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Genetically Modified Organism

Carolyn P Neuhaus
New techniques for the genetic modification of organisms are creating new strategies for addressing persistent public health challenges. For example, the company Oxitec has conducted field trials internationally-and has attempted to conduct field trials in the United States-of a genetically modified mosquito that can be used to control dengue, Zika, and some other mosquito-borne diseases. In 2016, a report commissioned by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine discussed the potential benefits and risks of another strategy, using gene drives...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
Christophe Sirac, Guillermo A Herrera, Paul W Sanders, Vecihi Batuman, Sebastien Bender, Maria V Ayala, Vincent Javaugue, Jiamin Teng, Elba A Turbat-Herrera, Michel Cogné, Guy Touchard, Nelson Leung, Frank Bridoux
The renal deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulins can cause severe renal complications in patients with B cell and plasma cell lymphoproliferative disorders. The overproduction of a structurally unique immunoglobulin can contribute to the abnormal propensity of monoclonal immunoglobulins to aggregate and deposit in specific organs. A wide range of renal diseases can occur in multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance, including tubular and glomerular disorders with organized or unorganized immunoglobulin deposits...
February 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Daniela Ben-Tov, Anat Idan-Molakandov, Anat Hugger, Ilan Ben-Shlush, Markus Günl, Bo Yang, Björn Usadel, Smadar Harpaz-Saad
The production of hydrophilic mucilage along the course of seed coat epidermal cell differentiation is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Previous studies identified COBRA-LIKE 2 (COBL2), a member of the COBRA-LIKE gene family, as a novel component required for crystalline cellulose deposition in seed coat epidermal cells. In recent years, Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells (SCEs), also called mucilage secretory cells, have emerged as a powerful model system for the study of plant cell wall components biosynthesis, secretion, assembly and de-muro modification...
February 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jennifer A Anderson, Jamie Staley, Mary Challender, Jamie Heuton
Genetically modified crops undergo extensive evaluation to characterize their food, feed and environmental safety prior to commercial introduction, using a well-established, science-based assessment framework. One component of the safety assessment includes an evaluation of each introduced trait, including its source organism, for potential adverse pathogenic, toxic and allergenic effects. Several Pseudomonas species have a history of safe use in agriculture and certain species represent a source of genes with insecticidal properties...
February 9, 2018: Transgenic Research
Kevin K Ohlemiller, Tejbeer Kaur, Mark E Warchol, Robert H Withnell
The endocochlear potential (EP) provides part of the electrochemical drive for sound-driven currents through cochlear hair cells. Intense noise exposure (110 dB SPL, 2 h) differentially affects the EP in three inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6 [B6], CBA/J [CBA], BALB/cJ [BALB]) (Ohlemiller and Gagnon, 2007, Hearing Research 224:34-50; Ohlemiller et al., 2011, JARO 12:45-58). At least for mice older than 3 mos, B6 mice are unaffected, CBA mice show temporary EP reduction, and BALB mice may show temporary or permanent EP reduction...
February 1, 2018: Hearing Research
Yalan Wei, Ling Huang, Jinghui Cao, Chenghui Wang, Jizhou Yan
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is facing with growing demands of aquaculture and aquatic products. Although various genetically modified (GM) aquatics have been generated, it is important to evaluate biosafety of GM organisms on the human health before entering into our food chain. For this purpose, we establish a zebrafish wild adult feeding Flk1-transgenic larvae model to examine the predatory fish's histology in multiple tissues, and the global gene expression profile in the liver...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Kristin Fritsch, Sébastien Pigeot, Xiaomin Feng, Paul E Bourgine, Timm Schroeder, Ivan Martin, Markus G Manz, Hitoshi Takizawa
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a specialized bone marrow (BM) environment, the so-called HSC niche, that provides pivotal factors for their maintenance. While the cellular and molecular components of the mouse BM HSC niche have been extensively studied using genetically modified animals, relatively little is known about the counterpart human BM niche components. We have previously shown with a developmental tissue engineering approach that human adult BM-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can develop into human bone organs (so-called ossicles) through endochondral ossification in vivo, and that these human ossicles are able to maintain functional mouse HSCs...
