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Genetically Modified Organism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447884/do-micrornas-play-a-role-in-the-activity-of-plant-based-vaccines
#1
Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Jorge A Salazar-González
An important trend in vaccinology is the development of oral vaccines based on genetically modified plants. Areas covered: Several studies have suggested that dietary microRNAs from plants and other organisms are bioavailable upon oral ingestion exerting biological events in the host such as the modulation of gene expression in several cell types. Since oral plant-based vaccines rely on whole cells as vaccine delivery vehicles, miRNAs could play a role in the immunogenic activity of this type of vaccine. In the present report, this hypothesis is discussed under the light of recent evidence on the immunomodulatory activity exerted by miRNAs using in vitro and in vivo evaluations...
April 27, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447179/influence-of-inherent-mechanophenotype-on-competitive-cellular-adherence
#2
Manisha K Shah, Iris H Garcia-Pak, Eric M Darling
Understanding the role of mechanophenotype in competitive adherence of cells to other cells versus underlying substrates can inform such processes as tissue development, cancer progression, and wound healing. This study investigated how mechanophenotype, defined by whole-cell, elastic/viscoelastic properties for the perinuclear region, and cellular assembly are intertwined through the mechanosensing process. Atomic force microscopy was used to characterize the temporal elastic/viscoelastic properties of individual and assembled fibroblasts grown on substrates with elastic moduli above, below, or similar to whole-cell mechanophenotypes measured for three, genetically modified cell lines...
April 26, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435278/genetic-factors-in-pathogenesis-of-diabetes-mellitus-after-kidney-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Maciej Tarnowski, Sylwia Słuczanowska-Głabowska, Andrzej Pawlik, Małgorzata Mazurek-Mochol, Elżbieta Dembowska
Posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is one of the major metabolic complications after transplantation of solid organs including the kidney. This type of diabetes mellitus affects allograft survival, cardiovascular complications and overall patient survival. The modifiable risk factors that contribute to PTDM include obesity, some viral infections (eg, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus) and especially immunosuppressive drugs including corticosteroids, tacrolimus, cyclosporine and sirolimus. Currently, predisposing genetic factors have been considered important in PTDM development...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433101/wilson-disease-currently-used-anticopper-therapy
#4
Anna Członkowska, Tomasz Litwin
Wilson disease (WD) is a genetic disorder of copper metabolism that can be treated successfully with pharmacologic treatment. Two groups of drugs are currently used: chelators (e.g., d-penicillamine and trientine), which increase urinary copper excretion, and zinc salts, which inhibit copper absorption in the digestive tract. The mechanisms of action lead to a negative copper balance, stopping pathologic accumulation of copper in the tissues and clearing affected organs of copper overload. Due to a lack of prospective clinical trials, the use of drugs depends mainly on center experience and the accessibility in different countries or regions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428840/an-internet-based-platform-for-the-estimation-of-outcrossing-potential-between-cultivated-and-chilean-vascular-plants
#5
Pablo Cid, Carlos Aguirre, Miguel Ángel Sánchez, Daniel Zamorano, Maritza Mihoc, Erika Salazar, Gustavo Chacón, Humberto Navarrete, Marcelo Rosas, Humberto Prieto
A national-scale study of outcrossing potential within Chilean vascular flora was conducted using an upgraded algorithm, which adds parameters such as pollinator agents, climate, and geographic conditions. Datasets were organized and linked in a Web platform (www.flujogenico.cl), in which the development of a total outcrossing potential (TOP) predictor was formulated. The TOP predictor is the engine in the Web platform, which models the effect of a type of agricultural practice on others (coexistence calculation mode) and on the environment (biodiversity calculation mode)...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423504/variations-in-the-bitterness-perception-related-genes-tas2r38-and-ca6-modify-the-risk-for-colorectal-cancer-in-koreans
#6
Jeong-Hwa Choi, Jeonghee Lee, Jae Hwan Oh, Hee Jin Chang, Dae Kyung Sohn, Aesun Shin, Jeongseon Kim
Bitterness perception is known to be an important factor in individuals' dietary behaviors and is also associated with the sensing of nutritious/noxious molecules for subsequent metabolic responses in multiple organs. Therefore, the genetic variation in bitterness sensing may be associated with diet-related diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the influence of variations in the bitterness-sensing genes taste receptor type 2 member 38 (TAS2R38) and carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) on the consumption of food, tobacco and alcohol and the risk of CRC in Koreans...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420193/a-quantitative-pcr-electrochemical-genosensor-test-for-the-screening-of-biotech-crops
#7
Suely Moura-Melo, Rebeca Miranda-Castro, Noemí de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Arturo J Miranda-Ordieres, José Ribeiro Dos Santos Junior, Rosana A da Silva Fonseca, María Jesús Lobo-Castañón
The design of screening methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food would improve the efficiency in their control. We report here a PCR amplification method combined with a sequence-specific electrochemical genosensor for the quantification of a DNA sequence characteristic of the 35S promoter derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Specifically, we employ a genosensor constructed by chemisorption of a thiolated capture probe and p-aminothiophenol gold surfaces to entrap on the sensing layer the unpurified PCR amplicons, together with a signaling probe labeled with fluorescein...
