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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900569/status-of-urban-populations-of-the-long-tailed-macaque-macaca-fascicularis-in-west-sumatra-indonesia
#1
Kurnia Ilham, Rizaldi, Jabang Nurdin, Yamato Tsuji
We studied long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia, focusing on the effect of human provisioning on their demography and dietary composition. We conducted a field survey at three sites in the city: Gunung Meru, Gunung Padang, and Gunung Panggilun. Mean troop size (range 28-68) and infant ratio (range 0.38-1.00) were greater in Gunung Meru, where the macaques have been highly provisioned, than at the other two study sites (troop size 10-15; infant ratio 0.00-0...
November 29, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856638/regulation-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4-in-the-heart-through-degradation-by-the-lon-protease-in-response-to-mitochondrial-substrate-availability
#2
Clair Crewe, Christopher Schafer, Irene Lee, Michael Kinter, Luke I Szweda
Cardiac metabolic inflexibility is driven by robust up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) within a single day of feeding mice a high fat diet. In the current study, we have discovered that PDK4 is a short-lived protein (t1/2 ~1 h) and is specifically degraded by the mitochondrial protease, Lon. Lon does not rapidly degrade PDK1 and 2 indicating specificity toward the PDK isoform that is a potent modulator of metabolic flexibility...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847350/design-considerations-in-development-of-a-mobile-health-intervention-program-the-text-me-and-textmeds-experience
#3
Jay Thakkar, Tony Barry, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Julie Redfern, Alistair L McEwan, Anthony Rodgers, Clara K Chow
BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) has huge potential to deliver preventative health services. However, there is paucity of literature on theoretical constructs, technical, practical, and regulatory considerations that enable delivery of such services. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to outline the key considerations in the development of a text message-based mHealth program; thus providing broad recommendations and guidance to future researchers designing similar programs...
November 15, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830334/the-effect-of-body-mass-and-diet-composition-on-torpor-patterns-in-a-malagasy-primate-microcebus-murinus
#4
Sheena L Faherty, C Ryan Campbell, Susan A Hilbig, Anne D Yoder
One of the most obvious physiological changes accompanying seasonal heterothermy in mammals is a fattening stage preceding periods of resource scarcity. This phenomenon reflects the interplay of both diet and physiology. Though the accrual of fat stores is known to be essential for overwintering in some species, the influence of diet on the physiology of torpor is not fully understood. Results from captive studies in heterothermic rodents and marsupials have indicated that when autumn diets are enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), animals receiving these diets experience deeper and more frequent torpor bouts than their counterparts receiving a control diet...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789212/multi-modal-exercise-training-and-protein-pacing-enhances-physical-performance-adaptations-independent-of-growth-hormone-and-bdnf-but-may-be-dependent-on-igf-1-in-exercise-trained-men
#5
Stephen J Ives, Chelsea Norton, Vincent Miller, Olivia Minicucci, Jake Robinson, Gabe O'Brien, Daniela Escudero, Maia Paul, Caitlin Sheridan, Kathryn Curran, Kayla Rose, Nathaniel Robinson, Feng He, Paul J Arciero
OBJECTIVE: Protein-pacing (P; 5-6meals/day @ 2.0g/kgBW/day) and multi-mode exercise (RISE; resistance, interval, stretching, endurance) training (PRISE) improves muscular endurance, strength, power and arterial health in exercise-trained women. The current study extends these findings by examining PRISE on fitness, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) response, cardiometabolic health, and body composition in exercise-trained men...
