further dosing flexibility; however, patients may need to switch agents throughout therapy for a variety of personal, clinical, or economic reasons...
December 20, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246283/greater-adherence-to-a-mediterranean-diet-is-associated-with-lower-prevalence-of-colorectal-adenomas-in-men-of-all-races
#6
Alyson Haslam, Sara Wagner Robb, James R Hébert, Hanwen Huang, Mark H Ebell
To examine potential racial differences in Mediterranean diet scores and whether these differences are associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma (CRA), a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial was performed. The authors hypothesize that people consuming a more Mediterranean-like diet have lower odds of CRA. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to determine the presence of colorectal adenoma. Mediterranean diet scores were calculated from food frequency questionnaire responses...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233032/the-impact-of-laboratory-chow-for-rats-in-the-experiments-chemical-and-biological-evaluation-of-nine-grain-based-diet-options
#7
R S Ferreira, L de Souza Morelini, Emc de Azeredo, Ecs Vieira, E B Ferreira, Vsn da Silva, O L Tavano, L Azevedo
Cereal-based diets formulated as semi-purified diets can provide flexibility for researchers, enabling open controlled formulas, besides being cheaper than purified diets. Seeking to widen the researchers' options in their experimental design developments, we aimed at assaying the chemical score, growth performance and protein utilization of nine semi-purified experimental chows. These diets were formulated at 17.8%, 12% and 8% protein contents, using three variations of ingredients for each one, as follows: casein (C), casein+soybean meal (C+S, 1:1 w/w protein) and casein+soybean meal+corn gluten meal (C+S+G, 1:1:1 w/w protein), without cysteine supplementation and setting casein 17...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203581/cardiac-insulin-signaling-regulates-glycolysis-through-phosphofructokinase-2-content-and-activity
#8
Lee B Bockus, Satoshi Matsuzaki, Shraddha S Vadvalkar, Zachary T Young, Jennifer R Giorgione, Maria F Newhardt, Michael Kinter, Kenneth M Humphries
BACKGROUND: The healthy heart has a dynamic capacity to respond and adapt to changes in nutrient availability. Diabetes mellitus disrupts this metabolic flexibility and promotes cardiomyopathy through mechanisms that are not completely understood. Phosphofructokinase 2 (PFK-2) is a primary regulator of cardiac glycolysis and substrate selection, yet its regulation under normal and pathological conditions is unknown. This study was undertaken to determine how changes in insulin signaling affect PFK-2 content, activity, and cardiac metabolism...
December 4, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189017/the-dorsomedial-striatum-mediates-pavlovian-appetitive-conditioning-and-food-consumption
#9
Sindy Cole, Andrew D Stone, Gorica D Petrovich
The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is an important sensorimotor region mediating the acquisition of goal-directed instrumental reward learning and behavioral flexibility. However, whether the DMS also regulates Pavlovian cue-food learning is less clear. The current study used excitotoxic lesions to determine whether the DMS is critical in Pavlovian appetitive learning and behavior, using discriminative conditioning and reversal paradigms. The results showed that DMS lesions transiently retarded cue-food learning and subsequent reversal of this learning...
December 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185929/impact-of-a-non-restrictive-satiating-diet-on-anthropometrics-satiety-responsiveness-and-eating-behaviour-traits-in-obese-men-displaying-a-high-or-a-low-satiety-phenotype
#10
Hélène Arguin, Angelo Tremblay, John E Blundell, Jean-Pierre Després, Denis Richard, Benoît Lamarche, Vicky Drapeau
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a non-restrictive satiating diet in men displaying various degrees of satiety efficiency. In all, sixty-nine obese men aged 41·5 (sd 5·7) years were randomly assigned to a control (10-15, 55-60 and 30 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 34) or satiating (20-25, 45-50 and 30-35 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 35) diet for 16 weeks, and were classified as having a low (LSP) or high (HSP) satiety phenotype...
November 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176898/the-influence-of-dietary-and-whole-body-nutrient-content-on-the-excretion-of-a-vertebrate-consumer
#11
Christopher M Dalton, Rana W El-Sabaawi, Dale C Honeyfield, Sonya K Auer, David N Reznick, Alexander S Flecker
In many contexts, nutrient excretion by consumers can impact ecosystems by altering the availability of limiting nutrients. Variation in nutrient excretion can be predicted by mass balance models, most of which are premised on two key ideas: (1) consumers maintain fixed whole-body nutrient content (i.e., %N and %P), so-called fixed homeostasis; (2) if dietary nutrients are not matched to whole-body nutrients, excesses of any nutrient are released as excretion to maintain fixed homeostasis. Mass balance models thus predict that consumer excretion should be positively correlated with diet nutrients and negatively correlated with whole-body nutrients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176811/dietary-partitioning-of-australia-s-two-marsupial-hypercarnivores-the-tasmanian-devil-and-the-spotted-tailed-quoll-across-their-shared-distributional-range
#12
Georgina E Andersen, Christopher N Johnson, Leon A Barmuta, Menna E Jones
Australia's native marsupial fauna has just two primarily flesh-eating 'hypercarnivores', the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) and the spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) which coexist only on the island of Tasmania. Devil populations are currently declining due to a fatal transmissible cancer. Our aim was to analyse the diet of both species across their range in Tasmania, as a basis for understanding how devil decline might affect the abundance and distribution of quolls through release from competition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166659/sex-specific-influences-of-mtdna-mitotype-and-diet-on-mitochondrial-functions-and-physiological-traits-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Wen C Aw, Michael R Garvin, Richard G Melvin, J William O Ballard
Here we determine the sex-specific influence of mtDNA type (mitotype) and diet on mitochondrial functions and physiology in two Drosophila melanogaster lines. In many species, males and females differ in aspects of their energy production. These sex-specific influences may be caused by differences in evolutionary history and physiological functions. We predicted the influence of mtDNA mutations should be stronger in males than females as a result of the organelle's maternal mode of inheritance in the majority of metazoans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156179/dietary-management-of-obesity-cornerstones-of-healthy-eating-patterns
#14
REVIEW
Alissa D Smethers, Barbara J Rolls
Several dietary patterns, both macronutrient and food based, can lead to weight loss. A key strategy for weight management that can be applied across dietary patterns is to reduce energy density. Clinical trials show that reducing energy density is effective for weight loss and weight loss maintenance. A variety of practical strategies and tools can help facilitate successful weight management by reducing energy density, providing portion control, and improving diet quality. The flexibility of energy density gives patients options to tailor and personalize their dietary pattern to reduce energy intake for sustainable weight loss...