April 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417173/semiautomated-taqman-pcr-screening-of-gmo-labelled-samples-for-unauthorised-gmos
#8
Ingrid M J Scholtens, Bonnie Molenaar, Richard A van Hoof, Stephanie Zaaijer, Theo W Prins, Esther J Kok
In most countries, systems are in place to analyse food products for the potential presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), to enforce labelling requirements and to screen for the potential presence of unauthorised GMOs. With the growing number of GMOs on the world market, a larger diversity of methods is required for informative analyses. In this paper, the specificity of an extended screening set consisting of 32 screening methods to identify different crop species (endogenous genes) and GMO elements was verified against 59 different GMO reference materials...
April 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415207/model-of-polar-auxin-transport-coupled-to-mechanical-forces-retrieves-robust-morphogenesis-along-the-arabidopsis-root
#9
J Roberto Romero-Arias, Valeria Hernández-Hernández, Mariana Benítez, Elena R Alvarez-Buylla, Rafael A Barrio
Stem cells are identical in many scales, they share the same molecular composition, DNA, genes, and genetic networks, yet they should acquire different properties to form a functional tissue. Therefore, they must interact and get some external information from their environment, either spatial (dynamical fields) or temporal (lineage). In this paper we test to what extent coupled chemical and physical fields can underlie the cell's positional information during development. We choose the root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana to model the emergence of cellular patterns...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414950/a-nanobiosensor-composed-of-exfoliated-graphene-oxide-and-gold-nano-urchins-for-detection-of-gmo-products
#10
Zahra Aghili, Navid Nasirizadeh, Adeleh Divsalar, Shahram Shoeibi, Parichehreh Yaghmaei
Genetically Modified Organisms, have been entered our food chain and detection of these organisms in market products are still the main challenge for scientists. Among several developed detection/quantification methods for detection of these organisms, the electrochemical nanobiosensors are the most attended which are combining the advantages of using nanomaterials, electrochemical methods and biosensors. In this research, a novel and sensitive electrochemical nanobiosensor for detection/quantification of these organisms have been developed using nanomaterials; Exfoliated Graphene Oxide and Gold Nano-Urchins for modification of the screen-printed carbon electrode, and also applying a specific DNA probe as well as hematoxylin for electrochemical indicator...
March 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411851/the-molecular-revolution-in-cutaneous-biology-era%C3%A2-of-next-generation-sequencing
#11
REVIEW
Ofer Sarig, Eli Sprecher
Like any true conceptual revolution, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has not only radically changed research and clinical practice, it has also modified scientific culture. With the possibility to investigate DNA contents of any organism and in any context, including in somatic disorders or in tissues carrying complex microbial populations, it initially seemed as if the genetic underpinning of any biological phenomenon could now be deciphered in an almost streamlined fashion. However, over the past recent years, we have once again come to understand that there is no such a thing as great opportunities without great challenges...
May 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405292/effects-of-genetically-modified-maize-events-expressing-cry34ab1-cry35ab1-cry1f-and-cp4-epsps-proteins-on-arthropod-complex-food-webs
#12
Zoltán Pálinkás, József Kiss, Mihály Zalai, Ágnes Szénási, Zita Dorner, Samuel North, Guy Woodward, Adalbert Balog
Four genetically modified (GM) maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids (coleopteran resistant, coleopteran and lepidopteran resistant, lepidopteran resistant and herbicide tolerant, coleopteran and herbicide tolerant) and its non-GM control maize stands were tested to compare the functional diversity of arthropods and to determine whether genetic modifications alter the structure of arthropods food webs. A total number of 399,239 arthropod individuals were used for analyses. The trophic groups' number and the links between them indicated that neither the higher magnitude of Bt toxins (included resistance against insect, and against both insects and glyphosate) nor the extra glyphosate treatment changed the structure of food webs...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404772/known-mutator-alleles-do-not-markedly-increase-mutation-rate-in-clinical-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains
#13
Daniel A Skelly, Paul M Magwene, Brianna Meeks, Helen A Murphy
Natural selection has the potential to act on all phenotypes, including genomic mutation rate. Classic evolutionary theory predicts that in asexual populations, mutator alleles, which cause high mutation rates, can fix due to linkage with beneficial mutations. This phenomenon has been demonstrated experimentally and may explain the frequency of mutators found in bacterial pathogens. By contrast, in sexual populations, recombination decouples mutator alleles from beneficial mutations, preventing mutator fixation...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402693/heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans-regulate-autophagy-in-drosophila
#14
Claire E Reynolds-Peterson, Na Zhao, Jie Xu, Taryn M Serman, Jielin Xu, Scott B Selleck
Heparan sulfate-modified proteoglycans (HSPGs) are important regulators of signaling and molecular recognition at the cell surface and in the extracellular space. Disruption of HSPG core proteins, HS-synthesis, or HS-degradation can have profound effects on growth, patterning, and cell survival. The Drosophila neuromuscular junction provides a tractable model for understanding the activities of HSPGs at a synapse that displays developmental and activity-dependent plasticity. Muscle cell-specific knockdown of HS biosynthesis disrupted the organization of a specialized postsynaptic membrane, the subsynaptic reticulum (SSR), and affected the number and morphology of mitochondria...
