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Genetically Modified Organism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544390/phenotypic-plasticity-and-remodeling-in-the-stress-induced-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca J Androwski, Kristen M Flatt, Nathan E Schroeder
Organisms are often capable of modifying their development to better suit their environment. Under adverse conditions, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans develops into a stress-resistant alternative larval stage called dauer. The dauer stage is the primary survival stage for C. elegans in nature. Large-scale tissue remodeling during dauer conveys resistance to harsh environments. The environmental and genetic regulation of the decision to enter dauer has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the mechanisms regulating tissue remodeling...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544016/recent-advances-of-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-technologies-for-biological-and-biomedical-investigations
#2
Vijai Singh, Nisarg Gohil, Robert Ramírez García, Darren Braddick, Christian Kuete Fofié
The Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system is a simple, efficient, and versatile tool for targeted genome editing in a wide range of organisms and cell types. It continues to gain more scientific interest and has established itself as an extremely powerful technology within our synthetic biology toolkit. It works upon a targeted site and generates a double strand breaks that become repaired by either the NHEJ or HDR pathway, modifying or permanently replacing the genomic target sequences of interest. These can include viral targets, single-mutation genetic diseases, and multiple-site corrections for wide scale disease states, offering the potential to manage and cure some of mankind's most persistent biomedical menaces...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527035/comparison-of-rhizosphere-properties-as-affected-by-different-bt-and-non-bt-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-genotypes-and-fertilization
#3
Maqshoof Ahamd, Waleed Mumtaz Abbasi, Moazzam Jamil, Muhammad Iqbal, Azhar Hussain, Muhammad Fakhar-U-Zaman Akhtar, Farheen Nazli
Incorporation of genetically modified crops in the cropping system raises the need for studying the effect of these crops on the soil ecosystem. The current study aimed to compare the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- and non-Bt-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes on rhizosphere properties under fertilized and unfertilized soil conditions. One non-Bt-cotton (IUB 75) and four Bt-cotton varieties (IUB-222, MM-58, IUB-13, FH-142) were sown in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a factorial fashion with three replications under unfertilized (T1) and fertilized (T2 at NPK 310-170-110 kg ha(-1)) soil conditions...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518114/preparation-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-magnetized-mir-modified-endothelial-cells
#4
Natalia Voronina, Heiko Lemcke, Frank Wiekhorst, Jens-Peter Kühn, Markus Frank, Gustav Steinhoff, Robert David
To date, the available surgical and pharmacological treatments for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are limited and often palliative. At the same time, gene and cell therapies are highly promising alternative approaches for CVD treatment. However, the broad clinical application of gene therapy is greatly limited by the lack of suitable gene delivery systems. The development of appropriate gene delivery vectors can provide a solution to current challenges in cell therapy. In particular, existing drawbacks, such as limited efficiency and low cell retention in the injured organ, could be overcome by appropriate cell engineering (i...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512185/cap-n-collar-promotes-tissue-regeneration-by-regulating-ros-and-jnk-signaling-in-the-drosophila-wing-imaginal-disc
#5
Amanda R Brock, Mabel Seto, Rachel K Smith-Bolton
Regeneration is a complex process that requires an organism to recognize and repair tissue damage, as well as grow and pattern new tissue. Here we describe a genetic screen to identify novel regulators of regeneration. We ablated the Drosophila melanogaster larval wing primordium by inducing apoptosis in a spatially and temporally controlled manner and allowed the tissue to regenerate and repattern. To identify genes that regulate regeneration, we carried out a dominant modifier screen by assessing the amount and quality of regeneration in adult wings heterozygous for isogenic deficiencies...
May 16, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509908/microbial-contributions-to-the-persistence-of-coral-reefs
#6
Nicole S Webster, Thorsten B H Reusch
On contemplating the adaptive capacity of reef organisms to a rapidly changing environment, the microbiome offers significant and greatly unrecognised potential. Microbial symbionts contribute to the physiology, development, immunity and behaviour of their hosts, and can respond very rapidly to changing environmental conditions, providing a powerful mechanism for acclimatisation and also possibly rapid evolution of coral reef holobionts. Environmentally acquired fluctuations in the microbiome can have significant functional consequences for the holobiont phenotype upon which selection can act...
