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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300033/-current-status-of-extracorporeal-shock-wave-lithotripsy-in-urinary-lithiasis
#1
Jose Gregorio Pereira-Arias, Mikel Gamarra-Quintanilla, Luis Felipe Urdaneta-Salegui, Jorge Alberto Mora-Christian, Andrea Sánchez-Vazquez, Ander Astobieta-Odriozola, Gaspar Ibarluzea-González
Over the last decade, urinary lithiasis' prevalence has dramatically increased due to diet and lifestyle changes, growing 10.6% and 7.1% in men and women respectively. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has lost relevance in current practice due to endoscopic device development and unpredictability of results. Instrument miniaturization is leading to an increase of the percutaneous approach of increasingly smaller stones, while most flexible ureteroscopes durability and digitalization has allowed urologists to address larger stones...
March 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299717/physical-activity-and-maximal-oxygen-uptake-in-adults-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#2
Itai Gross, Harry J Hirsch, Naama Constantini, Shachar Nice, Yehuda Pollak, Larry Genstil, Talia Eldar-Geva, Varda Gross Tsur
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is the most common genetic syndrome causing life-threatening obesity. Strict adherence to a low-calorie diet and regular physical activity are needed to prevent weight gain. Direct measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), the "gold standard" for assessing aerobic exercise capacity, has not been previously described in PWS. OBJECTIVES: Assess aerobic capacity by direct measurement of VO2 max in adults with PWS, and in age and BMI-matched controls (OC), and compare the results with values obtained by indirect prediction methods...
March 16, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298271/optimizing-protein-intake-in-adults-interpretation-and-application-of-the-recommended-dietary-allowance-compared-with-the-acceptable-macronutrient-distribution-range
#3
REVIEW
Robert R Wolfe, Amy M Cifelli, Georgia Kostas, Il-Young Kim
The adult RDA is defined as the average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy people. The RDA for protein for adults ≥18 y of age (0.8 g/kg) has been essentially unchanged for >70 y. In practice, the RDA for protein was derived to estimate the minimum amount of protein that must be eaten to avoid a loss of body nitrogen. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) (10-35% of calories as protein) was developed to express dietary recommendations in the context of a complete diet...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271032/bezafibrate-ameliorates-diabetes-via-reduced-steatosis-and-improved-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-in-diabetic-tallyho-mice
#4
Andras Franko, Susanne Neschen, Jan Rozman, Birgit Rathkolb, Michaela Aichler, Annette Feuchtinger, Laura Brachthäuser, Frauke Neff, Marketa Kovarova, Eckhard Wolf, Helmut Fuchs, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Peter, Martin Hrabě de Angelis
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we have shown that Bezafibrate (BEZ), the pan-PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) activator, ameliorated diabetes in insulin deficient streptozotocin treated diabetic mice. In order to study whether BEZ can also improve glucose metabolism in a mouse model for fatty liver and type 2 diabetes, the drug was applied to TallyHo mice. METHODS: TallyHo mice were divided into an early (ED) and late (LD) diabetes progression group and both groups were treated with 0...
March 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268184/feeding-premature-neonates-kinship-and-species-in-translational-neonatology
#5
Mie S Dam, Sandra M Juhl, Per T Sangild, Mette N Svendsen
Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of 'translating' research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013-2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care hold the potential for stimulating and eroding kinship relations between human and nonhuman actors...
February 28, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266084/recommendations-for-the-evaluation-of-complex-genetic-toxicity-data-sets-when-assessing-carcinogenic-risks-to-humans
#6
David A Eastmond
Genotoxicity testing plays an important role in the assessment of carcinogenic and heritable risks. In many cases, experts charged with assessing genotoxicity test results need to evaluate widely varying numbers and types of bioassays of differing quality, conducted in a variety of cells and species using a wide range of protocols. The recommendations in this article were initially prepared as general guidelines to assist experts involved in the 2016 Joint Food and Agricultural Organization and World Health Organization Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) in their evaluation of the human health risks associated with exposure to pesticide residues in the diet...
