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Genetically Modified Organism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332231/development-of-humanized-mice-in-the-age-of-genome-editing
#1
Vishnu Hosur, Benjamin E Low, Cindy Avery, Leonard D Shultz, Michael V Wiles
Mice are the most commonly used model organisms to study human disease. Many genetic human diseases can be recapitulated by modifying the mouse genome, which permits testing of existing and novel therapeutics, including combinatorial therapeutics, without putting humans at risk. Specifically, the development of "humanized" mice, i.e., severely immunodeficient mice engrafted with functional human hematopoietic and immune cells and tissues, has revolutionized our ability to study and model human diseases in preclinical in vivo systems...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317852/a-novel-biocontainment-strategy-makes-bacterial-growth-and-survival-dependent-on-phosphite
#2
Ryuichi Hirota, Kenji Abe, Zen-Ichiro Katsuura, Reiji Noguchi, Shigeaki Moribe, Kei Motomura, Takenori Ishida, Maxym Alexandrov, Hisakage Funabashi, Takeshi Ikeda, Akio Kuroda
There is a growing demand to develop biocontainment strategies that prevent unintended proliferation of genetically modified organisms in the open environment. We found that the hypophosphite (H3PO2, HPt) transporter HtxBCDE from Pseudomonas stutzeri WM88 was also capable of transporting phosphite (H3PO3, Pt) but not phosphate (H3PO4, Pi), suggesting the potential for engineering a Pt/HPt-dependent bacterial strain as a biocontainment strategy. We disrupted all Pi and organic Pi transporters in an Escherichia coli strain expressing HtxABCDE and a Pt dehydrogenase, leaving Pt/HPt uptake and oxidation as the only means to obtain Pi...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317025/marker-recycling-in-candida-albicans-through-crispr-cas9-induced-marker-excision
#3
Manning Y Huang, Aaron P Mitchell
We describe here a new approach to marker recycling, a controlled sequence of steps in which a genetic marker is selected and then lost. Marker recycling is important for genetic manipulation, because it allows a single selection marker to be used repeatedly. Our approach relies upon the ability of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to make a targeted double-strand break in DNA and the expectation that a double-strand break within a selection marker may promote recombination between directly repeated sequences that flank the marker...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316108/cry1a-b-16-toxin-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-theoretical-refinement-of-three-dimensional-structure-and-prediction-of-peptides-as-molecular-markers-for-detection-of-genetically-modified-organisms
#4
Alexandra Plácido, Andreia Coelho, Lucas Abreu do Nascimento, Andreanne Gomes Vasconcelos, Maria Fátima Barroso, Joilson Ramos-Jesus, Vladimir Costa, Francisco das Chagas Alves Lima, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Ricardo Martins Ramos, Mariela M Marani, José Roberto de Souza de Almeida Leite
Transgenic maize produced by the insertion of the Cry transgene into its genome became the second most cultivated crop worldwide. Cry gene from Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki expresses protein derivatives of crystalline endotoxins which confer insect resistance onto the maize crop. Mandatory labeling of processed food containing or made by genetically modified organisms is in force in many countries, so, it is very urgent to develop fast and practical methods for GMO identification, e.g., biosensors. In the absence of an available empirical structure of Cry1A(b)16 protein, a theoretical model was effectively generated, in this work, by homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations based on two available homologous protein structures...
March 18, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302109/interaction-of-cd14-haplotypes-and-soluble-cd14-on-pulmonary-function-in-agricultural-workers
#5
Tricia D LeVan, Lynette M Smith, Art J Heires, Ted R Mikuls, Jane L Meza, Lisa A Weissenburger-Moser, Debra J Romberger
BACKGROUND: Agricultural environments are contaminated with organic dusts containing bacterial components. Chronic inhalation of organic dusts is implicated in respiratory diseases. CD14 is a critical receptor for gram-negative lipopolysaccharide; however, its association with respiratory disease among agricultural workers is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine if serum soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels are associated with lung function among agricultural workers and if this association is modified by genetic variants in CD14...
March 16, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298152/population-survey-of-attitudes-and-beliefs-regarding-organic-genetically-modified-and-irradiated-foods
#6
Jane A Gwira Baumblatt, L Rand Carpenter, Caleb Wiedeman, John R Dunn, William Schaffner, Timothy F Jones
BACKGROUND: Sales of organic foods are increasing due to public demand, while genetically modified (GM) and irradiated foods are often viewed with suspicion. AIM: The aim of this research was to examine consumer attitudes toward organic, GM and irradiated foods to direct educational efforts regarding their consumption Methods: A telephone survey of 1838 residents in Tennessee, USA was conducted regarding organic, GM, and irradiated foods. RESULTS: Approximately half of respondents (50...