October 15, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783937/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-hydrolase-domain-6-in-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-controls-energy-metabolism-flexibility
#6
Alexandre Fisette, Stephanie Tobin, Léa Décarie-Spain, Khalil Bouyakdan, Marie-Line Peyot, S R Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki, Stephanie Fulton, Thierry Alquier
α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is a monoacylglycerol hydrolase that degrades the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Although complete or peripheral ABHD6 loss of function is protective against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, the role of ABHD6 in the central control of energy balance is unknown. Using a viral-mediated knockout approach, targeted endocannabinoid measures, and pharmacology, we discovered that mice lacking ABHD6 from neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH(KO)) have higher VMH 2-AG levels in conditions of endocannabinoid recruitment and fail to physiologically adapt to key metabolic challenges...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778359/effects-of-species-co-occurrence-on-the-trophic-niche-breadth-of-characids-in-amazon-forest-streams
#7
G Barros, J Zuanon, C Deus
This study assessed the width of the trophic niche of four characid species (Bryconops giacopinii, Bryconops inpai, Hyphessobrycon aff. melazonatus and Iguanodectes geisleri) found under different co-occurrence circumstances in Amazonian upland streams. The study was conducted during the rainy season of 2011 at eight sites of two micro-basins of the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The four species were studied in the following circumstances: only one of the species occurring in the stream; two species co-occurring; three species co-occurring...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773967/ultrasonic-transducer-guided-electrochemical-impedance-spectroscopy-to-assess-lipid-laden-plaques
#8
Jianguo Ma, Yuan Luo, René R Sevag Packard, Teng Ma, Yichen Ding, Parinaz Abiri, Yu-Chong Tai, Qifa Zhou, Kirk K Shung, Rongsong Li, Tzung Hsiai
Plaque rupture causes acute coronary syndromes and stroke. Intraplaque oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is metabolically unstable and prone to induce rupture. We designed an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) sensor to enhance the detection reproducibility of oxLDL-laden plaques. The flexible 2-point micro-electrode array for EIS was affixed to an inflatable balloon anchored onto a co-axial double layer catheter (outer diameter = 2 mm). The mechanically scanning-driven IVUS transducer (45 MHz) was deployed through the inner catheter (diameter = 1...
November 1, 2016: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771770/associations-between-exclusive-breastfeeding-and-physical-fitness-during-childhood
#9
Mahmoud Zaqout, Nathalie Michels, Wolfgang Ahrens, Claudia Börnhorst, Dénes Molnár, Luis A Moreno, Gabriele Eiben, Alfonso Siani, Stalo Papoutsou, Toomas Veidebaum, Stefaan De Henauw
PURPOSE: Exposure to breastfeeding improves the survival, health, and development of children; therefore, breast milk is recommended as the exclusive nutrient source for feeding term infants during the first 6 months. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the possible association between exposure to exclusive breastfeeding and physical fitness performance in children and, if so, whether this association is influenced by the breastfeeding duration. METHODS: A total of 2853 (52...
October 22, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759811/ketogenic-diet-for-epilepsy-treatment
#10
Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756643/-if-she-wants-to-eat%C3%A2-and-eat-and-eat%C3%A2-fine-it-s-gonna-feed-the-baby-pregnant-women-and-partners-perceptions-and-experiences-of-pregnancy-with-a-bmi-40kg-m-2
#11
Alice Keely, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Lawrie Elliott, Jane Sandall, Anne Whittaker
INTRODUCTION: women with a raised BMI are more likely to gain excessive weight in pregnancy compared to women with a BMI in the normal range. Recent behaviour change interventions have had moderate to no influence on GWG, and no effect on other perinatal outcomes. Evidence is required regarding the social and cultural contexts of weight and pregnancy. No studies to date have included the views of partners. AIMS: to explore the experiences, attitudes and health-related behaviours of pregnant women with a BMI >40kg/m(2); and to identify the factors and considerations which shape their beliefs, experiences and behaviours, and how these may change during and after pregnancy...
September 28, 2016: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742602/teaching-intuitive-eating-and-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-skills-via-a-web-based-intervention-a-pilot-single-arm-intervention-study
#12
Sara Boucher, Olivia Edwards, Andrew Gray, Shyamala Nada-Raja, Jason Lillis, Tracy L Tylka, Caroline C Horwath
BACKGROUND: Middle-aged women are at risk of weight gain and associated comorbidities. Deliberate restriction of food intake (dieting) produces short-term weight loss but is largely unsuccessful for long-term weight management. Two promising approaches for the prevention of weight gain are intuitive eating (ie, eating in accordance with hunger and satiety signals) and the development of greater psychological flexibility (ie, the aim of acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]). OBJECTIVES: This pilot study investigated the usage, acceptability, and feasibility of "Mind, Body, Food," a Web-based weight gain prevention intervention prototype that teaches intuitive eating and psychological flexibility skills...