May 16, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507923/phenotypes-and-chronic-organ-damage-may-be-different-among-siblings-with-wilson-s-disease
#7
Shinsuke Yahata, Seitetsu Yung, Mari Mandai, Takakazu Nagahara, Daisaku Kuzume, Hiroshi Sakaeda, Shinya Wakusawa, Ayako Kato, Yasuaki Tatsumi, Koichi Kato, Hisao Hayashi, Ryohei Isaji, Yoji Sasaki, Motoyoshi Yano, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masatoshi Ishigami, Hidemi Goto
Background and Aims: Cloning of ATP7B provided evidence that Wilson's disease is a hepatic copper toxicosis with a variety of extrahepatic complications. Affected siblings with the same genetic background and exposure to similar environmental factors may be a good model for the study of genotype-phenotype correlation. Methods: Twenty-three affected siblings in 11 families were selected from a database. The first phenotypes were determined according to the international proposal. The final types of chronic organ damage were re-evaluated for life-long management...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499033/large-scale-recoding-of-a-bacterial-genome-by-iterative-recombineering-of-synthetic-dna
#8
Yu Heng Lau, Finn Stirling, James Kuo, Michiel A P Karrenbelt, Yujia A Chan, Adam Riesselman, Connor A Horton, Elena Schäfer, David Lips, Matthew T Weinstock, Daniel G Gibson, Jeffrey C Way, Pamela A Silver
The ability to rewrite large stretches of genomic DNA enables the creation of new organisms with customized functions. However, few methods currently exist for accumulating such widespread genomic changes in a single organism. In this study, we demonstrate a rapid approach for rewriting bacterial genomes with modified synthetic DNA. We recode 200 kb of the Salmonella typhimurium LT2 genome through a process we term SIRCAS (stepwise integration of rolling circle amplified segments), towards constructing an attenuated and genetically isolated bacterial chassis...
May 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495193/first-genetic-characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-stray-cats-from-algeria
#9
Feriel Yekkour, Dominique Aubert, Aurélien Mercier, Jean-Benjamin Murat, Mammar Khames, Paul Nguewa, Khatima Ait-Oudhia, Isabelle Villena, Zahida Bouchene
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease with worldwide distribution and a major public health problem. In Algeria, no data are currently available about genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from animals or humans. The present study assesses for the first time the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in stray cats, and provides molecular characterization of T. gondii strains circulating in this feline population in Algiers, the capital city of Algeria. Sera from 96 stray cats were tested for the presence of antibodies against T...
May 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494738/smart-and-controllable-raav-gene-delivery-carriers-in-progenitor-cells-for-human-musculoskeletal-regenerative-medicine-with-a-focus-on-the-articular-cartilage
#10
Ana Rey-Rico, Magali Cucchiarini
Cell therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a powerful tool for the treatment of various diseases and injuries. Still, important limitations including the large amounts of cells required for application in vivo and the age-related decline in lifespan, proliferation, and potency may hinder the use of MSCs in patients. In this regard, gene therapy may offer strong approaches to optimize the use of MSCs for regenerative medicine. Diverse nonviral and viral gene vehicles have been manipulated to genetically modify MSCs, among which the highly effective and relatively safe recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors that emerged as the preferred gene delivery system to treat human disorders...
May 10, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493925/a-novel-filamentous-flower-mutant-suppresses-brevipedicellus-developmental-defects-and-modulates-glucosinolate-and-auxin-levels
#11
Scott J Douglas, Baohua Li, Daniel J Kliebenstein, Eiji Nambara, C Daniel Riggs
BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) encodes a class-I KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) transcription factor that plays a critical role in conditioning a replication competent state in the apical meristem, and it also governs growth and cellular differentiation in internodes and pedicels. To search for factors that modify BP signaling, we conducted a suppressor screen on bp er (erecta) plants and identified a mutant that ameliorates many of the pleiotropic defects of the parent line. Map based cloning and complementation studies revealed that the defect lies in the FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL) gene, a member of the YABBY family of transcriptional regulators that contribute to meristem organization and function, phyllotaxy, leaf and floral organ growth and polarity, and are also known to repress KNOX gene expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493873/modeling-of-a-negative-feedback-mechanism-explains-antagonistic-pleiotropy-in-reproduction-in-domesticated-caenorhabditis-elegans-strains
#12
Edward E Large, Raghavendra Padmanabhan, Kathie L Watkins, Richard F Campbell, Wen Xu, Patrick T McGrath
Most biological traits and common diseases have a strong but complex genetic basis, controlled by large numbers of genetic variants with small contributions to a trait or disease risk. The effect-size of most genetic variants is not absolute and is instead dependent upon multiple factors such as the age and genetic background of an organism. In order to understand the mechanistic basis of these changes, we characterized heritable trait differences between two domesticated strains of C. elegans. We previously identified a major effect locus, caused in part by a mutation in a component of the NURF chromatin remodeling complex, that regulates reproductive output in an age-dependent manner...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487674/uncovering-potential-applications-of-cyanobacteria-and-algal-metabolites-in-biology-agriculture-and-medicine-current-status-and-future-prospects
#13
REVIEW
Rachana Singh, Parul Parihar, Madhulika Singh, Andrzej Bajguz, Jitendra Kumar, Samiksha Singh, Vijay P Singh, Sheo M Prasad
Cyanobacteria and algae having complex photosynthetic systems can channelize absorbed solar energy into other forms of energy for production of food and metabolites. In addition, they are promising biocatalysts and can be used in the field of "white biotechnology" for enhancing the sustainable production of food, metabolites, and green energy sources such as biodiesel. In this review, an endeavor has been made to uncover the significance of various metabolites like phenolics, phytoene/terpenoids, phytols, sterols, free fatty acids, photoprotective compounds (MAAs, scytonemin, carotenoids, polysaccharides, halogenated compounds, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486476/long-range-chromosome-organization-in-escherichia-coli-the-position-of-the-replication-origin-defines-the-non-structured-regions-and-the-right-and-left-macrodomains
#14
Stéphane Duigou, Frédéric Boccard
The Escherichia coli chromosome is organized into four macrodomains (Ori, Ter, Right and Left) and two non-structured regions. This organization influences the segregation of sister chromatids, the mobility of chromosomal DNA, and the cellular localization of the chromosome. The organization of the Ter and Ori macrodomains relies on two specific systems, MatP/matS for the Ter domain and MaoP/maoS for the Ori domain, respectively. Here by constructing strains with chromosome rearrangements to reshuffle the distribution of chromosomal segments, we reveal that the difference between the non-structured regions and the Right and Left lateral macrodomains relies on their position on the chromosome...