March 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292241/microbial-pest-control-agents-are-they-a-specific-and-safe-tool-for-insect-pest-management
#7
Caroline Deshayes, Myriam Siegwart, David Pauron, Josy-Anne Froger, Bruno Lapied, Véronique Apaire-Marchais
Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) or their bioactive agents can be used as active substances and therefore are referred as Microbial Pest Control Agents (MPCA). They are used as alternative strategies to chemical insecticides to counteract the development of resistances and to reduce adverse effects on both environment and human health. These natural entomopathogenic agents, which have specific modes of action, are generally considered safer as compared to conventional chemical insecticides. Baculoviruses are the only viruses being used as the safest biological control agents...
March 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277548/optimized-labeling-of-membrane-proteins-for-applications-to-super-resolution-imaging-in-confined-cellular-environments-using-monomeric-streptavidin
#8
Ingrid Chamma, Olivier Rossier, Grégory Giannone, Olivier Thoumine, Matthieu Sainlos
Recent progress in super-resolution imaging (SRI) has created a strong need to improve protein labeling with probes of small size that minimize the target-to-label distance, increase labeling density, and efficiently penetrate thick biological tissues. This protocol describes a method for labeling genetically modified proteins incorporating a small biotin acceptor peptide with a 3-nm fluorescent probe, monomeric streptavidin. We show how to express, purify, and conjugate the probe to organic dyes with different fluorescent properties, and how to label selectively biotinylated membrane proteins for SRI techniques (point accumulation in nanoscale topography (PAINT), stimulated emission depletion (STED), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM))...
April 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272871/nanoarchitectonics-with-porphyrin-functionalized-dna
#9
Eugen Stulz
DNA is well-known as bearer of the genetic code. Since its structure elucidation nearly seven decades ago by Watson, Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin, much has been learned about its detailed structure, function, and genetic coding. The development of automated solid-phase synthesis, and with it the availability of synthetic DNA with any desired sequence in lengths of up to hundreds of bases in the best case, has contributed much to the advancement of the field of DNA research. In addition, classic organic synthesis has allowed introduction of a very large number of modifications in the DNA in a sequence specific manner, which have initially been targeted at altering the biological function of DNA...
March 8, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270513/a-shortcut-for-early-macrophage-recruitment-into-tumors-by-activated-oncogenes
#10
REVIEW
Liv Austenaa, Gioacchino Natoli
Macrophages play an important role in tumor promotion, usually acting as facilitators of cancer initiation and progression. However, it is not clear how macrophages impact early phases of tumorigenesis. Using genetically modified mouse models, Guo et al. (pp. 247-259) demonstrated that tumor-initiating cells with an activated Hippo pathway are able to recruit macrophages starting from the very early phases of cancer development, mainly through direct activation of genes encoding macrophage chemoattractants and survival factors...
February 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265103/unified-reduction-principle-for-the-evolution-of-mutation-migration-and-recombination
#11
Lee Altenberg, Uri Liberman, Marcus W Feldman
Modifier-gene models for the evolution of genetic information transmission between generations of organisms exhibit the reduction principle: Selection favors reduction in the rate of variation production in populations near equilibrium under a balance of constant viability selection and variation production. Whereas this outcome has been proven for a variety of genetic models, it has not been proven in general for multiallelic genetic models of mutation, migration, and recombination modification with arbitrary linkage between the modifier and major genes under viability selection...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261537/are-limits-of-concern-a-useful-concept-to-improve-the-environmental-risk-assessment-of-gm-plants
#12
Marion Dolezel, Marianne Miklau, Andreas Heissenberger, Wolfram Reichenbecher
BACKGROUND: The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has introduced a concept for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants which foresees the definition of ecological threshold values defining acceptable adverse effects of the GM plant on the environment (Limits of Concern, LoC). METHODS: We analysed the LoC concept by scrutinising its feasibility with regard to important aspects of the environmental risk assessment. We then considered its relationship with protection goals, the comparative safety assessment and the stepwise testing approach...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260195/nature-s-combinatorial-biosynthesis-and-recently-engineered-production-of-nucleoside-antibiotics-in-streptomyces
#13
REVIEW
Shawn Chen, William A Kinney, Steven Van Lanen
Modified nucleosides produced by Streptomyces and related actinomycetes are widely used in agriculture and medicine as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and antiviral agents. These specialized small-molecule metabolites are biosynthesized by complex enzymatic machineries encoded within gene clusters in the genome. The past decade has witnessed a burst of reports defining the key metabolic processes involved in the biosynthesis of several distinct families of nucleoside antibiotics. Furthermore, genome sequencing of various Streptomyces species has dramatically increased over recent years...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258595/transgenic-expression-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-e-attenuates-galko-hcd46-porcine-lung-xenograft-injury
#14
Christopher T Laird, Lars Burdorf, Beth M French, Natalia Kubicki, Xiangfei Cheng, Gheorghe Braileanu, Wenji Sun, Natalie A O'Neill, Arielle Cimeno, Dawn Parsell, Edward So, Andrea Bähr, Nikolai Klymiuk, Carol J Phelps, David Ayares, Agnes M Azimzadeh, Richard N Pierson
BACKGROUND: Lung xenografts remain susceptible to loss of vascular barrier function within hours in spite of significant incremental advances based on genetic engineering to remove the Gal 1,3-αGal antigen (GalTKO) and express human membrane cofactor protein (hCD46). Natural killer cells rapidly disappear from the blood during perfusion of GalTKO.hCD46 porcine lungs with human blood and presumably are sequestered within the lung vasculature. Here we asked whether porcine expression of the human NK cell inhibitory ligand HLA-E and β2 microglobulin inhibits GalTKO...