October 14, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695931/modulation-of-digestive-enzyme-activities-in-the-avian-digestive-tract-in-relation-to-diet-composition-and-quality
#13
Kevin D Kohl, M Eugenia Ciminari, Juan G Chediack, James O Leafloor, William H Karasov, Scott R McWilliams, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal
In nature, birds are faced with variable food sources that may differ in composition (protein vs. carbohydrates) and quality (highly digestible material vs. indigestible fiber). Studies in passerine birds and some commercial poultry demonstrate that the gastrointestinal tract can respond to varying diet composition and quality by changing morphology and/or activities of digestive enzymes. However, studies in additional avian species are warranted to understand generalities of these trends. We first fed juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), chickens (Gallus gallus), and quails (Coturnix coturnix) on either high-carbohydrate or high-protein diets...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650582/dietary-flexibility-of-australopithecus-afarensis-in-the-face-of-paleoecological-change-during-the-middle-pliocene-faunal-evidence-from-hadar-ethiopia
#14
Jonathan G Wynn, Kaye E Reed, Matt Sponheimer, William H Kimbel, Zeresenay Alemseged, Zelalem K Bedaso, Christopher J Campisano
One approach to understanding the context of changes in hominin paleodiets is to examine the paleodiets and paleohabitats of contemporaneous mammalian taxa. Recent carbon isotopic studies suggest that the middle Pliocene was marked by a major shift in hominin diets, characterized by a significant increase in C4 foods in Australopithecus-grade species, including Australopithecus afarensis. To contextualize previous isotopic studies of A. afarensis, we employed stable isotopes to examine paleodiets of the mammalian fauna contemporaneous with A...
October 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649157/the-flexibility-of-ectopic-lipids
#15
REVIEW
Hannah Loher, Roland Kreis, Chris Boesch, Emanuel Christ
In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619319/development-of-a-high-throughput-method-for-real-time-assessment-of-cellular-metabolism-in-intact-long-skeletal-muscle-fibre-bundles
#16
Rui Li, Frederik J Steyn, Michael B Stout, Kevin Lee, Tanya R Cully, Juan C Calderón, Shyuan T Ngo
Metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle contributes to the aetiology and development of muscle diseases and metabolic diseases. As such, assessment of skeletal muscle cellular bioenergetics provides a powerful means to understand the role of skeletal muscle metabolism in disease and to identify possible therapeutic targets. Here, we developed a method that allows for the real-time assessment of cellular respiration in intact skeletal muscle fibre bundles obtained from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of adult mice...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603668/behavioral-variation-in-gorillas-evidence-of-potential-cultural-traits
#17
Martha M Robbins, Chieko Ando, Katherine A Fawcett, Cyril C Grueter, Daniela Hedwig, Yuji Iwata, Jessica L Lodwick, Shelly Masi, Roberta Salmi, Tara S Stoinski, Angelique Todd, Veronica Vercellio, Juichi Yamagiwa
The question of whether any species except humans exhibits culture has generated much debate, partially due to the difficulty of providing conclusive evidence from observational studies in the wild. A starting point for demonstrating the existence of culture that has been used for many species including chimpanzees and orangutans is to show that there is geographic variation in the occurrence of particular behavioral traits inferred to be a result of social learning and not ecological or genetic influences...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597135/the-effect-of-dietary-intervention-on-the-metabolic-and-behavioural-impairments-generated-by-short-term-high-fat-feeding-in-the-rat
#18
A D McNeilly, A Gao, A Y Hill, T Gomersall, D J K Balfour, C Sutherland, C A Stewart
Previous studies have shown that rats fed a high calorie diet rich in saturated fat for 12weeks exhibit peripheral insulin resistance and impairments of behavioural flexibility when switched from an operant delayed matching to place (DMTP) schedule to a delayed non-matching to place (DNMTP) schedule. However, the metabolic changes evoked by feeding a high fat (HF) diet can be observed within two weeks of commencing the diet. The current study has confirmed that 4weeks exposure to an HF diet resulted in increased body weight, peripheral insulin resistance and plasma leptin...
September 3, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594291/microbiota-in-health-and-in-sickness-from-birth-to-death
#19
Salih Kuk, Yunus Uyar, Serkan Karaca, Süleyman Yazar
Microorganisms colonize tissues and organs such as the skin and gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary systems. These microorganisms are generally called as "human microbiota". Human microbiota mostly consists of commensal microorganisms. The commensal microorganisms located on and in the human body are bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and parasites. The microbiota genome is 100 times bigger in size than the human genome. Although the human genome is stationary, microbial genome has a compatible flexible variability during human life...
December 0: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579977/trophic-ecology-of-hemigrammus-marginatus-ellis-1911-characiformes-characidae-in-a-conserved-tropical-stream
#20
E N Fragoso-Moura, T F Luiz, R Z Coeti, A C Peret
The trophic ecology of ichthyofauna in a stream can be related to the presence or absence of riparian and aquatic vegetation, and mainly resource availability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the seasonal and ontogenetic variations for the trophic ecology of Hemigrammus marginatus in the Beija-Flor stream located at the Jataí Ecological Station in the municipality of Luiz Antônio-SP, Brazil. In order to attain this objective, the data collections were carried out on a monthly basis from August, 2011 to July, 2012...
August 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
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