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Genetically Modified Organism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684388/sorbitol-production-and-optimization-of-photosynthetic-supply-in-the-cyanobacterium-synechocystis-pcc-6803
#1
Taejun Chin, Yukiko Okuda, Masahiko Ikeuchi
Biochemicals production is a major theme in the application of photosynthesis to address global warming and organic-resource problems. Among biochemicals, sugar alcohols have attracted research attention because they are directly derived from two photosynthetic products, sugars and reductants. Here, we produced sorbitol photosynthetically by using cyanobacteria and modified the supply of its substrates through genetic engineering. Expression of an NADPH-dependent enzyme that generates sorbitol-6-phosphate, S6PDH, was highly toxic to cyanobacteria likely due to the sorbitol production, whereas expression of an NADH-dependent enzyme, SrlD2, yielded no sorbitol...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681891/expanding-the-genetic-code-of-lactococcus-lactis-and-escherichia-coli-to-incorporate-non-canonical-amino-acids-for-production-of-modified-lantibiotics
#2
Maike Bartholomae, Tobias Baumann, Jessica H Nickling, David Peterhoff, Ralf Wagner, Nediljko Budisa, Oscar P Kuipers
The incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides, e.g., nisin from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis , bears great potential to expand the chemical space of various antimicrobials. The ncAA N ε -Boc-L-lysine (BocK) was chosen for incorporation into nisin using the archaeal pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase-tRNAPyl pair to establish orthogonal translation in L. lactis for read-through of in-frame amber stop codons. In parallel, recombinant nisin production and orthogonal translation were combined in Escherichia coli cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681751/utilization-of-transcription-factors-for-controlling-floral-morphogenesis-in-horticultural-plants
#3
REVIEW
Katsutomo Sasaki
Transcription factors play important roles not only in the development of floral organs but also in the formation of floral characteristics in various plant species. Therefore, transcription factors are reasonable targets for modifying these floral traits and generating new flower cultivars. However, it has been difficult to control the functions of transcription factors because most plant genes, including those encoding transcription factors, exhibit redundancy. In particular, it has been difficult to understand the functions of these redundant genes by genetic analysis...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680759/impact-of-genetically-modified-organisms-on-aquatic-environments-review-of-available-data-for-the-risk-assessment
#4
REVIEW
Antonia Pott, Mathias Otto, Ralf Schulz
The aquatic environment is strongly connected to the surrounding agricultural landscapes, which regularly serve as sources of stressors such as agrochemicals. Genetically modified crops, which are cultivated on a large scale in many countries, may also act as stressors. Despite the commercial use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for over 20years, their impact on the aquatic environment came into focus only 10years ago. We present the status quo of the available scientific data in order to provide an input for informed aquatic risk assessment of GMOs...
April 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678222/loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-for-detection-of-endogenous-sad1-gene-in-cotton-an-internal-control-for-rapid-onsite-gmo-testing
#5
Monika Singh, Rajesh K Bhoge, Gurinderjit Randhawa
Background : Confirming the integrity of seed samples in powdered form is important priorto conducting a genetically modified organism (GMO) test. Rapid onsite methods may provide a technological solution to check for genetically modified (GM) events at ports of entry. In India, Bt cotton is the commercialized GM crop with four approved GM events; however, 59 GM events have been approved globally. GMO screening is required to test for authorized GM events. The identity and amplifiability of test samples could be ensured first by employing endogenous genes as an internal control...
April 20, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676042/meta-analysis-of-chromosome-scale-crossover-rate-variation-in-eukaryotes-and-its-significance-to-evolutionary-genomics
#6
Quiterie Haenel, Telma G Laurentino, Marius Roesti, Daniel Berner
Understanding the distribution of crossovers along chromosomes is crucial to evolutionary genomics because the crossover rate determines how strongly a genome region is influenced by natural selection on linked sites. Nevertheless, generalities in the chromosome-scale distribution of crossovers have not been investigated formally. We fill this gap by synthesizing joint information on genetic and physical maps across 62 animal, plant, and fungal species. Our quantitative analysis reveals a strong and taxonomically wide-spread reduction of the crossover rate in the center of chromosomes relative to their peripheries...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671387/positioning-europe-for-the-epitranscriptomics-challenge
#7
Michael Jantsch, Alessandro Quattrone, Mary O'Connell, Mark Helm, Michaela Frye, Manuel Macias-Gonzales, Marie Ohman, Stefan Ameres, Luc Willems, Francois Fuks, Anastasis Oulas, Stepanka Vanacova, Henrik Nielsen, Cecile Bousquet-Antonelli, Yuri Motorin, Jean-Yves Roignant, Nikolaos Balatsos, Andras Dinnyes, Pavel Baranov, Vincent Kelly, Ayelet Lamm, Gideon Rechavi, Mattia Pelizzola, Janis Liepins, Irina Holodnuka Kholodnyuk, Vanessa Zammit, Duncan Ayers, Finn Drablos, John Arne Dahl, Janusz Bujnicki, Carmen Jeronimo, Raquel Almeida, Monica Neagu, Marieta Costache, Jasna Bankovic, Bojana Banovic, Jan Kyselovic, Luis Miguel Valor, Stefan Selbert, Pinar Pir, Turan Demircan, Victoria Cowling, Matthias Schäfer, Walter Rossmanith, Denis Lafontaine, Alexandre David, Clement Carre, Frank Lyko, Raffael Schaffrath, Schraga Schwartz, Andre Verdel, Arne Klungland, Elzbieta Purta, Gordana Timotijevic, Fernando Cardona, Alberto Davalos, Ester Ballana, Donal O Carroll, Jernej Ule, Rupert Fray
The genetic alphabet consists of the four letters: C, A, G, and T in DNA and C,A,G, and U in RNA. Triplets of these four letters jointly encode 20 different amino acids out of which proteins of all organisms are built. This system is universal and is found in all kingdoms of life. However, bases in DNA and RNA can be chemically modified. In DNA, around 10 different modifications are known, and those have been studied intensively over the past 20 years. Scientific studies on DNA modifications and proteins that recognize them gave rise to the large field of epigenetic and epigenomic research...
