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Genetically Modified Organism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045450/the-genetics-and-development-of-mandibles-and-hypopharyngeal-sclerite-and-cornua-in-larvae-of-drosophila-gaucha
#1
Eduardo Alvarez, Francisco Del Pino, Lilian Jara, Raúl Godoy-Herrera
The genetics and epigenetic processes associated with morphological organization are a principal aim of biology, ranging from cohesion between cells to shape and size of organisms. We investigate the post-embryonic development of Hypopharyngeal sclerite and cornua HPC and mandibles M of Drosophila gaucha larva. Integrated functioning of these Cephalopharyngeal skeleton parts of D. gaucha larva is essential for food acquisition, participating in locomotion and microhabitat selection. We examined two isolates by recording the growth of the HPC and M every 24 h for 8 days in parental, F1, F2 and backcross larvae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045010/characterization-of-carotenoids-in-rhodothermus-marinus
#2
Emanuel Y C Ron, Merichel Plaza, Thordis Kristjansdottir, Roya R R Sardari, Snaedis H Bjornsdottir, Steinn Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Oli Hreggvidsson, Charlotta Turner, Ed W J van Niel, Eva Nordberg-Karlsson
Rhodothermus marinus, a marine aerobic thermophile, was first isolated from an intertidal hot spring in Iceland. In recent years, the R. marinus strain PRI 493 has been genetically modified, which opens up possibilities for targeted metabolic engineering of the species, such as of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, the carotenoids of the R. marinus type-strain DSM 4252(T) , strain DSM 4253, and strain PRI 493 were characterized. Bioreactor cultivations were used for pressurized liquid extraction and analyzed by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography with diode array and quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (UHPSFC-DAD-QTOF/MS)...
October 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044184/zebrafish-aversive-taste-co-receptor-is-expressed-in-both-chemo-and-mechanosensory-cells-and-plays-a-role-in-lateral-line-development
#3
Nazia Mojib, Jin Xu, Zinka Bartolek, Barry Imhoff, Nael A McCarty, Chong Hyun Shin, Julia Kubanek
Fishes rely on both chemical and tactile senses to orient themselves to avoid predators, and to detect and taste food. This is likely achieved by highly coordinated reception of signals by mechano- and chemosensory receptors in fish. A small co-receptor from zebrafish, receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP)-like triterpene glycoside receptor (RL-TGR), was previously found to be involved in recognition of triterpene glycosides, a family of naturally occurring compounds that act as chemical defenses in various prey species...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041813/regulatory-science-requirements-of-labeling-of-genetically-modified-food
#4
A Alan Moghissi, Lisa M Jaeger, Dania Shafei, Lindsey L Bloom
This paper provides an overview of the evolution of food labeling in the USA. It briefly describes the three phases of agricultural development consisting of naturally occurring, cross-bred, and genetically engineered, edited or modified crops, otherwise known as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). It uses the Best Available Regulatory Science (BARS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science Claims (MERSC) to evaluate the scientific validity of claims applicable to GMO and the Best Available Public Information (BAPI) to evaluate the pronouncements by public media and others...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031051/17%C3%AE-estradiol-induces-cyto-genotoxicity-on-blood-cells-of-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#5
Luis Orozco-Hernández, Adriana Andrea Gutiérrez-Gómez, Nely SanJuan-Reyes, Hariz Islas-Flores, Sandra García-Medina, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Octavio Dublán-García, Reyna Natividad, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván
17β-Estradiol, a natural hormone present at high concentrations in aquatic ecosystems, affects and modifies endocrine function in animals. In recent years research workers have expressed concern over its potential effects on aquatic organisms; however, little is known about its capacity to induce genetic damage or the pro-apoptotic effects of such damage on fish. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate 17β-estradiol-induced cyto-genotoxicity in blood cells of the common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to different concentrations (1 ng, 1 μg and 1 mg L(-1))...
October 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026112/engineering-species-like-barriers-to-sexual-reproduction
#6
Maciej Maselko, Stephen C Heinsch, Jeremy M Chacón, William R Harcombe, Michael J Smanski
Controlling the exchange of genetic information between sexually reproducing populations has applications in agriculture, eradication of disease vectors, control of invasive species, and the safe study of emerging biotechnology applications. Here we introduce an approach to engineer a genetic barrier to sexual reproduction between otherwise compatible populations. Programmable transcription factors drive lethal gene expression in hybrid offspring following undesired mating events. As a proof of concept, we target the ACT1 promoter of the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a dCas9-based transcriptional activator...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022701/genetic-and-pharmacological-discovery-for-alzheimer-s-disease-using-c-elegans
#7
Edward F Griffin, Kim A Caldwell, Guy A Caldwell
The societal burden presented by Alzheimer's disease warrants both innovative and expedient means by which its underlying molecular causes can be both identified and mechanistically exploited to discern novel therapeutic targets and strategies. The conserved characteristics, defined neuroanatomy and advanced technological application of Caenorhabditis elegans render this metazoan an unmatched tool for probing neurotoxic factors. In addition, its short lifespan and importance in the field of aging make it an ideal organism for modeling age-related neurodegenerative disease...