March 3, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255668/product-not-process-explaining-a-basic-concept-in-agricultural-biotechnologies-and-food-safety
#15
Giovanni Tagliabue
Most life scientists have relentlessly recommended any evaluative approach of agri-food products to be based on examination of the phenotype, i.e. the actual characteristics of the food, feed and fiber varieties: the effects of any new cultivar (or micro-organism, animal) on our health are not dependent on the process(es), the techniques used to obtain it.The so-called "genetically modified organisms" ("GMOs"), on the other hand, are commonly framed as a group with special properties - most frequently seen as dubious, or even harmful...
December 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255110/methylome-wide-association-study-of-whole-blood-dna-in-the-norfolk-island-isolate-identifies-robust-loci-associated-with-age
#16
Miles C Benton, Heidi G Sutherland, Donia Macartney-Coxson, Larisa M Haupt, Rodney A Lea, Lyn R Griffiths
Epigenetic regulation of various genomic functions, including gene expression, provide mechanisms whereby an organism can dynamically respond to changes in its environment and modify gene expression accordingly. One epigenetic mechanism implicated in human aging and age-related disorders is DNA methylation. Isolated populations such as Norfolk Island (NI) should be advantageous for the identification of epigenetic factors related to aging due to reduced genetic and environmental variation. Here we conducted a methylome-wide association study of age using whole blood DNA in 24 healthy female individuals from the NI genetic isolate (aged 24-47 years)...
February 28, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254006/quantification-of-dna-fragmentation-in-processed-foods-using-real-time-pcr
#17
Junichi Mano, Yasuyuki Nishitsuji, Yosuke Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi Fukudome, Takuya Hayashida, Hiroyuki Kawakami, Youichi Kurimoto, Akio Noguchi, Kazunari Kondo, Reiko Teshima, Reona Takabatake, Kazumi Kitta
DNA analysis of processed foods is performed widely to detect various targets, such as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Food processing often causes DNA fragmentation, which consequently affects the results of PCR analysis. In order to assess the effects of DNA fragmentation on the reliability of PCR analysis, we investigated a novel methodology to quantify the degree of DNA fragmentation. We designed four real-time PCR assays that amplified 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences common to various plants at lengths of approximately 100, 200, 400, and 800 base pairs (bp)...
July 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253084/organic-cation-transporter-2-oct2-slc22a2-gene-variation-in-the-south-african-bantu-speaking-population-and-functional-promoter-variants
#18
Nina C Wilson, Ananyo Choudhury, Nadia Carstens, Demetra Mavri-Damelin
SLC22A2 facilitates the transport of endogenous and exogenous cationic compounds. Many pharmacologically significant compounds are transported by SLC22A2, including the antidiabetic drug metformin, anticancer agent cisplatin, and antiretroviral lamivudine. Genetic polymorphisms in SLC22A2 can modify the pharmacokinetic profiles of such important medicines and could therefore prove useful as precision medicine biomarkers. Since the frequency of SLC22A2 polymorphisms varies among different ethnic populations, we evaluated these in South African Bantu speakers, a majority group in the South African population, who exhibit unique genetic diversity, and we subsequently functionally characterized promoter polymorphisms...
March 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249987/trpv4-ion-channel-is-a-novel-regulator-of-dermal-myofibroblast-differentiation
#19
Shweta Sharma, Rishov Goswami, Michael Merth, Jonathan Cohen, Kai Y Lei, David X Zhang, Shaik O Rahaman
Scleroderma is a multisystem fibroproliferative disease with no effective medical treatment. Myofibroblasts are critical to the fibrogenic tissue repair process in the skin and many internal organs. Emerging data support a role for both matrix stiffness, and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), in myofibroblast differentiation. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a mechanosensitive ion channel activated by both mechanical and biochemical stimuli. The objective of this study was to determine the role of TRPV4 in TGFβ1- and matrix stiffness-induced differentiation of dermal fibroblasts...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245767/emerging-insight-into-mapk-inhibitors-and-immunotherapy-in-colorectal-cancer
#20
Massimo Pancione, Guido Giordano, Pietro Parcesepe, Luigi Cerulo, Luigi Coppola, Anais Del Curatolo, Fabiana Conciatori, Michele Milella, Almudena Porras
Our understanding of the genetic and non-genetic molecular alterations associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and therapy resistance has markedly expanded in recent years. In addition to their effects on tumor biology, targeted therapies can have effects on host immune responses. However, the mechanisms by which immune cells organize tumor microenvironments to regulate T-cell activity need to be comprehensively defined. There is good evidence in the literature that alterations in different members of the MAPK superfamily (mainly ERKs and p38 MAPKs) modify the inflammatory response and antitumor immunity, enhancing metastatic features of the tumors...
February 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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