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Genetically Modified Organism

Quan Zhang, Hang Zhou, Zhe Li, Jianqiang Zhu, Cong Zhou, Meirong Zhao
The use of glyphosate, which is a well-known sterilant herbicide, has been growing rapidly because the area under the cultivation of genetically modified crops that are tolerant to this herbicide has increased. Glyphosate can enter into aquatic systems through many different ways. However, information on the potential risks of glyphosate at environmentally relevant levels to aquatic systems is still limited. In this study, we selected the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 (M. aeruginosa) as a model organism to evaluate the effects of glyphosate at environmentally relevant concentrations on the former's growth and microcystin (MC) production...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yaqi Li, Li Sun, Qian Liu, En Han, Nan Hao, Liuping Zhang, Shanshan Wang, Jianrong Cai, Kun Wang
A methodology for detection of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S(CaMV35S) promoter was developed to distinguish transgenic from non-transgenic soybean samples by using photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor. In this PEC biosensing system, the as-prepared gold nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide acted as a nanocarrier to immobilize the thiol-functional probe (probe1), and the SiO2@CdTe quantum dots (QDs) core-shell nanoparticles tagged with the amino-functional probe (probe2) acted as signal indicators, respectively...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Yiwei Wang, Roberta D Brinton
Brain is the most energetically demanding organ of the body, and is thus vulnerable to even modest decline in ATP generation. Multiple neurodegenerative diseases are associated with decline in mitochondrial function, e.g., Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis and multiple neuropathies. Genetic variances in the mitochondrial genome can modify bioenergetic and respiratory phenotypes, at both the cellular and system biology levels. Mitochondrial haplotype can be a key driver of mitochondrial efficiency...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Mark W Lowdell, Amy Thomas
Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) represent the current pinnacle of 'patient-specific medicines' and will change the nature of medicine in the near future. They fall into three categories; somatic cell-therapy products, gene therapy products and cells or tissues for regenerative medicine, which are termed 'tissue engineered' products. The term also incorporates 'combination products' where a human cell or tissue is combined with a medical device. Plainly, many of these new medicines share similarities with conventional haematological stem cell transplant products and donor lymphocyte infusions as well as solid organ grafts and yet ATMPs are regulated as medicines and their development has remained predominantly in academic settings and within specialist centres...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Ritva Heljasvaara, Mari Aikio, Heli Ruotsalainen, Taina Pihlajaniemi
Collagen XVIII is a ubiquitous basement membrane (BM) proteoglycan produced in three tissue-specific isoforms that differ in their N-terminal non-collagenous sequences, but share collagenous and C-terminal non-collagenous domains. The collagenous domain provides flexibility to the large collagen XVIII molecules on account of multiple interruptions in collagenous sequences. Each isoform has a complex multi-domain structure that endows it with an ability to perform various biological functions. The long isoform contains a frizzled-like (Fz) domain with Wnt-inhibiting activity and a unique domain of unknown function (DUF959), which is also present in the medium isoform...
October 13, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Kerstin Schmidt, Jörg Schmidtke, Paul Schmidt, Christian Kohl, Ralf Wilhelm, Joachim Schiemann, Hilko van der Voet, Pablo Steinberg
The data of four 90-day feeding trials and a 1-year feeding trial with the genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 in Wistar Han RCC rats performed in the frame of EU-funded project GRACE were analysed. Firstly, the data obtained from the groups having been fed the non-GM maize diets were combined to establish a historical control data set for Wistar Han RCC rats at the animal housing facility (Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia). The variability of all parameters is described, and the reference values and ranges have been derived...
October 11, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Yuta Komoike, Masato Matsuoka
Recently, a tropical freshwater fish, the zebrafish, has been generally used as a useful model organism in various fields of life science worldwide. The zebrafish model has also been applied to environmental toxicology; however, in Japan, it has not yet become widely used. In this review, we will introduce the biological and historical backgrounds of zebrafish as an animal model and their breeding. We then present the current status of toxicological experiments using zebrafish that were treated with some important environmental contaminants, including cadmium, organic mercury, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and tributyltin...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Benjamin Fabian, Katharina Schneeberg, Rolf Georg Beutel
Genetically modified organisms are crucial for our understanding of gene regulatory networks, physiological processes and ontogeny. With modern molecular genetic techniques allowing the rapid generation of different Drosophila melanogaster mutants, efficient in-depth morphological investigations become an important issue. Anatomical studies can elucidate the role of certain genes in developmental processes and point out which parts of gene regulatory networks are involved in evolutionary changes of morphological structures...
