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Genetically Modified Organism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107358/modeling-an-excitable-biosynthetic-tissue-with-inherent-variability-for-paired-computational-experimental-studies
#1
Tanmay A Gokhale, Jong M Kim, Robert D Kirkton, Nenad Bursac, Craig S Henriquez
To understand how excitable tissues give rise to arrhythmias, it is crucially necessary to understand the electrical dynamics of cells in the context of their environment. Multicellular monolayer cultures have proven useful for investigating arrhythmias and other conduction anomalies, and because of their relatively simple structure, these constructs lend themselves to paired computational studies that often help elucidate mechanisms of the observed behavior. However, tissue cultures of cardiomyocyte monolayers currently require the use of neonatal cells with ionic properties that change rapidly during development and have thus been poorly characterized and modeled to date...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100213/transcriptomic-response-of-wolf-spider-pardosa-pseudoannulata-to-transgenic-rice-expressing-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ab-protein
#2
Juan Wang, Yuande Peng, Kaifu Xiao, Baoyang Wei, Jilin Hu, Zhi Wang, Qisheng Song, Xuguo Zhou
BACKGROUND: Bacillum thuringiensis (Bt) toxin produced in Cry1-expressing genetically modified rice (Bt rice) is highly effective to control lepidopteran pests, which reduces the needs for synthetic insecticides. Non-target organisms can be exposed to Bt toxins through direct feeding or trophic interactions in the field. The wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, one of the dominant predators in South China, plays a crucial role in the rice agroecosystem. In this study, we investigated transcriptome responses of the 5th instar spiders fed on preys maintained on Bt- and non-Bt rice...
January 18, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095991/assessing-environmental-impacts-of-genetically-modified-plants-on-non-target-organisms-the-relevance-of-in-planta-studies
#3
REVIEW
Salvatore Arpaia, A Nicholas E Birch, Jozsef Kiss, Joop J A van Loon, Antoine Messéan, Marco Nuti, Joe N Perry, Jeremy B Sweet, Christoph C Tebbe
In legal frameworks worldwide, genetically modified plants (GMPs) are subjected to pre-market environmental risk assessment (ERA) with the aim of identifying potential effects on the environment. In the European Union, the EFSA Guidance Document introduces the rationale that GMPs, as well as their newly produced metabolites, represent the potential stressor to be evaluated during ERA. As a consequence, during several phases of ERA for cultivation purposes, it is considered necessary to use whole plants or plant parts in experimental protocols...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095286/the-relations-between-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-exposure-and-1-ohp-levels-as-a-biomarker-of-the-exposure
#4
Zuzana Klöslová, Marek Drímal, Karol Balog, Kvetoslava Koppová, Jarmila Dubajová
BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the products of incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of various organic materials. Their ubiquity in the environment leads to measurable levels of exposure. However, the exposure varies strongly between different regions in Europe. Some PAHs with four or more rings are suspected to be human carcinogens. Therefore, the occupational and/or environmental exposure to PAHs may cause a significant health risk. The aim of investigation is to evaluate current levels of PAH exposure in defined groups of workers...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092686/epigenomic-reprogramming-during-pancreatic-cancer-progression-links-anabolic-glucose-metabolism-to-distant-metastasis
#5
Oliver G McDonald, Xin Li, Tyler Saunders, Rakel Tryggvadottir, Samantha J Mentch, Marc O Warmoes, Anna E Word, Alessandro Carrer, Tal H Salz, Sonoko Natsume, Kimberly M Stauffer, Alvin Makohon-Moore, Yi Zhong, Hao Wu, Kathryn E Wellen, Jason W Locasale, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Andrew P Feinberg
During the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), heterogeneous subclonal populations emerge that drive primary tumor growth, regional spread, distant metastasis, and patient death. However, the genetics of metastases largely reflects that of the primary tumor in untreated patients, and PDAC driver mutations are shared by all subclones. This raises the possibility that an epigenetic process might operate during metastasis. Here we report large-scale reprogramming of chromatin modifications during the natural evolution of distant metastasis...
January 16, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092385/visual-detection-of-multiple-genetically-modified-organisms-in-a-capillary-array
#6
Ning Shao, Jianwei Chen, Jiaying Hu, Rong Li, Dabing Zhang, Shujuan Guo, Junhou Hui, Peng Liu, Litao Yang, Sheng-Ce Tao
There is an urgent need for rapid, low-cost multiplex methodologies for the monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Here, we report a C[combining low line]apillary A[combining low line]rray-based L[combining low line]oop-mediated isothermal amplification for M[combining low line]ultiplex visual detection of nucleic acids (CALM) platform for the simple and rapid monitoring of GMOs. In CALM, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primer sets are pre-fixed to the inner surface of capillaries...
