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Dose reference levels

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644892/r-modafinil-exerts-weak-effects-on-spatial-memory-acquisition-and-dentate-gyrus-synaptic-plasticity
#1
Bharanidharan Shanmugasundaram, Yogesh D Aher, Jana Aradska, Marija Ilic, Daniel Daba Feyissa, Predrag Kalaba, Nilima Y Aher, Vladimir Dragacevic, Babak Saber Marouf, Thierry Langer, Harald H Sitte, Harald Hoeger, Gert Lubec, Volker Korz
Modafinil is a wake promoting drug approved for clinical use and also has cognitive enhancing properties. Its enantiomer R-Modafinil (R-MO) is not well studied in regard to cognitive enhancing properties. Hence we studied its effect in a spatial memory paradigm and its possible effects on dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (DG-LTP). Clinically relevant doses of R-MO, vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or saline were administered for three days during the hole-board test and in in vivo DG-LTP. Synaptic levels of dopamine receptors D1R, D2R, dopamine transporter (DAT), and its phosphorylated form (ph-DAT) in DG tissue 4 h after LTP induction were quantified by western blot analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644049/the-standard-treatment-protocol-for-paracetamol-poisoning-may-be-inadequate-following-overdose-with-modified-release-formulation-a-pharmacokinetic-and-clinical-analysis-of-53-cases
#2
Heléne Salmonson, Gunilla Sjöberg, