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Genetically Modified Organism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226387/systemic-sclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Yoshihide Asano
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by vasculopathy and tissue fibrosis of the skin and various internal organs. A series of genetic and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that SSc onset is determined by the accumulation of predisposing factors related to environmental influences, while genetic factors affect the susceptibility to and the severity of this disease. This notion has been confirmed by recent advance in animal models. The initial trigger of SSc is believed to be autoimmune attacks to endothelial cells, which occur in individuals with the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases and/or the cumulative exposure to certain SSc-related environmental influences...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223399/ectopic-serotonin-production-in-%C3%AE-cell-specific-transgenic-mice
#2
Hyeongseok Kim, Hyunki Kim, Kyuho Kim, Michael S German, Hail Kim
Genetically modified mice have been widely used in the field of β-cell research. However, analysis of results gathered using genetically modified organisms should be interpreted carefully as the results may be confounded by several factors. Here, we showed the ectopic serotonin (5-HT) production in β-cells of RIP-CreMgn, MIP-GFP, and MIP-Cre/ERT. These mice contained a human growth hormone (hGH) cassette to enhance transgene expression and hGH expression and Stat5 phosphorylation were detected in pancreatic islets of these mice...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222267/new-therapeutic-targets-in-transfusion-dependent-and-independent-thalassemia
#3
REVIEW
M Domenica Cappellini, Irene Motta
β-Thalassemias are characterized by reduced production of β-globin chain, resulting in α/β-chain unbalance and precipitation of α-globin-heme complexes and determining ineffective erythropoiesis. Ineffective erythropoiesis, chronic hemolytic anemia, and compensatory hematopoietic expansion are the disease hallmarks, and they are related to the severity of the chain unbalance. Several clinical forms of β-thalassemia, including the coinheritance of β-thalassemia with hemoglobin E resulting in hemoglobin E/β-thalassemia, have been described...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215865/identification-of-fluorescent-small-molecule-compounds-for-synaptic-labeling-by-image-based-high-content-screening
#4
Matthew Dunn, Umed Boltaev, Anne Beskow, Sergey Pampou, Ronald Realubit, Torcato Meira, João Vaz Silva, Rose Reeb, Charles Karan, Steffen Jockusch, David Sulzer, Young-Tae Chang, Dalibor Sames, Clarissa Waites
Few tools are available for non-invasive imaging of synapses in the living mammalian brain. Current paradigms require the use of genetically modified mice or viral delivery of genetic material to the brain. To develop an alternative chemical approach, utilizing the recognition of synaptic components by organic small molecules, we designed an imaging-based, high-content screen in cultured cortical neurons to identify molecules based on their colocalization with fluorescently-tagged synaptic proteins. We used this approach to screen a library of ~7,000 novel fluorescent dyes, and identified a series of compounds in the xanthone family that exhibited consistent synaptic labeling...
December 7, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212472/autism-risk-classification-using-placental-chorionic-surface-vascular-network-features
#5
Jen-Mei Chang, Hui Zeng, Ruxu Han, Ya-Mei Chang, Ruchit Shah, Carolyn M Salafia, Craig Newschaffer, Richard K Miller, Philip Katzman, Jack Moye, Margaret Fallin, Cheryl K Walker, Lisa Croen
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the fastest-growing developmental disorders in the United States. It was hypothesized that variations in the placental chorionic surface vascular network (PCSVN) structure may reflect both the overall effects of genetic and environmentally regulated variations in branching morphogenesis within the conceptus and the fetus' vital organs. This paper provides sound evidences to support the study of ASD risks with PCSVN through a combination of feature-selection and classification algorithms...
December 6, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205192/genetic-diversity-study-of-various-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-using-eric-pcr
#6
Jayanti Jena, Nagen Kumar Debata, Rajesh Kumar Sahoo, Mahendra Gaur, Enketeswara Subudhi
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli isolates producing β-lactamase enzyme is a growing problem across the globe. Strain typing is an epidemiologically important tool not only for detecting the cross transmission of nosocomial pathogens but also for determining the source of infection. The present study was conducted to understand the clonal relationship among various β-lactamase-producing MDR E. coli isolates using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204711/voltage-sensitive-potassium-channels-of-the-bk-type-and-their-coding-genes-are-alcohol-targets-in-neurons
#7
Alex M Dopico, Anna N Bukiya, Jill C Bettinger
Among all members of the voltage-gated, TM6 ion channel superfamily, the proteins that constitute calcium- and voltage-gated potassium channels of large conductance (BK) and their coding genes are unique for their involvement in ethanol-induced disruption of normal physiology and behavior. Moreover, in vitro studies document that BK activity is modified by ethanol with an EC50~23 mM, which is near blood alcohol levels considered legal intoxication in most states of the USA (0.08 g/dL = 17.4 mM). Following a succinct introduction to our current understanding of BK structure and function in central neurons, with a focus on neural circuits that contribute to the neurobiology of alcohol use disorders (AUD), we review the modifications in organ physiology by alcohol exposure via BK and the different molecular elements that determine the ethanol response of BK in alcohol-naïve systems, including the role of an ethanol-recognizing site in the BK-forming slo1 protein, modulation of accessory BK subunits, and their coding genes...