March 7, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259057/the-accuracy-of-the-bedside-swallowing-evaluation-for-detecting-aspiration-in-survivors-of-acute-respiratory-failure
#7
Ylinne T Lynch, Brendan J Clark, Madison Macht, S David White, Heather Taylor, Tim Wimbish, Marc Moss
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia with subsequent aspiration occurs in up to 60% of acute respiratory failure (ARF) survivors. Accurate bedside tests for aspiration can reduce aspiration-related complications while minimizing delay of oral nutrition. In a cohort of ARF survivors, we determined the accuracy of the bedside swallowing evaluation (BSE) and its components for detecting aspiration. METHODS: Patients who were extubated after at least 24hours of mechanical ventilation were eligible for enrollment...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250801/press-pulse-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-the-metabolic-management-of-cancer
#8
Thomas N Seyfried, George Yu, Joseph C Maroon, Dominic P D'Agostino
BACKGROUND: A shift from respiration to fermentation is a common metabolic hallmark of cancer cells. As a result, glucose and glutamine become the prime fuels for driving the dysregulated growth of tumors. The simultaneous occurrence of "Press-Pulse" disturbances was considered the mechanism responsible for reduction of organic populations during prior evolutionary epochs. Press disturbances produce chronic stress, while pulse disturbances produce acute stress on populations. It was only when both disturbances coincide that population reduction occurred...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247322/endoscopic-suturing-for-massively-bleeding-marginal-ulcer-10%C3%A2-days-post-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#9
Sindhu Barola, Thomas Magnuson, Michael Schweitzer, Yen-I Chen, Saowanee Ngamruengphong, Mouen A Khashab, Vivek Kumbhari
BACKGROUND: Marginal ulceration post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) with associated bleeding, although infrequently encountered, can be challenging to treat. Flexible endoscopic therapy is preferred over surgery due to its minimally invasive nature. Bleeding ulcers have traditionally been treated endoscopically by injecting epinephrine, bipolar hemostasis, or clips. Here, we describe our treatment with endoscopic suturing for a massively bleeding marginal ulcer after RYGB. METHODS: A 56-year-old female 10 days post RYGB underwent her fourth endoscopy for investigation and management of hematemesis and was found to have a large bleeding anastomotic ulcer...
February 28, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211258/effects-of-a-wide-range-of-dietary-nicotinamide-riboside-nr-concentrations-on-metabolic-flexibility-and-white-adipose-tissue-wat-of-mice-fed-a-mildly-obesogenic-diet
#10
Wenbiao Shi, Maria A Hegeman, Dorien A M van Dartel, Jing Tang, Manuel Suarez, Hans Swarts, Bart van der Hee, Lluis Arola, Jaap Keijer
SCOPE: Metabolic flexibility is the ability to switch metabolism between carbohydrate oxidation (CHO) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and is a biomarker for metabolic health. The effect on metabolic health of nicotinamide riboside (NR) as an exclusive source of vitamin B3 is unknown and is examined here for a wide range of NR. DESIGN AND METHODS: Nine-week-old male C57BL/6JRcc mice received a semi-purified mildly obesogenic (40 en% fat) diet containing 0.14% L-tryptophan and either 5, 15, 30, 180 or 900 mg NR per kg diet for 15 weeks...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208819/the-comparative-reliability-and-feasibility-of-the-past-year-canadian-diet-history-questionnaire-ii-comparison-of-the-paper-and-web-versions
#11
Geraldine Lo Siou, Ilona Csizmadi, Beatrice A Boucher, Alianu K Akawung, Heather K Whelan, Michelle Sharma, Ala Al Rajabi, Jennifer E Vena, Sharon I Kirkpatrick, Anita Koushik, Isabelle Massarelli, Isabelle Rondeau, Paula J Robson
Advances in technology-enabled dietary assessment include the advent of web-based food frequency questionnaires, which may reduce costs and researcher burden but may introduce new challenges related to internet connectivity and computer literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-version reliability, feasibility and acceptability of the paper and web Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (CDHQ-II) in a sub-sample of 648 adults (aged 39-81 years) recruited from Alberta's Tomorrow Project...
February 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193599/an-online-intervention-comparing-a-very-low-carbohydrate-ketogenic-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations-versus-a-plate-method-diet-in-overweight-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Laura R Saslow, Ashley E Mason, Sarah Kim, Veronica Goldman, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Hovig Bayandorian, Jennifer Daubenmier, Frederick M Hecht, Judith T Moskowitz
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181377/evolution-of-the-hypercarnivorous-dentition-in-mammals-metatheria-eutheria-and-its-bearing-on-the-development-of-tribosphenic-molars
#13
Floréal Solé, Sandrine Ladevèze
One major innovation of mammals is the tribosphenic molar, characterized by the evolution of a neomorphic upper cusp (=protocone) and a lower basin (=talonid) that occlude and provide shearing and crushing functions. This type of molar is an evolutionarily flexible structure that enabled mammals to achieve complex dental adaptations. Among carnivorous mammals, hypercarnivory is a common trend that evolved several times among therians (marsupials, placentals, and stem relatives). Hypercarnivory involves an important simplification of the carnassial molar pattern from the ancestral tribosphenic molar pattern, with the modification of the triangular tooth crown, and the loss of several cusps and cuspids typical of the tribosphenic molar...