February 2, 2018: Experimental Hematology
Miroslav Vetrik, Jana Mattova, Hana Mackova, Jan Kucka, Pavla Pouckova, Olivia Kukackova, Jiri Brus, Sebastian Eigner-Henke, Ondrej Sedlacek, Ludek Sefc, Petr Stepanek, Martin Hruby
Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder that causes excessive accumulation of copper in the body, leading to toxic damage, especially in the liver and nervous system. The current treatment cause burdensome side effects. We describe the use of chemically modified biopolymer carriers based on microcrystalline cellulose and chitosan containing the highly specific copper chelator 8-hydroxyquinoline as a new type of therapy for Wilson's disease. The chelators can scavenges copper ions released from food during digestion and copper ions present in secretions in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Xiang Li, Chang C Liu
Tyrosine sulfation is an important posttranslational modification found in bacteria and higher eukaryotes. However, the chemical synthesis or expression of homogenously sulfated proteins is particularly difficult, limiting our study and application of tyrosine-sulfated proteins. With the recent development of genomically recoded organisms and orthogonal translation components, we can often treat otherwise posttranslationally-modified amino acids as noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) encoded by an expanded genetic code...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tiago Koppe, Bonnie Patchen, Aaron Cheng, Manoj Bhasin, Chris Vulpe, Robert E Schwartz, Jose Maria Moreno-Navarrete, Jose Manuel Fernandez-Real, Pavlos Pissios, Paula G Fraenkel
Iron overload causes the generation of reactive oxygen species that can lead to lasting damage to the liver and other organs. The goal of this study was to identify genes that modify the toxicity of iron overload. We studied the effect of iron overload on the hepatic transcriptional and metabolomic profile in mouse models using a dietary model of iron overload and a genetic model, the hemojuvelin knockout mouse. We then evaluated the correlation of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) expression with body iron stores in human patients and the effect of NNMT knockdown on gene expression and viability in primary mouse hepatocytes...
October 2017: Hepatology Communications
Fade Gong, Kyle M Miller
Our genetic information is organized into chromatin, which consists of histones and proteins involved in regulating DNA compaction, accessibility and function. Chromatin is decorated by histone modifications, which provide signals that coordinate DNA-based processes including transcription and DNA damage response (DDR) pathways. A major signal involved in these processes is acetylation, which when attached to lysines within proteins, including histones, can be recognized and read by bromodomain-containing proteins...
February 2, 2018: Cell Cycle
H M H Spronk, T Padro, J E Siland, J H Prochaska, J Winters, A C van der Wal, J J Posthuma, G Lowe, E d'Alessandro, P Wenzel, D M Coenen, P H Reitsma, W Ruf, R H van Gorp, R R Koenen, T Vajen, N A Alshaikh, A S Wolberg, F L Macrae, N Asquith, J Heemskerk, A Heinzmann, M Moorlag, N Mackman, P van der Meijden, J C M Meijers, M Heestermans, T Renné, S Dólleman, W Chayouâ, R A S Ariëns, C C Baaten, M Nagy, A Kuliopulos, J J Posma, P Harrison, M J Vries, H J G M Crijns, E A M P Dudink, H R Buller, Y M C Henskens, A Själander, S Zwaveling, O Erküner, J W Eikelboom, A Gulpen, F E C M Peeters, J Douxfils, R H Olie, T Baglin, A Leader, U Schotten, B Scaf, H M M van Beusekom, L O Mosnier, L van der Vorm, P Declerck, M Visser, D W J Dippel, V J Strijbis, K Pertiwi, A J Ten Cate-Hoek, H Ten Cate
Atherothrombosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular mortality and long-term morbidity. Platelets and coagulation proteases, interacting with circulating cells and in different vascular beds, modify several complex pathologies including atherosclerosis. In the second Maastricht Consensus Conference on Thrombosis, this theme was addressed by diverse scientists from bench to bedside. All presentations were discussed with audience members and the results of these discussions were incorporated in the final document that presents a state-of-the-art reflection of expert opinions and consensus recommendations regarding the following five topics: 1...
