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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521681/effects-of-diets-on-adipose-tissue
#1
Silvia Ezquerro, Amaia Rodríguez, Piero Portincasa, Gema Frühbeck
Obesity is a major health problem that has become a global epidemic. Overweight and obesity are commonly associated with the development of several pathologies, such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, sleep apnea and several types of cancer, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. An increased abdominal adiposity renders overweight and obese individuals more prone to metabolic and cardiovascular problems. In this sense, excess adiposity leads to several changes in the biology, morphology and function of the adipose tissue, such as adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis and an impaired secretion of adipokines, contributing to the onset of obesity-related co-morbidities...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457982/permissive-flexibility-in-successful-lifelong-weight-management-a-qualitative-study-among-finnish-men-and-women
#2
Anu Joki, Johanna Mäkelä, Mikael Fogelholm
Maintaining normal weight in the current obesogenic environment is a challenge. However, some people can do it. More insight is needed to understand how and why some people succeed in long-term weight maintenance. This study uses a rare, qualitative approach by describing the thoughts of successful weight management and self-perceived requirements for success in weight maintenance. We interviewed 39 individuals who have maintained normal weight for their entire lives (men and women). The content analysis revealed a main theme: flexible, permissive and conscious self-regulation, which was divided into two subthemes (eating-related behavior and weight-related behavior)...
April 27, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447981/isolation-characterization-and-purification-of-macrophages-from-tissues-affected-by-obesity-related-inflammation
#3
Joselyn N Allen, Adwitia Dey, Ruth Nissly, James Fraser, Shan Yu, Gayathri Balandaram, Jeffrey M Peters, Pamela A Hankey-Giblin
Obesity promotes a chronic inflammatory state that is largely mediated by tissue-resident macrophages as well as monocyte-derived macrophages. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is a valuable model in studying the role of macrophage heterogeneity; however, adequate macrophage isolations are difficult to acquire from inflamed tissues. In this protocol, we outline the isolation steps and necessary troubleshooting guidelines derived from our studies for obtaining a suitable population of tissue-resident macrophages from mice following 18 weeks of high-fat (HFD) or high-fat/high-cholesterol (HFHCD) diet intervention...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447805/do-tiger-keelback-snakes-rhabdophis-tigrinus-recognize-how-toxic-they-are
#4
Akira Mori, Gordon M Burghardt
Animals that depend on defensive chemicals acquired from food may face a decision when attempting to deter predatory attacks: Should they exhibit antipredator behavior that relies on the toxicity of the sequestered chemicals or should they adopt other behaviors that can avoid predation without using the chemical defense, such as flight? Thus, it is reasonable to assume that animals that sequester prey toxins have evolved the ability to flexibly change their antipredator responses according to the amount of toxin-resource they have consumed...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446423/evaluation-of-a-mindfulness-based-mobile-app-aimed-at-promoting-awareness-of-weight-related-behaviors-in-adolescents-a-pilot-study
#5
Tami Turner, Melanie Hingle
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based interventions are reported to be highly acceptable and have positive effects on youth, yet most are clinic- or school-based aimed at emotional regulation or academic performance. To provide flexible program delivery, we developed and tested a standalone mindfulness-based app aimed at improving weight-related behaviors (eg, diet, physical activity, sleep) in adolescents. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and utility of a mindfulness-based mobile app...
April 26, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440211/a-cluster-randomised-trial-cost-effectiveness-analysis-and-psychosocial-evaluation-of-insulin-pump-therapy-compared-with-multiple-injections-during-flexible-intensive-insulin-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes-the-repose-trial
#6
Simon Heller, David White, Ellen Lee, Julia Lawton, Daniel Pollard, Norman Waugh, Stephanie Amiel, Katharine Barnard, Anita Beckwith, Alan Brennan, Michael Campbell, Cindy Cooper, Munyaradzi Dimairo, Simon Dixon, Jackie Elliott, Mark Evans, Fiona Green, Gemma Hackney, Peter Hammond, Nina Hallowell, Alan Jaap, Brian Kennon, Jackie Kirkham, Robert Lindsay, Peter Mansell, Diana Papaioannou, David Rankin, Pamela Royle, W Henry Smithson, Carolin Taylor
BACKGROUND: Insulin is generally administered to people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using multiple daily injections (MDIs), but can also be delivered using infusion pumps. In the UK, pumps are recommended for patients with the greatest need and adult use is less than in comparable countries. Previous trials have been small, of short duration and have failed to control for training in insulin adjustment. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pump therapy compared with MDI for adults with T1DM, with both groups receiving equivalent structured training in flexible insulin therapy...