April 19, 2018: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665549/combination-of-cyp2c19-genotype-with-non-genetic-factors-evoking-phenoconversion-improves-phenotype-prediction
#8
Ádám Ferenc Kiss, Dorottya Vaskó, Máté Tamás Déri, Katalin Tóth, Katalin Monostory
BACKGROUND: CYP2C19 is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme, responsible for metabolism of approximately 10% of the drugs on the market. Large inter-individual differences exist in metabolic activities, which are primarily attributed to genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 gene. Conflicting results have been published about the role of CYP2C19 polymorphisms in metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates and clinical outcomes; thus, we aimed to investigate CYP2C19 genotype-phenotype associations, and we sought to elicit potential causes of discrepancies in the genotype-based prediction by incorporating the liver donors' demographic data, drug administration events and pathological conditions...
December 5, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659532/genetic-heterogeneity-of-slc22-family-of-transporters-in-drug-disposition
#9
REVIEW
Elisa Lozano, Oscar Briz, Rocio I R Macias, Maria A Serrano, Jose J G Marin, Elisa Herraez
An important aspect of modern medicine is its orientation to achieve more personalized pharmacological treatments. In this context, transporters involved in drug disposition have gained well-justified attention. Owing to its broad spectrum of substrate specificity, including endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, and its strategical expression in organs accounting for drug disposition, such as intestine, liver and kidney, the SLC22 family of transporters plays an important role in physiology, pharmacology and toxicology...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659011/immune-system-augmentation-via-humanization-using-stem-progenitor-cells-and-bioengineering-in-a-breast-cancer-model-study
#10
Abbas Shafiee, Jacqui A McGovern, Christoph A Lahr, Christoph Meinert, Davide Moi, Ferdinand Wagner, Marietta Landgraf, Elena De-Juan-Pardo, Roberta Mazzieri, Dietmar W Hutmacher
Despite significant advances, most current in vivo models fail to fully recapitulate the biological processes that occur in humans. Here we aimed to develop an advanced humanized model with features of an organ bone by providing different bone tissue cellular compartments including pre-osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem/stromal (MSCs), endothelial and hematopoietic cells in an engineered microenvironment. The bone compartment was generated by culturing the human MSCs, umbilical vein endothelial cells with gelatin methacryloyl hydrogels in the centre of a melt-electrospun polycaprolactone tubular scaffolds which were seeded with human pre-osteoblasts...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652133/ultra-sensitive-single-fluorescence-labeled-probe-mediated-sup-m-ddpcr-for-high-throughput-gmo-screening
#11
Chenqi Niu, Yuancong Xu, Chao Zhang, Pengyu Zhu, Kunlun Huang, Yunbo Luo, Wentao Xu
As genetically modified (GM) technology develops and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) become more available, GMOs face increasing regulations and pressure to adhere to strict labeling guidelines. A singleplex detection method cannot perform the high-throughput analysis necessary for optimal GMO detection. Combining the advantages of multiplex detection and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR), a single universal primer-multiplex-ddPCR (SUP-M-ddPCR) strategy was proposed for accurate broad-spectrum screening and quantification...