January 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092380/chromatin-immunoprecipitation-in-microfluidic-droplets-towards-fast-and-cheap-analyses
#7
Bruno Teste, Jerome Champ, Arturo Londono-Vallejo, Stéphanie Descroix, Laurent Malaquin, Jean-Louis Viovy, Irena Draskovic, Guillaume Mottet
Genetic organization is governed by the interaction of DNA with histone proteins, and differential modifications of these proteins is a fundamental mechanism of gene regulation. Histone modifications are primarily studied through chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, however conventional ChIP procedures are time consuming, laborious and require a large number of cells. Here we report for the first time the development of ChIP in droplets based on a microfluidic platform combining nanoliter droplets, magnetic beads (MB) and magnetic tweezers (MT)...
January 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088748/a-dna-probe-based-on-phosphorescent-resonance-energy-transfer-for-detection-of-transgenic-35s-promoter-dna
#8
Jinzhi Lv, Yanming Miao, Jiajia Yang, Jin Qin, Dongxia Li, Guiqin Yan
A QDs-DNA nano-probe was made by combining Mn-doped ZnS room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) quantum dots (QDs) and DNA. Then an RTP sensor for quantitative detection of genetically-modified mark sequence cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (Ca MV 35S) DNA was built on basis of phosphorescent resonance energy transfer (PRET). The underlying principles were that a QDs-DNA water-soluble nano-probe was built by connecting single-strand DNA to the surfaces of QDs via a ligand exchange method. This probe had good RTP performance and could well identify Ca MV 35S...
January 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076998/phosphate-phytate-and-phytases-in-plants-from-fundamental-knowledge-gained-in-arabidopsis-to-potential-biotechnological-applications-in-wheat
#9
David Secco, Nadia Bouain, Aida Rouached, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai, Moez Hanin, Ajay K Pandey, Hatem Rouached
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. In plants, P is taken up from the rhizosphere by the roots mainly as inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is required in large and sufficient quantities to maximize crop yields. In today's agricultural society, crop yield is mostly ensured by the excessive use of Pi fertilizers, a costly practice neither eco-friendly or sustainable. Therefore, generating plants with improved P use efficiency (PUE) is of major interest. Among the various strategies employed to date, attempts to engineer genetically modified crops with improved capacity to utilize phytate (PA), the largest soil P form and unfortunately not taken up by plants, remains a key challenge...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076348/reverse-pathway-genetic-approach-identifies-epistasis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
Ileena Mitra, Alinoë Lavillaureix, Erika Yeh, Michela Traglia, Kathryn Tsang, Carrie E Bearden, Katherine A Rauen, Lauren A Weiss
Although gene-gene interaction, or epistasis, plays a large role in complex traits in model organisms, genome-wide by genome-wide searches for two-way interaction have limited power in human studies. We thus used knowledge of a biological pathway in order to identify a contribution of epistasis to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in humans, a reverse-pathway genetic approach. Based on previous observation of increased ASD symptoms in Mendelian disorders of the Ras/MAPK pathway (RASopathies), we showed that common SNPs in RASopathy genes show enrichment for association signal in GWAS (P = 0...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073895/evaluation-of-genotypic-and-phenotypic-methods-to-detect-carbapenemase-production-in-gram-negative-bacilli
#11
Allison R McMullen, Melanie L Yarbrough, Meghan A Wallace, Angela Shupe, Carey-Ann D Burnham
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacteria (CP-GNB) are an urgent and expanding public health threat. Rapid and accurate identification of these organisms facilitates infection prevention efforts in healthcare facilities. The objective of our study was to evaluate methods to detect and identify CP-GNB. METHODS: We examined 189 carbapenem-resistant GNB (CR-GNB), including Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii complex, using 3 different methods: 2 methods to screen isolates of GNB for carbapenemase production [the carbapenem inactivation method (CIM) and 2 chromogenic agars] and a molecular method (Cepheid GeneXpert Carba-R) to identify the mechanism of carbapenem resistance and the associated resistance genes (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaOXA-48-like, and blaVIM)...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073471/biochemistry-and-genetics-of-taste-and-odor-producing-cyanobacteria
#12
REVIEW
Susan B Watson, Paul Monis, Peter Baker, Steven Giglio
Cyanobacteria are one of the principal sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which cause offensive taste and odor (T&O) in drinking and recreational water, fish, shellfish and other seafood. Although non-toxic to humans, these T&O compounds severely undermine public trust in these commodities, resulting in substantial costs in treatment, and lost revenue to drinking water, aquaculture, food and beverage and tourist/hospitality industries. Mitigation and control have been hindered by the complexity of the communities and processes which produce and modify T&O events, making it difficult to source-track the major producer(s) and the factors governing VOC production and fate...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068490/food-analysis-using-organelle-dna-and-the-effects-of-processing-on-assays
#13
Jane M Caldwell
Extrachromosomal DNA such as organelle DNA are increasingly targeted in molecular detection assays where samples have been degraded by physical or chemical means. Owing to multiple organelles per cell and greater copy numbers than nuclear genes, organelle gene targets provide a more robust signal in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and other emerging molecular technologies. Because of these advantages, direct analysis of organelle DNA in food matrices is used for detection of contaminants and identification and authentication of food ingredients and allergens...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064126/on-site-detection-of-stacked-genetically-modified-soybean-based-on-event-specific-tm-lamp-and-a-dnazyme-lateral-flow-biosensor
#14
Nan Cheng, Ying Shang, Yuancong Xu, Li Zhang, Yunbo Luo, Kunlun Huang, Wentao Xu
Stacked genetically modified organisms (GMO) are becoming popular for their enhanced production efficiency and improved functional properties, and on-site detection of stacked GMO is an urgent challenge to be solved. In this study, we developed a cascade system combining event-specific tag-labeled multiplex LAMP with a DNAzyme-lateral flow biosensor for reliable detection of stacked events (DP305423× GTS 40-3-2). Three primer sets, both event-specific and soybean species-specific, were newly designed for the tag-labeled multiplex LAMP system...