April 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412938/broad-and-flexible-stable-isotope-niches-in-invasive-non-native-rattus-spp-in-anthropogenic-and-natural-habitats-of-central-eastern-madagascar
#7
Melanie Dammhahn, Toky M Randriamoria, Steven M Goodman
BACKGROUND: Rodents of the genus Rattus are among the most pervasive and successful invasive species, causing major vicissitudes in native ecological communities. A broad and flexible generalist diet has been suggested as key to the invasion success of Rattus spp. Here, we use an indirect approach to better understand foraging niche width, plasticity, and overlap within and between introduced Rattus spp. in anthropogenic habitats and natural humid forests of Madagascar. RESULTS: Based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values measured in hair samples of 589 individual rodents, we found that Rattus rattus had an extremely wide foraging niche, encompassing the isotopic space covered by a complete endemic forest-dwelling Malagasy small mammal community...
April 17, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406981/human-exploitation-assisting-a-threatened-species-the-case-of-muttonbirders-and-buller-s-albatross
#8
Susan M Waugh, Timothée A Poupart, Colin M Miskelly, Jean-Claude Stahl, John P Y Arnould
Albatrosses are flexible and adaptable predators, relying on live prey as well as carrion. Use of predictable food sources and reliance on human-produced resources are well-known trait in long-range feeders like albatrosses and petrels. Breeding Buller's albatrosses studied at Solander I. (Hautere), New Zealand fed their chicks the remains of sooty shearwater juveniles (tītī in Māori), which are harvested from nearby muttonbirding sites. Evidence of this food type was found at over 10% of nests examined, and 17-40% birds that were fitted with GPS loggers visited muttonbirding sites in this and previous studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399076/effects-of-a-10-day-intensive-health-promotion-program-combining-diet-and-physical-activity-on-body-composition-physical-fitness-and-blood-factors-of-young-adults-a-randomized-pilot-study
#9
Kyoung Soon Lee, Jae Koo Lee, Young Ran Yeun
BACKGROUND A lifestyle characterized by poor eating habits and physical inactivity is a risk factor for multiple lifestyle diseases in young adults. This study assessed the effects of implementing an intensive 10-day health promotion program combining diet and physical activities on body composition, physical fitness, and biochemical parameters of young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this randomized pilot study, 30 female undergraduate students were randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group...
April 11, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381473/modeling-tool-for-calculating-dietary-iron-bioavailability-in-iron-sufficient-adults
#10
Susan J Fairweather-Tait, Amy Jennings, Linda J Harvey, Rachel Berry, Janette Walton, Jack R Dainty
Background: Values for dietary iron bioavailability are required for setting dietary reference values. These are estimated from predictive algorithms, nonheme iron absorption from meals, and models of iron intake, serum ferritin concentration, and iron requirements.Objective: We developed a new interactive tool to predict dietary iron bioavailability.Design: Iron intake and serum ferritin, a quantitative marker of body iron stores, from 2 nationally representative studies of adults in the United Kingdom and Ireland and a trial in elderly people in Norfolk, United Kingdom, were used to develop a model to predict dietary iron absorption at different serum ferritin concentrations...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330953/your-mitochondria-are-what-you-eat-a-high-fat-or-a-high-sucrose-diet-eliminates-metabolic-flexibility-in-isolated-mitochondria-from-rat-skeletal-muscle
#11
Wenche Jørgensen, Kasper A Rud, Ole H Mortensen, Lis Frandsen, Niels Grunnet, Bjørn Quistorff
Extreme diets consisting of either high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) may lead to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, often associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is not known if these diets alter normal interactions of pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation at the level of the mitochondria. Here, we report that rat muscle mitochondria does show the normal Randle-type fat-carbohydrate interaction seen in vivo. The mechanism behind this metabolic flexibility at the level of the isolated mitochondria is a regulation of the flux-ratio: pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)/β-oxidation to suit the actual substrate availability, with the PDH flux as the major point of regulation...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300033/-current-status-of-extracorporeal-shock-wave-lithotripsy-in-urinary-lithiasis
#12
Jose Gregorio Pereira-Arias, Mikel Gamarra-Quintanilla, Luis Felipe Urdaneta-Salegui, Jorge Alberto Mora-Christian, Andrea Sánchez-Vazquez, Ander Astobieta-Odriozola, Gaspar Ibarluzea-González
Over the last decade, urinary lithiasis' prevalence has dramatically increased due to diet and lifestyle changes, growing 10.6% and 7.1% in men and women respectively. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has lost relevance in current practice due to endoscopic device development and unpredictability of results. Instrument miniaturization is leading to an increase of the percutaneous approach of increasingly smaller stones, while most flexible ureteroscopes durability and digitalization has allowed urologists to address larger stones...
March 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299717/physical-activity-and-maximal-oxygen-uptake-in-adults-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#13
Itai Gross, Harry J Hirsch, Naama Constantini, Shachar Nice, Yehuda Pollak, Larry Genstil, Talia Eldar-Geva, Varda Gross Tsur
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is the most common genetic syndrome causing life-threatening obesity. Strict adherence to a low-calorie diet and regular physical activity are needed to prevent weight gain. Direct measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), the "gold standard" for assessing aerobic exercise capacity, has not been previously described in PWS. OBJECTIVES: Assess aerobic capacity by direct measurement of VO2 max in adults with PWS, and in age and BMI-matched controls (OC), and compare the results with values obtained by indirect prediction methods...