February 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Yusuke Sato'o, Junzo Hisatsune, Liansheng Yu, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Motoyuki Sugai
Preparing the genetically modified organisms have required much time and labor, making it the rate-limiting step but CRISPR/Cas9 technology appearance has changed this difficulty. Although reports on CRISPR/Cas9 technology such as genome editing and CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) in eukaryotes increased, those in prokaryotes especially in Staphylococci were limited. Thus, its potential in the bacteriology remains unexplored. This is attributed to ecological difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here, we constructed a novel CRISPRi plasmid vector, pBACi for Staphylococcus aureus...
2018: PloS One
Amy C Burke, Murray W Huff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Regression, or reversal, of atherosclerosis has become an important clinical objective. The development of consistent models of murine atherosclerosis regression has accelerated this field of research. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent mouse studies that reveal molecular mechanisms as well as therapeutics targeted for regression. RECENT FINDINGS: Atherosclerosis regression does not involve the same mechanisms as progression in reverse order...
January 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Jicong Cao, Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Rui Wen Ou, Marcelo Der Torossian Torres, Santosh G Pande, Anthony J Sinskey, Timothy K Lu
Antibiotic resistance is one of the most challenging global health threats in our society. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics for the treatment of drug-resistant infections. However, they are limited by their high manufacturing cost. Engineering living organisms represents a promising approach to produce such molecules in an inexpensive manner. Here, we genetically modified the yeast Pichia pastoris to produce the prototypical AMP apidaecin Ia using a fusion protein approach that leverages the beneficial properties (e...
February 12, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Liping Chen, Yuan Zhao, Shujuan Xu, Zeyong Zhang, Yunyuan Xu, Jingyu Zhang, Kang Chong
Plants modify their development to adapt to their environment, protecting themselves from detrimental conditions such as chilling stress by triggering a variety of signaling pathways; however, little is known about how plants coordinate developmental patterns and stress responses at the molecular level. Here, we demonstrate that interacting transcription factors OsMADS57 and OsTB1 directly target the defense gene OsWRKY94 and the organogenesis gene D14 to trade off the functions controlling/moderating rice tolerance to cold...
January 24, 2018: New Phytologist
Nouran S Abdelfattah, Ann Mullally
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is an adaptive immunity system in prokaryotes that has been repurposed by scientists to generate RNA-guided nucleases, such as CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 for site-specific eukaryotic genome editing. Genome engineering by Cas9 is used to efficiently, easily and robustly modify endogenous genes in many biomedically-relevant mammalian cell lines and organisms. Here we show an example of how to utilize the CRISPR/Cas9 methodology to understand the biological function of specific genetic mutations...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hewang Lee, Hila Roshanravan, Ying Wang, Koji Okamoto, Junghwa Ryu, Shashi Shrivastav, Peng Qu, Jeffrey B Kopp, Jeffrey B Kopp
Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variants are strongly associated with kidney disease. We investigated the role of APOL1 variants in monocyte differentiation and eicosanoid production in macrophages, as activated tissue macrophages in kidney might contribute to kidney injury. In human monocyte THP-1 cells, transient overexpression of APOL1 (G0, G1, G2) by transfection resulted in a 5 to 11-fold increase in CD14 and CD68 gene expression, similar to that seen with phorbol-12-myristate acetate treatment. All APOL1 variants caused monocytes to differentiate into atypical M1 macrophages with marked increase in M1 markers CD80, TNF, IL1B, and IL6 and modest increase in the M2 marker CD163 as compared to control cells...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Md Asiful Islam, Shahad Saif Khandker, Fahmida Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Siew Hua Gan
BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune multifactorial disorder. Genetics is believed to play a contributory role in the pathogenesis of APS, especially in thrombosis development and pregnancy morbidity. In the last 20 years, extensive research on genetic contribution on APS indicates that APS is a polygenic disorder, where a number of genes are involved in the development of its clinical manifestations. AIMS: The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the genetic risk factors in thrombotic primary APS...
January 19, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Pamela A Kolopack, James V Lavery
The US National Academies' (NAS) recent report 'Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values' examines the requirements of responsible conduct in research involving gene drives in non-human organisms. Many of the complex ethical issues raised by the introduction of gene drive technologies for mosquito population control have been anticipated during the development and field-testing of earlier-generation genetic engineering approaches with mosquitoes...
December 11, 2017: Gates Open Res
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