April 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651330/analysis-of-neuroanatomical-differences-in-mice-with-genetically-modified-serotonin-transporters-assessed-by-structural-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Jacob Ellegood, Yohan Yee, Travis M Kerr, Christopher L Muller, Randy D Blakely, R Mark Henkelman, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jason P Lerch
Background: The serotonin (5-HT) system has long been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as indicated by elevated whole blood and platelet 5-HT, altered platelet and brain receptor and transporter binding, and genetic linkage and association findings. Based upon work in genetically modified mice, 5-HT is known to influence several aspects of brain development, but systematic neuroimaging studies have not previously been reported. In particular, the 5-HT transporter (serotonin transporter, SERT; 5-HTT) gene, Slc6a4 , has been extensively studied...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650530/synthetic-gene-drive-between-continuity-and-novelty-crucial-differences-between-gene-drive-and-genetically-modified-organisms-require-an-adapted-risk-assessment-for-their-use
#13
Samson Simon, Mathias Otto, Margret Engelhard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649981/in-silico-cancer-research-towards-3r
#14
Claire Jean-Quartier, Fleur Jeanquartier, Igor Jurisica, Andreas Holzinger
BACKGROUND: Improving our understanding of cancer and other complex diseases requires integrating diverse data sets and algorithms. Intertwining in vivo and in vitro data and in silico models are paramount to overcome intrinsic difficulties given by data complexity. Importantly, this approach also helps to uncover underlying molecular mechanisms. Over the years, research has introduced multiple biochemical and computational methods to study the disease, many of which require animal experiments...
April 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649483/redefining-reproductive-dormancy-in-drosophila-as-a-general-stress-response-to-cold-temperatures
#15
Manolis Lirakis, Marlies Dolezal, Christian Schlötterer
Organisms regularly encounter unfavorable conditions and the genetic adaptations facilitating survival have been of long-standing interest to evolutionary biologists. Winter is one particularly stressful condition for insects, during which they encounter low temperatures and scarcity of food. Despite dormancy being a well-studied adaptation to facilitate overwintering, there is still considerable controversy about the distribution of dormancy among natural populations and between species in Drosophila. The current definition of dormancy as developmental arrest of oogenesis at the previtellogenic stage (stage 7) distinguishes dormancy from general stress related block of oogenesis at early vitellogenic stages (stages 8 - 9)...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626235/the-crispr-cas9-system-sheds-new-lights-on-the-biology-of-protozoan-parasites
#16
REVIEW
Maciej Grzybek, Aleksandra Golonko, Aleksandra Górska, Klaudiusz Szczepaniak, Aneta Strachecka, Anna Lass, Paweł Lisowski
The CRISPR/Cas9 system, a natural defence system of bacterial organisms, has recently been used to modify genomes of the most important protozoa parasites. Successful genome manipulations with the CRISPR/Cas9 system are changing the present view of genetics in parasitology. The application of this system offers a major chance to overcome the current restriction in culturing, maintaining and analysing protozoan parasites, and allows dynamic analysis of parasite genes functions, leading to a better understanding of pathogenesis...
April 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616889/farmers-prevailing-perception-profiles-regarding-gm-crops-a-classification-proposal
#17
Carla Almeida, Luisa Massarani
Genetically modified organisms have been at the centre of a major public controversy, involving different interests and actors. While much attention has been devoted to consumer views on genetically modified food, there have been few attempts to understand the perceptions of genetically modified technology among farmers. By investigating perceptions of genetically modified organisms among Brazilian farmers, we intend to contribute towards filling this gap and thereby add the views of this stakeholder group to the genetically modified debate...
April 1, 2018: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616073/defective-apetala2-genes-lead-to-sepal-modification-in-brassica-crops
#18
Yanfeng Zhang, Shuhua Huang, Xuefang Wang, Jianwei Liu, Xupeng Guo, Jianxin Mu, Jianhua Tian, Xiaofeng Wang
Many vegetable and oilseed crops belong to Brassica species. The seed production of these crops is hampered often by abnormal floral organs, especially under the conditions of abiotic conditions. However, the molecular reasons for these abnormal floral organs remains poorly understood. Here, we report a novel pistil-like flower mutant of B. rapa . In the flower of this mutant, the four sepals are modified to one merged carpel that look like a ring in the sepal positions, enveloping some abnormal stamens and a pistil, and resulting in poor seed production...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615995/htlv-1-alters-t-cells-for-viral-persistence-and-transmission
#19
REVIEW
Azusa Tanaka, Masao Matsuoka
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first retrovirus to be discovered as a causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) and chronic inflammatory diseases. Two viral factors, Tax and HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), are thought to be involved in the leukemogenesis of ATL. Tax expression is frequently lost due to DNA methylation in the promoter region, genetic changes to the tax gene, and deletion of the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) in approximately half of all ATL cases. On the other hand, HBZ is expressed in all ATL cases...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615499/ef-p-posttranslational-modification-has-variable-impact-on-polyproline-translation-in-bacillus-subtilis
#20
Anne Witzky, Katherine R Hummels, Rodney Tollerson, Andrei Rajkovic, Lisa A Jones, Daniel B Kearns, Michael Ibba
Elongation factor P (EF-P) is a ubiquitous translation factor that facilitates translation of polyproline motifs. In order to perform this function, EF-P generally requires posttranslational modification (PTM) on a conserved residue. Although the position of the modification is highly conserved, the structure can vary widely between organisms. In Bacillus subtilis , EF-P is modified at Lys32 with a 5-aminopentanol moiety. Here, we use a forward genetic screen to identify genes involved in 5-aminopentanolylation...
April 3, 2018: MBio
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