October 12, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994225/scaffold-composition-determines-the-angiogenic-outcome-of-cell-based-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-expression-by-modulating-its-microenvironmental-distribution
#8
Emanuele Gaudiello, Ludovic Melly, Giulia Cerino, Stefano Boccardo, Sasan Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Lifen Xu, Friedrich Eckstein, Ivan Martin, Beat A Kaufmann, Andrea Banfi, Anna Marsano
Delivery of genetically modified cells overexpressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a promising approach to induce therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic tissues. The effect of the protein is strictly modulated by its interaction with the components of the extracellular matrix. Its therapeutic potential depends on a sustained but controlled release at the microenvironmental level in order to avoid the formation of abnormal blood vessels. In this study, it is hypothesized that the composition of the scaffold plays a key role in modulating the binding, hence the therapeutic effect, of the VEGF released by 3D-cell constructs...
October 10, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993590/an-electrochemical-dna-biosensor-based-on-au-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanocomposite-for-transgenic-event-bt63-detection
#9
Chenmeng He, Yali Tang, Sai Wang, Jiahui Liu, Ying Chen, Yiyang Dong, Haijia Su, Tianwei Tan
A simple and reliable electrochemical biosensor based on an in situ synthetic Au-reduced graphene oxide (Au-RGO) nanocomposite was constructed in this work, which is considered to be a potential sensing platform for sensitive and selective Bt63 rice detection. UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and cyclic voltammograms of the surface characterization indicated that RGO was prepared successfully and Au nanoparticles were well dispersed on its surface with an average size of 20 nm. The square-wave voltammetry (SWV) response of the electrochemical marker methylene blue (MB) was chosen to monitor the probe immobilization and target hybridization event...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993289/sirt1-and-parp1-as-epigenome-safeguards-and-micrornas-as-sasp-associated-signals-in-cellular-senescence-and-aging
#10
REVIEW
Seyedhossein Hekmatimoghaddam, Ali Dehghani Firoozabadi, Mohamad Reza Zare-Khormizi, Fatemeh Pourrajab
Cellular senescence (CS) is underlying mechanism of organism aging and is closely interconnected with age-related diseases (ARDs). Thus, any attempt that influences CS, may be undertaken to reverse or inhibit senescence, whereby could prolong healthy life span. Until now, two main proposes are epigenetic and genetic modifications of cell fate. The first one concerns rejuvenation through effective reprogramming in cells undergoing senescence, or derived from very old or progeroid patients, by which is effective in vitro in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
October 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993215/surveying-selected-european-feed-and-livestock-production-chains-for-features-enabling-the-case-specific-post-market-monitoring-of-livestock-for-intake-and-potential-health-impacts-of-animal-feeds-derived-from-genetically-modified-crops
#11
Gijs Kleter, Sarah McFarland, Alex Bach, Umberto Bernabucci, Paul Bikker, Luca Busani, Esther Kok, Kaloyan Kostov, Anna Nadal, Maria Pla, Bruno Ronchi, Marta Terre, Ralf Einspanier
This review, which has been prepared within the frame of the European Union (EU)-funded project MARLON, surveys the organisation and characteristics of specific livestock and feed production chains (conventional, organic, GM-free) within the EU, with an emphasis on controls, regulations, traceability, and common production practices. Furthermore, an overview of the origin of animal feed used in the EU as well as an examination of the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in feed is provided. From the data, it shows that livestock is traceable at the herd or individual level, depending on the species...
October 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987936/hmg-coa-synthase-2-drives-brain-metabolic-reprogramming-in-cocaine-exposure
#12
Xue Shao, Yunxuan Tang, Hailei Long, Hui Gu, Jie Zhang, Pengchi Deng, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
The brain is a high energy-consuming organ that typically utilizes glucose as the main energy source for cerebral activity. When glucose becomes scarce under conditions of stress, ketone bodies, such as β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone, become extremely important. Alterations in brain energy metabolism have been observed in psychostimulant abusers; however, the mode of brain metabolic programming in cocaine dependence remains largely unknown. Here, we profiled the metabolites and metabolic enzymes from brain nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice exposed to cocaine...
October 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986374/chromosomal-aneuploidy-improves-brewing-characteristics-of-sake-yeast
#13
Masafumi Kadowaki, Yuki Fujimaru, Seiga Taguchi, Jannatul Ferdouse, Kazutaka Sawada, Yuta Kimura, Yohei Terasawa, Gennaro Agrimi, Toyoaki Anai, Hideki Noguchi, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Takeshi Akao, Hiroshi Kitagaki
The effect of chromosomal aneuploidy on the brewing characteristics in brewery yeasts has not been studied. Here, we report that chromosomal aneuploidy in sake brewery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) leads to the development of favorable brewing characteristics. We found that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast, which produces less off-flavor diacetyl, is aneuploid and trisomic for chromosomes XI and XIV. To confirm that this phenotype is due to aneuploidy, we obtained 45 haploids with various chromosomal additions and investigated their brewing profiles...