April 12, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402336/lock-picks-fungal-infection-facilitates-the-intrusion-of-strangers-into-ant-colonies
#15
Enikő Csata, Natalia Timuş, Magdalena Witek, Luca Pietro Casacci, Christophe Lucas, Anne-Geneviève Bagnères, Anna Sztencel-Jabłonka, Francesca Barbero, Simona Bonelli, László Rákosy, Bálint Markó
Studies investigating host-parasite systems rarely deal with multispecies interactions, and mostly explore impacts on hosts as individuals. Much less is known about the effects at colony level, when parasitism involves host organisms that form societies. We surveyed the effect of an ectoparasitic fungus, Rickia wasmannii, on kin-discrimination abilities of its host ant, Myrmica scabrinodis, identifying potential consequences at social level and subsequent changes in colony infiltration success of other organisms...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398839/foundational-and-translational-research-opportunities-to-improve-plant-health
#16
Richard W Michelmore, Gitta Coaker, Rebecca Bart, Gwyn A Beattie, Andrew Bent, Toby Bruce, Duncan Cameron, Jeff Dangl, Savithramma Dinesh-Kumar, Robert Edwards, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Walter Gassmann, Jean Greenberg, Richard Harrison, Ping He, Jagger Harvey, Alisa Huffaker, Scot Hulbert, Roger Innes, Jonathan D Jones, Isgouhi Kaloshian, Sophien Kamoun, Fumiaki Katagiri, Jan E Leach, Wenbo Ma, John M McDowell, June Medford, Blake Meyers, Rebecca Nelson, Richard Peter Oliver, Yiping Qi, Diane Saunders, Michael Shaw, Prasanta Subudhi, Leslie Torrance, Brett M Tyler, John Walsh
This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398275/natural-killer-t-cell-lymphomas-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-patients
#17
REVIEW
Amanda M Termuhlen
Natural killer/T-cell (NK/T-cell) lymphomas are rare in children and adolescents and consist predominantly of nasal-type extranodal NK/T-cell lymphomas. More than half of pediatric/adolescent patients with NK/T-cell lymphomas present with localized nasal/sinus involvement, but the disease may involve many organs. NK/T-cell lymphoma cells are cytotoxic and associated with necrosis and angioinvasion; they express CD56, CD2, cytoplasmic CD3 epsilon, and to a variable degree CD30. The cells contain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA...
March 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394337/deacts-genetically-encoded-tools-for-perturbing-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-single-cells
#18
Martin Harterink, Marta Esteves da Silva, Lena Will, Julia Turan, Adiljan Ibrahim, Alexander E Lang, Eljo Y van Battum, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Lukas C Kapitein, Dmitri Kudryashov, Ben A Barres, Casper C Hoogenraad, J Bradley Zuchero
The actin cytoskeleton is essential for many fundamental biological processes, but tools for directly manipulating actin dynamics are limited to cell-permeable drugs that preclude single-cell perturbations. Here we describe DeActs, genetically encoded actin-modifying polypeptides, which effectively induce actin disassembly in eukaryotic cells. We demonstrate that DeActs are universal tools for studying the actin cytoskeleton in single cells in culture, tissues, and multicellular organisms including various neurodevelopmental model systems...
May 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392745/cultivation-strategies-for-growth-of-uncultivated-bacteria
#19
Sonia R Vartoukian
BACKGROUND: The majority of environmental bacteria and around a third of oral bacteria remain uncultivated. Furthermore, several bacterial phyla have no cultivable members and are recognised only by detection of their DNA by molecular methods. Possible explanations for the resistance of certain bacteria to cultivation in purity in vitro include: unmet fastidious growth requirements; inhibition by environmental conditions or chemical factors produced by neighbouring bacteria in mixed cultures; or conversely, dependence on interactions with other bacteria in the natural environment, without which they cannot survive in isolation...
November 2016: Journal of Oral Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374006/optogenetic-activation-of-accessory-olfactory-bulb-input-to-the-forebrain-differentially-modulates-investigation-of-opposite-versus-same-sex-urinary-chemosignals-and-stimulates-mating-in-male-mice
#20
Tenzin Kunkhyen, Elizabeth A McCarthy, Wayne J Korzan, Danielle Doctor, Xue Han, Michael J Baum, James A Cherry
Surgical or genetic disruption of vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) function previously eliminated the ability of male mice to processes pheromones that elicit territorial behavior and aggression. By contrast, neither disruption significantly affected mating behaviors, although VNO lesions reduced males' investigation of nonvolatile female pheromones. We explored the contribution of VNO-AOB pheromonal processing to male courtship using optogenetic activation of AOB projections to the forebrain...
March 2017: ENeuro
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