December 5, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198467/using-crispr-to-inactivate-endogenous-retroviruses-in-pigs-an-important-step-toward-safe-xenotransplantation
#8
Michael J Ross, P Toby Coates
Xenotransplantation could theoretically provide an unlimited supply of organs for patients living with end-stage kidney disease and other end-stage organ failure, but severe rejection and concerns about possible transmission of zoonotic infections remain important obstacles. In a recent study, investigators used CRISPR-cas9 to generate genetically modified pigs in which all endogenous retroviruses were inactivated. This approach may address one important barrier to the feasibility of clinical trials of xenotransplantation...
November 29, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192598/personalized-medicine-pharmacogenomic-and-companion-biomarker
#9
Hana Manceau, Kawthar Amrani, Katell Peoc'h
The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of personalized medicine, pharmacogenetics and companion tests. Personalized or stratified medicine is a new paradigm in the management of patients, aimed at better taking into account inter-individual variability. The response to drugs' intake varies considerably, depending on the transport and metabolism of the drugs, the target and the pathophysiological characteristics of the organism. Each stage is very variable and can be modified by endogenous factors (pathophysiology, age, sex, genetics…) or exogenous (environmental: taking other medicines, food, tobacco, alcohol…)...
December 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188052/biological-roles-of-hepatocyte-growth-factor-met-signaling-from-genetically-modified-animals
#10
Takashi Kato
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is produced by stromal and mesenchymal cells, and it stimulates epithelial cell proliferation, motility, morphogenesis and angiogenesis in various organs via tyrosine phosphorylation of its cognate receptor, Met. The HGF-Met signaling pathway contributes in a paracrine manner to the development of epithelial organs, exerts regenerative effects on the epithelium, and promotes the regression of fibrosis in numerous organs. Additionally, the HGF-Met signaling pathway is correlated with the biology of cancer types, neurons and immunity...
December 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178877/non-sterilized-fermentation-of-high-optically-pure-d-lactic-acid-by-a-genetically-modified-thermophilic-bacillus-coagulans-strain
#11
Caili Zhang, Cheng Zhou, Nilnate Assavasirijinda, Bo Yu, Limin Wang, Yanhe Ma
BACKGROUND: Optically pure D-lactic acid (≥ 99%) is an important precursor of polylactic acid. However, there are relatively few studies on D-lactic acid fermentation compared with the extensive investigation of L-lactic acid production. Most lactic acid producers are mesophilic organisms. Optically pure D-lactic acid produced at high temperature not only could reduce the costs of sterilization but also could inhibit the growth of other bacteria, such as L-lactic acid producers. RESULTS: Thermophilic Bacillus coagulans is an excellent producer of L-lactic acid with capable of growing at 50 °C...
November 25, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177658/analysis-of-hspb1-hsp27-oligomerization-and-phosphorylation-patterns-and-its-interaction-with-specific-client-polypeptides
#12
André-Patrick Arrigo
Human HspB1 (also denoted as Hsp27) belongs to the family of small (or stress) proteins (sHsps). The family, which contains ten members including αA,B-crystallin polypeptides, is characterized by a conserved C-terminal α-crystallin domain and molecular weights ranging from 20 to 40 kDa. Here, procedures are described for analyzing the dynamic oligomerization and phosphorylation patterns of HspB1 in cells exposed to different environments. Changes in the structural organization of HspB1 can reprogram its interaction with specific partner/client polypeptides...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175473/mechanisms-underlying-the-heterogeneity-of-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#13
REVIEW
Charles Dussiau, Michaela Fontenay
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) disorders in which recurrent chromosome abnormalities and gene mutations define a clonal hematopoiesis. The MDS-initiating cell is a rare HSC which transmits the genetic abnormalities to its myeloid and lymphoid progeny. The heterogeneity of MDS phenotypes could be linked to the diversity of genetic events involving epigenetic regulators, chromatin modifiers, splicing factors, transcription factors and signaling adaptors, the various combinations and order of mutations in cooperating genes, and the variegation of clonal hematopoietic hierarchy...