October 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984415/mechanisms-of-carbon-nanotube-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-physicochemical-characteristic-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Katherine S Duke, James C Bonner
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) with numerous beneficial applications. However, they could pose a risk to human health from occupational or consumer exposures. Rodent models demonstrate that exposure to CNTs via inhalation, instillation, or aspiration results in pulmonary fibrosis. The severity of the fibrogenic response is determined by various physicochemical properties of the nanomaterial such as residual metal catalyst content, rigidity, length, aggregation status, or surface charge...
October 6, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983317/genetic-analysis-of-mitochondrial-ribosomal-proteins-and-cognitive-aging-in-postmenopausal-women
#15
Khyobeni Mozhui, Beverly M Snively, Stephen R Rapp, Robert B Wallace, Robert W Williams, Karen C Johnson
Genes encoding mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) have been linked to aging and longevity in model organisms (i.e., mice, Caenorhabditis elegans). Here we evaluated if the MRPs have conserved effects on aging traits in humans. We utilized data from 4,504 participants of the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) who had both longitudinal cognitive data and genetic data. Two aging phenotypes were considered: (1) gross lifespan (time to all-cause mortality), and (2) cognitive aging (longitudinal rate of change in modified mini-mental state scores)...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977367/novel-mouse-model-of-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#16
Nodir Madrahimov, Erin C Boyle, Faikah Gueler, Tobias Goecke, Ann-Kathrin Knöfel, Valentyna Irkha, Lavinia Maegel, Klaus Höffler, Ruslan Natanov, Issam Ismail, Ulrich Maus, Christian Kühn, Gregor Warnecke, Malakh-Lal Shrestha, Serghei Cebotari, Axel Haverich
OBJECTIVES: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is an essential component of many cardiac interventions, and therefore, there is an increasing critical demand to minimize organ damage resulting from prolonged extracorporeal circulation. Our goal was to develop the first clinically relevant mouse model of CPB and to examine the course of extracorporeal circulation by closely monitoring haemodynamic and oxygenation parameters. METHODS: Here, we report the optimization of device design, perfusion circuit and microsurgical techniques as well as validation of physiological functions during CPB in mice after circulatory arrest and reperfusion...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974799/targeting-the-middle-region-of-cp4-epsps-protein-for-its-traceability-in-highly-processed-soy-related-products
#17
Honghong Wu, Xiaofu Wang, Xinghu Zhou, Yihua Zhang, Ming Huang, Jian He, Wenbiao Shen
Transgenic components in genetically modified organisms consist not only of the transgenic genes, but also the transgenic protein. However, compared with transgenic DNA, less attention has been paid to the detection of expressed protein, especially those degraded from genetically modified soybean after food processing. In this study, the full length 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSPS, 47.6 kD) protein was probed with the SC-16 (S19-R33) and the DC-16 (D219-K233) polyclonal antibodies in immunoblots...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971958/mutation-rate-evolution-in-partially-selfing-and-partially-asexual-organisms
#18
Camille Gervais, Denis Roze
Different factors may influence the evolution of the mutation rate of a species: costs associated with DNA replication fidelity, indirect selection caused by the mutations produced (that should generally favor lower mutation rates, given that most mutations affecting fitness are deleterious) and genetic drift, that may render selection acting on weak mutators inefficient. In this paper, we use a two-locus model to compute the strength of indirect selection acting on a modifier locus that affects the mutation rate towards a deleterious allele at a second, linked locus, in a population undergoing partial selfing or partial clonality...
October 2, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963254/changes-in-the-microbiota-cause-genetically-modified-anopheles-to-spread-in-a-population
#19
Andrew Pike, Yuemei Dong, Nahid Borhani Dizaji, Anthony Gacita, Emmanuel F Mongodin, George Dimopoulos
The mosquito's innate immune system controls both Plasmodium and bacterial infections. We investigated the competitiveness of mosquitoes genetically modified to alter expression of their own anti-Plasmodium immune genes in a mixed-cage population with wild-type mosquitoes. We observed that genetically modified mosquitoes with increased immune activity in the midgut tissue did not have an observed fitness disadvantage and showed reduced microbial loads in both the midgut and reproductive organs. These changes result in a mating preference of genetically modified males for wild-type females, whereas wild-type males prefer genetically modified females...
September 29, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961459/developmental-cartography-coordination-via-hormonal-and-genetic-interactions-during-gynoecium-formation
#20
REVIEW
Joyita Deb, Heather M Bland, Lars Østergaard
Development in multicellular organisms requires the establishment of tissue identity through polarity cues. The Arabidopsis gynoecium presents an excellent model to study this coordination, as it comprises a complex tissue structure which is established through multiple polarity systems. The gynoecium is derived from the fusion of two carpels and forms in the centre of the flower. Many regulators of carpel development also have roles in leaf development, emphasizing the evolutionary origin of carpels as modified leaves...
September 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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