May 9, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483713/safety-assessment-of-astaxanthin-derived-from-engineered-escherichia-coli-k-12-using-a-13-week-repeated-dose-oral-toxicity-study-and-a-prenatal-developmental-toxicity-study-in-rats
#15
Yin-Ju Lin, Jian-Yu Lin, Di-Sheng Wang, Chien-Hao Chen, Ming-Hsi Chiou
Astaxanthin is a natural carotenoid with strong antioxidant activity that has been used for decades as a nutrient/color additive and it has recently been marketed as a health supplement. Astaxanthin can be synthesized in a wide range of microalgae, yeast, and bacteria. As genes directing astaxanthin biosynthesis in various organisms have been cloned, this study assessed the safety of astaxanthin crystal produced by Escherichia coli K-12 harboring plasmids carrying astaxanthin biosynthetic genes. The astaxanthin crystal contains a total carotenoid content of 950 mg/g and an astaxanthin content of 795 mg/g...
May 5, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479936/presage-of-oncolytic-virotherapy-for-oral-cancer-with-herpes-simplex-virus
#16
REVIEW
Yoshiaki Yura
A virus is a pathogenic organism that causes a number of infectious diseases in humans. The oral cavity is the site at which viruses enter and are excreted from the human body. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) produces the primary infectious disease, gingivostomatitis, and recurrent disease, labial herpes. HSV-1 is one of the most extensively investigated viruses used for cancer therapy. In principle, HSV-1 infects epithelial cells and neuronal cells and exhibits cytotoxicity due to its cytopathic effects on these cells...
May 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475952/on-site-identification-of-meat-species-in-processed-foods-by-a-rapid-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-system
#17
Shunsuke Furutani, Yoshihisa Hagihara, Hidenori Nagai
Correct labeling of foods is critical for consumers who wish to avoid a specific meat species for religious or cultural reasons. Therefore, gene-based point-of-care food analysis by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is expected to contribute to the quality control in the food industry. In this study, we perform rapid identification of meat species by our portable rapid real-time PCR system, following a very simple DNA extraction method. Applying these techniques, we correctly identified beef, pork, chicken, rabbit, horse, and mutton in processed foods in 20min...
April 22, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470752/ethics-of-community-engagement-in-field-trials-of-genetically-modified-mosquitoes
#18
David B Resnik
Effective community engagement is an important legal, ethical, and practical prerequisite for conducting field trials of genetically modified mosquitoes, because these studies can substantially impact communities and it is usually not possible to obtain informed consent from each community member. Researchers who are planning to conduct field trials should develop a robust community engagement strategy that meets widely recognized standards for seeking approval from the affected population, such as timeliness, consent, information sharing, transparency, understanding, responsiveness, mutual understanding, inclusiveness, and respectfulness...
May 3, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450883/use-of-ultrasonication-to-increase-germination-rates-of-arabidopsis-seeds
#19
Ignacio López-Ribera, Carlos M Vicient
BACKGROUND: Arabidopsis thaliana is widely used as model organism in plant biology. Although not of agronomic significance, it offers important advantages for basic research in genetics and molecular biology including the availability of a large number of mutants and genetically modified lines. However, Arabidopsis seed longevity is limited and seeds stored for more than 10 years usually show a very low capacity for germination. RESULTS: The influence of ultrasonic stimulation was investigated on the germination of A...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450376/genome-wide-exome-analysis-of-cmv5-disparate-mouse-strains-that-differ-in-host-resistance-to-murine-cytomegalovirus-infection
#20
Alyssa Gillespie, Heather Lee, Catherine Robertson, Maya Cabot, Michael G Brown
Host resistance to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) varies in different strains of laboratory mice due to differences in expression of determinants that control and clear viral infection. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I D(k) molecule is one such determinant that controls MCMV through the action of natural killer (NK) cells. The extent of NK cell-mediated Dk-dependent resistance to infection, however, varies in different mouse strains. The molecular genetic basis of this variation remains unclear...
April 26, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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