January 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146140/patient-experiences-of-dietary-management-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-focus-group-study
#15
Jaimon T Kelly, Katrina L Campbell, Tammy Hoffmann, Dianne P Reidlinger
OBJECTIVE: People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) contend with complex dietary recommendations. The challenge in practice is for clinicians to provide individualized support with the frequency and consistency required to sustain dietary changes. This study aimed to describe the experiences of patients with managing dietary recommendations, including their perspectives on the potential to use telehealth to support dietary management in CKD. DESIGN: Focus group study...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138256/low-neonatal-plasma-n-6-n-3-pufa-ratios-regulate-offspring-adipogenic-potential-and-condition-adult-obesity-resistance
#16
Michael C Rudolph, Matthew R Jackman, David M Presby, Julie A Houck, Patricia G Webb, Ginger C Johnson, Taylor K Soderborg, Becky A de la Houssaye, Ivana V Yang, Jacob E Friedman, Paul S MacLean
Adipose tissue expansion (ATE) progresses rapidly during postnatal life, influenced by both prenatal maternal factors and postnatal developmental cues. The ratio of n-6 relative to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is thought to regulate perinatal adipogenesis, but the cellular mechanisms and long-term effects are not well understood. We lowered the fetal and postnatal n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio exposure in wildtype offspring, under standard maternal dietary fat amounts, to test effects of low n-6/n-3 ratios on offspring adipogenesis and adipogenic potential...
November 14, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123172/transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-responses-to-short-term-nutrient-exercise-stress-in-humans
#17
R C Laker, C Garde, D M Camera, W J Smiles, J R Zierath, J A Hawley, R Barrès
High fat feeding impairs skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility and induces insulin resistance, whereas exercise training exerts positive effects on substrate handling and improves insulin sensitivity. To identify the genomic mechanisms by which exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious effects of high fat feeding, we investigated the transcriptional and epigenetic response of human skeletal muscle to 9 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) alone (Sed-HFD) or in combination with resistance exercise (Ex-HFD), using genome-wide profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109277/gut-microbiomes-and-reproductive-isolation-in-drosophila
#18
Philip T Leftwich, Naomi V E Clarke, Matthew I Hutchings, Tracey Chapman
Experimental studies of the evolution of reproductive isolation (RI) in real time are a powerful way in which to reveal fundamental, early processes that initiate divergence. In a classic speciation experiment, populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura were subjected to divergent dietary selection and evolved significant positive assortative mating by diet. More recently, a direct role for the gut microbiome in determining this type of RI in Drosophila melanogaster has been proposed. Manipulation of the diet, and hence the gut microbiome, was reported to result in immediate assortative mating by diet, which could be eliminated by reducing gut microbes using antibiotics and recreated by adding back Lactobacillus plantarum We suggest that the evolutionary significance of this result is unclear...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101347/radiocarbon-analysis-reveals-expanded-diet-breadth-associates-with-the-invasion-of-a-predatory-ant
#19
Wataru Suehiro, Fujio Hyodo, Hiroshi O Tanaka, Chihiro Himuro, Tomoyuki Yokoi, Shigeto Dobata, Benoit Guénard, Robert R Dunn, Edward L Vargo, Kazuki Tsuji, Kenji Matsuura
Invasions are ecologically destructive and can threaten biodiversity. Trophic flexibility has been proposed as a mechanism facilitating invasion, with more flexible species better able to invade. The termite hunting needle ant Brachyponera chinensis was introduced from East Asia to the United States where it disrupts native ecosystems. We show that B. chinensis has expanded dietary breadth without shifting trophic position in its introduced range. Transect sampling of ants and termites revealed a negative correlation between the abundance of B...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066546/adaptation-to-chronic-nutritional-stress-leads-to-reduced-dependence-on-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Berra Erkosar, Sylvain Kolly, Jan R van der Meer, Tadeusz J Kawecki
Numerous studies have shown that animal nutrition is tightly linked to gut microbiota, especially under nutritional stress. In Drosophila melanogaster, microbiota are known to promote juvenile growth, development, and survival on poor diets, mainly through enhanced digestion leading to changes in hormonal signaling. Here, we show that this reliance on microbiota is greatly reduced in replicated Drosophila populations that became genetically adapted to a poor larval diet in the course of over 170 generations of experimental evolution...
October 24, 2017: MBio
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