November 22, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173000/the-central-dogma-gmo-and-defective-epistemology
#14
Giovanni Tagliabue
The expression "Genetically Modified Organisms" was coined to indicate a group of agricultural products (mostly crops and vegetables), modified through direct DNA recombination in order to obtain useful phenotypic traits or to inhibit undesirable characteristics. But the border between rDNA ("GMO") and other biotech methods is blurred. Moreover, the ill-assorted group is frequently charged with having peculiar, negative characteristics: many activists, part of the public and a few social science scholars think that "GMOs" are all dubious, even inherently dangerous...
November 27, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170969/two-scale-13-c-metabolic-flux-analysis-for-metabolic-engineering
#15
David Ando, Hector Garcia Martin
Accelerating the Design-Build-Test-Learn (DBTL) cycle in synthetic biology is critical to achieving rapid and facile bioengineering of organisms for the production of, e.g., biofuels and other chemicals. The Learn phase involves using data obtained from the Test phase to inform the next Design phase. As part of the Learn phase, mathematical models of metabolic fluxes give a mechanistic level of comprehension to cellular metabolism, isolating the principle drivers of metabolic behavior from the peripheral ones, and directing future experimental designs and engineering methodologies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166855/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-flower-leaf-and-bulb-scale-of-lilium-oriental-hybrid-sorbonne-and-putative-control-network-for-scent-genes
#16
Fang Du, Junmiao Fan, Ting Wang, Yun Wu, Donald Grierson, Zhongshan Gao, Yiping Xia
BACKGROUND: Lily is an economically important plant, with leaves and bulbs consisting of overlapping scales, large ornamental flowers and a very large genome. Although it is recognized that flowers and bulb scales are modified leaves, very little is known about the genetic control and biochemical differentiation underlying lily organogenesis and development. Here we examined the differentially expressed genes in flower, leaf and scale of lily, using RNA-sequencing, and identified organ-specific genes, including transcription factors, genes involved in photosynthesis in leaves, carbohydrate metabolism in bulb scales and scent and color production in flowers...
November 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165334/development-and-validation-of-an-on-line-water-toxicity-sensor-with-immobilized-luminescent-bacteria-for-on-line-surface-water-monitoring
#17
Marjolijn Woutersen, Bram van der Gaag, Afua Abrafi Boakye, Jan Mink, Robert S Marks, Arco J Wagenvoort, Henk A M Ketelaars, Bram Brouwer, Minne B Heringa
Surface water used for drinking water production is frequently monitored in The Netherlands using whole organism biomonitors, with for example Daphnia magna or Dreissena mussels, which respond to changes in the water quality. However, not all human-relevant toxic compounds can be detected by these biomonitors. Therefore, a new on-line biosensor has been developed, containing immobilized genetically modified bacteria, which respond to genotoxicity in the water by emitting luminescence. The performance of this sensor was tested under laboratory conditions, as well as under field conditions at a monitoring station along the river Meuse in The Netherlands...
November 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163439/phosphomannosylation-and-the-functional-analysis-of-the-extended-candida-albicans-mnn4-like-gene-family
#18
Roberto J González-Hernández, Kai Jin, Marco J Hernández-Chávez, Diana F Díaz-Jiménez, Elías Trujillo-Esquivel, Diana M Clavijo-Giraldo, Alma K Tamez-Castrellón, Bernardo Franco, Neil A R Gow, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Phosphomannosylation is a modification of cell wall proteins that occurs in some species of yeast-like organisms, including the human pathogen Candida albicans. These modified mannans confer a negative charge to the wall, which is important for the interactions with phagocytic cells of the immune systems and cationic antimicrobial peptides. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the synthesis of phosphomannan relies on two enzymes, the phosphomannosyltransferase Ktr6 and its positive regulator Mnn4. However, in C. albicans, at least three phosphomannosyltransferases, Mnn4, Mnt3 and Mnt5, participate in the addition of phosphomannan...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155358/criticism-of-efsa-s-scientific-on-combinatorial-effects-of-stacked-gm-plants
#19
Thomas Bøhn
Recent genetically modified plants tend to include both insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits. Some of these 'stacked' GM plants have multiple Cry toxins expressed as well as tolerance to several herbicides. This means that non-target organisms in the environment (biodiversity) will be co-exposed to multiple stressors simultaneously. A similar co-exposure may happen to consumers through chemical residues in the food chain. EFSA, the responsible unit for minimizing risk of harm in European food chains, has expressed its scientific interest in combinatorial effects...
November 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150381/a-plea-for-the-renewal-of-the-isbr
#20
Giovanni Tagliabue, Marcel Kuntz, Henry I Miller, Klaus Ammann
The recent meeting of the International Society for Biosafety Research (ISBR) focused on so-called genetically modified organisms. For decades, in most regulatory frameworks, recombinant DNA-modified organisms have been the wrong focus of unbalanced agri-food regulations. The ISBR should instead adopt a scientifically defensible and truly risk-based perspective, abandoning a misleading pseudo-category.
November 14, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
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