March 16, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298271/optimizing-protein-intake-in-adults-interpretation-and-application-of-the-recommended-dietary-allowance-compared-with-the-acceptable-macronutrient-distribution-range
#14
REVIEW
Robert R Wolfe, Amy M Cifelli, Georgia Kostas, Il-Young Kim
The adult RDA is defined as the average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy people. The RDA for protein for adults ≥18 y of age (0.8 g/kg) has been essentially unchanged for >70 y. In practice, the RDA for protein was derived to estimate the minimum amount of protein that must be eaten to avoid a loss of body nitrogen. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) (10-35% of calories as protein) was developed to express dietary recommendations in the context of a complete diet...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271032/bezafibrate-ameliorates-diabetes-via-reduced-steatosis-and-improved-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-in-diabetic-tallyho-mice
#15
Andras Franko, Susanne Neschen, Jan Rozman, Birgit Rathkolb, Michaela Aichler, Annette Feuchtinger, Laura Brachthäuser, Frauke Neff, Marketa Kovarova, Eckhard Wolf, Helmut Fuchs, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Peter, Martin Hrabě de Angelis
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we have shown that Bezafibrate (BEZ), the pan-PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) activator, ameliorated diabetes in insulin deficient streptozotocin treated diabetic mice. In order to study whether BEZ can also improve glucose metabolism in a mouse model for fatty liver and type 2 diabetes, the drug was applied to TallyHo mice. METHODS: TallyHo mice were divided into an early (ED) and late (LD) diabetes progression group and both groups were treated with 0...
March 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268184/feeding-premature-neonates-kinship-and-species-in-translational-neonatology
#16
Mie S Dam, Sandra M Juhl, Per T Sangild, Mette N Svendsen
Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of 'translating' research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013-2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care hold the potential for stimulating and eroding kinship relations between human and nonhuman actors...
April 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266084/recommendations-for-the-evaluation-of-complex-genetic-toxicity-data-sets-when-assessing-carcinogenic-risks-to-humans
#17
David A Eastmond
Genotoxicity testing plays an important role in the assessment of carcinogenic and heritable risks. In many cases, experts charged with assessing genotoxicity test results need to evaluate widely varying numbers and types of bioassays of differing quality, conducted in a variety of cells and species using a wide range of protocols. The recommendations in this article were initially prepared as general guidelines to assist experts involved in the 2016 Joint Food and Agricultural Organization and World Health Organization Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) in their evaluation of the human health risks associated with exposure to pesticide residues in the diet...
March 7, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259057/the-accuracy-of-the-bedside-swallowing-evaluation-for-detecting-aspiration-in-survivors-of-acute-respiratory-failure
#18
Ylinne T Lynch, Brendan J Clark, Madison Macht, S David White, Heather Taylor, Tim Wimbish, Marc Moss
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia with subsequent aspiration occurs in up to 60% of acute respiratory failure (ARF) survivors. Accurate bedside tests for aspiration can reduce aspiration-related complications while minimizing delay of oral nutrition. In a cohort of ARF survivors, we determined the accuracy of the bedside swallowing evaluation (BSE) and its components for detecting aspiration. METHODS: Patients who were extubated after at least 24hours of mechanical ventilation were eligible for enrollment...
June 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250801/press-pulse-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-the-metabolic-management-of-cancer
#19
Thomas N Seyfried, George Yu, Joseph C Maroon, Dominic P D'Agostino
BACKGROUND: A shift from respiration to fermentation is a common metabolic hallmark of cancer cells. As a result, glucose and glutamine become the prime fuels for driving the dysregulated growth of tumors. The simultaneous occurrence of "Press-Pulse" disturbances was considered the mechanism responsible for reduction of organic populations during prior evolutionary epochs. Press disturbances produce chronic stress, while pulse disturbances produce acute stress on populations. It was only when both disturbances coincide that population reduction occurred...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247322/endoscopic-suturing-for-massively-bleeding-marginal-ulcer-10%C3%A2-days-post-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#20
Sindhu Barola, Thomas Magnuson, Michael Schweitzer, Yen-I Chen, Saowanee Ngamruengphong, Mouen A Khashab, Vivek Kumbhari
BACKGROUND: Marginal ulceration post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) with associated bleeding, although infrequently encountered, can be challenging to treat. Flexible endoscopic therapy is preferred over surgery due to its minimally invasive nature. Bleeding ulcers have traditionally been treated endoscopically by injecting epinephrine, bipolar hemostasis, or clips. Here, we describe our treatment with endoscopic suturing for a massively bleeding marginal ulcer after RYGB. METHODS: A 56-year-old female 10 days post RYGB underwent her fourth endoscopy for investigation and management of hematemesis and was found to have a large bleeding anastomotic ulcer...
February 28, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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