February 9, 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149429/physiological-nutritional-and-performance-profiles-of-brazilian-jiu-jitsu-athletes
#14
Leonardo V Andreato, Jonatas Fs Santos, João Vdc Esteves, Valeria Lg Panissa, Ursula F Julio, Emerson Franchini
This study analysed the physiological, nutritional and performance profiles of athletes practicing Brazilian jiu-jitsu. To this end, 15 athletes that practiced Brazilian jiu-jitsu (aged: 28 ± 5 years; 8 brown belts and 7 black belts; training experience: 11 ± 4 years) underwent anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype), dietary evaluation (24 h recall) and physical fitness tests (movement time, dynamometer handgrip, kimono grip strength, vertical jump and sit-and-reach tests). The athletes had 12...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132818/salt-inducible-kinase-3-provides-sugar-tolerance-by-regulating-nadph-nadp-redox-balance
#15
Mari Teesalu, Bohdana M Rovenko, Ville Hietakangas
Nutrient-sensing pathways respond to changes in the levels of macronutrients, such as sugars, lipids, or amino acids, and regulate metabolic pathways to maintain organismal homeostasis [1, 2]. Consequently, nutrient sensing provides animals with the metabolic flexibility necessary for enduring temporal fluctuations in nutrient intake. Recent studies have shown that an animal's ability to survive on a high-sugar diet is determined by sugar-responsive gene regulation [3-8]. It remains to be elucidated whether other levels of metabolic control, such as post-translational regulation of metabolic enzymes, also contribute to organismal sugar tolerance...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113962/a-handheld-and-textile-enabled-bioimpedance-system-for-ubiquitous-body-composition-analysis-an-initial-functional-validation
#16
Javier Ferreira Gonzalez, Ivan Pau de la Cruz, Kaj Lindecrantz, Fernando Seoane
In recent years, many efforts have been made to promote a healthcare paradigm shift from the traditional reactive hospital-centered healthcare approach towards a proactive, patient-oriented and self-managed approach that could improve service quality and help reduce costs while contributing to sustainability. Managing and caring for patients with chronic diseases accounts over 75% of healthcare costs in developed countries. One of the most resource demanding diseases is chronic kidney disease (CKD), which often leads to a gradual and irreparable loss of renal function, with up to 12% of the population showing signs of different stages of this disease...
November 15, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090338/executive-functions-predict-weight-loss-in-a-medically-supervised-weight-loss-programme
#17
R Galioto, D Bond, J Gunstad, V Pera, L Rathier, G Tremont
BACKGROUND: Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. METHODS: Twenty-three adult patients (age 50.4 ± 15.1, BMI 44.2 ± 8...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088654/transcriptional-response-of-skeletal-muscle-to-a-low-protein-perinatal-diet-in-rat-offspring-at-different-ages-the-role-of-key-enzymes-of-glucose-fatty-acid-oxidation
#18
José Luiz de Brito Alves, Ana Elisa Toscano, João Henrique da Costa-Silva, Hubert Vidal, Carol Góis Leandro, Luciano Pirola
Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue during development with distinctive acute and chronic response to maternal protein restriction. This study evaluated gene and protein expression of key-enzymes of glycolytic pathway (HK2, PFK, PDK4 and CS), and fatty acid oxidation (CPT1 and β-HAD) of two different types of skeletal muscle [soleus and extensor digitorium longus (EDL)] from offspring rats at 30 and 90 days of age, exposed to maternal isoenergetic low protein diet throughout gestation and lactation. Pups from dams fed 17% protein diet (n=5, normal protein, Np), and low protein pups from dams fed 8% casein diet (low protein, Lp, n=5) were evaluated...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074323/changes-in-cerebral-metabolism-during-ketogenic-diet-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-1-h-mrs-study
#19
Moran Artzi, Gilad Liberman, Nachum Vaisman, Felix Bokstein, Faina Vitinshtein, Orna Aizenstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
Normal brain cells depend on glucose metabolism, yet they have the flexibility to switch to the usage of ketone bodies during caloric restriction. In contrast, tumor cells lack genomic and metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose. Ketogenic-diet (KD) was suggested as a therapeutic option for malignant brain cancer. This study aimed to detect metabolic brain changes in patients with malignant brain gliomas on KD using proton magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Fifty MR scans were performed longitudinally in nine patients: four patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GB) treated with KD in addition to bevacizumab; one patient with gliomatosis-cerebri treated with KD only; and four patients with recurrent GB who did not receive KD...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064525/healthy-children-strong-families-2-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-healthy-lifestyle-intervention-for-american-indian-families-designed-using-community-based-approaches
#20
Emily J Tomayko, Ronald J Prince, Kate A Cronin, Tassy Parker, Kyungmann Kim, Vernon M Grant, Judith N Sheche, Alexandra K Adams
Background/Aims Few obesity prevention trials have focused on young children and their families in the home environment, particularly in underserved communities. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian children and their families, a group at very high risk of obesity. The study design resulted from our long-standing engagement with American Indian communities, and few collaborations of this type resulting in the development and implementation of a randomized clinical trial have been described...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
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