December 30, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057301/axgxe-using-flies-to-interrogate-the-complex-etiology-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#15
C Burke, K Trinh, V Nadar, S Sanyal
Progressive and late-onset neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease affect up to 50 million people globally-a number postulated to double every 20 years in a continually aging population. While predisposing allelic variants in several genes clearly confer risk, individual age and specific environmental influences are equally important discriminators of disease onset age and progression. However, none of these factors can independently predict disease with significant precision...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053646/comparison-of-three-genomic-dna-extraction-methods-to-obtain-high-dna-quality-from-maize
#16
Amani Abdel-Latif, Gamal Osman
BACKGROUND: The world's top three cereals, based on their monetary value, are rice, wheat, and corn. In cereal crops, DNA extraction is difficult owing to rigid non-cellulose components in the cell wall of leaves and high starch and protein content in grains. The advanced techniques in molecular biology require pure and quick extraction of DNA. The majority of existing DNA extraction methods rely on long incubation and multiple precipitations or commercially available kits to produce contaminant-free high molecular weight DNA...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045068/elucidating-the-genetic-basis-of-an-oligogenic-birth-defect-using-whole-genome-sequence-data-in-a-non-model-organism-bubalus-bubalis
#17
Lynsey K Whitacre, Jesse L Hoff, Robert D Schnabel, Sara Albarella, Francesca Ciotola, Vincenzo Peretti, Francesco Strozzi, Chiara Ferrandi, Luigi Ramunno, Tad S Sonstegard, John L Williams, Jeremy F Taylor, Jared E Decker
Recent strong selection for dairy traits in water buffalo has been associated with higher levels of inbreeding, leading to an increase in the prevalence of genetic diseases such as transverse hemimelia (TH), a congenital developmental abnormality characterized by absence of a variable distal portion of the hindlimbs. Limited genomic resources available for water buffalo required an original approach to identify genetic variants associated with the disease. The genomes of 4 bilateral and 7 unilateral affected cases and 14 controls were sequenced...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043893/a-novel-microstructural-interpretation-for-the-biomechanics-of-mouse-skin-derived-from-multiscale-characterization
#18
Barbara Lynch, Stéphane Bancelin, Christelle Bonod-Bidaud, Jean-Baptiste Gueusquin, Florence Ruggiero, Marie-Claire Schanne-Klein, Jean-Marc Allain
: Skin is a complex, multi-layered organ, with important functions in the protection of the body. The dermis provides structural support to the epidermal barrier, and thus has attracted a large number of mechanical studies. As the dermis is made of a mixture of stiff fibres embedded in a soft non-fibrillar matrix, it is classically considered that its mechanical response is based on an initial alignment of the fibres, followed by the stretching of the aligned fibres. Using a recently developed setup combining multiphoton microscopy with mechanical assay, we imaged the fibres network evolution during dermis stretching...
December 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028025/genomics-of-chronic-neutrophilic-leukemia
#19
Julia E Maxson, Jeffrey W Tyner
Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a distinct myeloproliferative neoplasm with a high prevalence (>80%) of mutations in the Colony Stimulating Factor 3 Receptor (CSF3R). These mutations activate the receptor, leading to the proliferation of neutrophils that are a hallmark of CNL. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines have been updated to include CSF3R mutations as a part of the diagnostic criteria for CNL. Due to the high prevalence of CSF3R mutations in CNL, it is tempting to think of this disease as being solely driven by this genetic lesion...
December 27, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027431/from-classical-mutagenesis-to-nuclease-based-breeding-directing-natural-dna-repair-for-a-natural-end-product
#20
Michael Pacher, Holger Puchta
The production of mutants of crop plants by the use of chemical or physical genotoxins has a long tradition. These factors induce the natural DNA repair machinery to repair damages in an error-prone way. In case of radiation, multiple double strand breaks (DSBs) are induced randomly in the genome, leading in very rare cases to a desirable phenotype. In recent years the use of synthetic, site directed nucleases (SDNs), also referred to as sequence specific nucleases (SSNs), like the CRISPR/Cas system, enabled scientists to use exactly the same naturally occurring DNA repair mechanisms for the controlled induction of genomic changes at predefined sites in plant genomes...
December 27, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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