October 6, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Eleonora Bellucci, Riccardo Terenzi, Giuliana Maria Concetta La Paglia, Stefano Gentileschi, Alessandra Tripoli, Chiara Tani, Alessia Alunno
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterised by chronic synovial inflammation leading to joint destruction and bone erosions. Although the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the disease are not fully elucidated, it is known that genetic susceptibility and environmental factors trigger an abnormal autoimmune response. Potentially, any organ and tissue could be affected by RA and the increased cardiovascular (CV) risk represents the major complication responsible for a worse prognosis. In this setting, the shared pathogenic mechanisms between RA pathogenesis and accelerated atherosclerosis further strengthen the rationale for a treat-to-target strategy with synthetic and biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Matus Valach, Sandrine Moreira, Drahomíra Faktorová, Julius Lukeš, Gertraud Burger
The instructions to make proteins and structural RNAs are laid down in gene sequences. Yet, in certain instances, these primary instructions need to be modified considerably during gene expression, most often at the transcript level. Here we review a case of massive post-transcriptional revisions via trans-splicing and RNA editing, a phenomenon occurring in mitochondria of a recently recognized protist group, the diplonemids. As of now, the various post-transcriptional steps have been catalogued in detail, but how these processes function is still unknown...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
Hiroki Kohno, Shota Suenami, Hideaki Takeuchi, Tetsuhiko Sasaki, Takeo Kubo
The European honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) is used as a model organism in studies of the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying social behaviors and/or advanced brain functions. The entire honeybee genome has been sequenced, which has further advanced molecular biologic studies of the honeybee. Functions of genes of interest, however, remain largely to be elucidated in the honeybee due to the lack of effective reverse genetic methods. Moreover, genetically modified honeybees must be maintained under restricted laboratory conditions due to legal restrictions, further complicating the application of reverse genetics to this species...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Chaolong Lin, Huanhuan Li, Mengru Hao, Dan Xiong, Yong Luo, Chenghao Huang, Quan Yuan, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia
Genetically modified HSV-1 viruses serve as promising vectors for tumour therapy and vaccine development. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is one of the most powerful tools for precise gene editing of the genomes of organisms. However, whether the CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely and efficiently make gene replacements in the genome of HSV-1 remains essentially unknown. Here, we reported CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the HSV-1 genome in human cells, including the knockout and replacement of large genes. In established cells stably expressing CRISPR/Cas9, gRNA in coordination with Cas9 could direct a precise cleavage within a pre-defined target region, and foreign genes were successfully used to replace the target gene seamlessly by HDR-mediated gene replacement...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rucha Harishbhai Mehta, Manivel Ponnuchamy, Jitendra Kumar, Nagaraja Reddy Rama Reddy
De novo assembly of reads produced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offers a rapid approach to obtain expressed gene sequences for non-model organisms. Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a drought-tolerant annual undershrub of Caesalpiniaceae, a subfamily of Fabaceae. There are insufficient transcriptomic and genomic data in public databases for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the drought tolerance of senna. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to know the transcriptome profile of senna, with special reference to drought stress...
October 5, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
M T Nuo, J L Yuan, W L Yang, X Y Gao, N He, H Liang, M Cang, D J Liu
Transgene silencing, which is common in transgenic plants and animals, limits the generation and application of genetically modified organisms, and is associated with the exogenous gene copy number, the methylation status of its promoters, and histone modification abnormalities. Here, we analyzed the expression of the exogenous gene DsRed and the methylation status of its cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter in six healthy transgenic cashmere goats and transgenic nuclear donor cells. The CMV promoter exhibited high methylation levels (74...
August 29, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Christopher G Bell
Epigenomic analysis gives a molecular insight into cell-specific genomic activity. It provides a detailed functional plan to dissect an organism, tissue by tissue. Therefore comparative epigenomics may increase understanding of human-acquired traits, by revealing regulatory changes in systems such as the neurological, musculoskeletal, and immunological. Enhancer loci evolve fast by hijacking elements from other tissues or rewiring and amplifying existing units for human-specific function. Promoters by contrast often require a CpG dense genetic infrastructure...
October 1, 2016: Genomics
Ellis C O'Neill, Steven Kelly
The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules...
October 4, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiaolei Lan, Hua Gao, Fei Wang, Jie Feng, Jiwei Bai, Peng Zhao, Lei Cao, Songbai Gui, Lei Gong, Yazhuo Zhang
Pituitary adenomas exhibit a wide range of behaviors. The prediction of invasion or malignant behavior in pituitary adenomas remains challenging. The objective of the present study was to identify the genetic abnormalities associated with invasion in sporadic pituitary adenomas. In the present study, the exomes of six invasive pituitary adenomas (IPA) and six non-invasive pituitary adenomas (nIPA) were sequenced by whole-exome sequencing. Variants were confirmed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing, and candidate driver genes were assessed in an additional 28 pituitary adenomas...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
J-T Kang, J Ryu, B Cho, E-J Lee, Y-J Yun, S Ahn, J Lee, D-Y Ji, K Lee, K-W Park
Pigs are an attractive animal model to study the progression of cancer because of their anatomical and physiological similarities to human. However, the use of pig models for cancer research has been limited by availability of genetically engineered pigs which can recapitulate human cancer progression. Utilizing genome editing technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9 system allows us to generate genetically engineered pigs at a higher efficiency. In this study, specific CRISPR/Cas9 systems were used to target RUNX3, a known tumour suppressor gene, to generate a pig model that can induce gastric cancer in human...
October 1, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Xiaoyan Tan, Xiaobing Zhou, Yao Tang, Jianjun Lv, Lin Zhang, Li Sun, Yanwei Yang, Yufa Miao, Hua Jiang, Gaofeng Chen, Zhiying Huang, Xue Wang
The present study was performed to evaluate the food safety of TT51-1, a new type of genetically modified rice that expresses the Cry1Ab/Ac protein (Bt toxin) and is highly resistant to most lepidopteran pests. Sixteen male and 16 female cynomolgus monkeys were randomly divided into four groups: conventional rice (non-genetically modified rice, non-GM rice), positive control, 17.5% genetically modified rice (GM rice) and 70% GM rice. Monkeys in the non-GM rice, positive control, and GM rice groups were fed on diets containing 70% non-GM rice, 17...
2016: PloS One
Tobias Ackels, Daniela R Drose, Marc Spehr
In most mammals, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a chemosensory structure that detects both hetero- and conspecific social cues. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) express a specific type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) from at least three different chemoreceptor gene families allowing sensitive and specific detection of chemosensory cues. These families comprise the V1r and V2r gene families as well as the formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-related sequence (Fpr-rs) family of putative chemoreceptor genes. In order to understand the physiology of vomeronasal receptor-ligand interactions and downstream signaling, it is essential to identify the biophysical properties inherent to each specific class of VSNs...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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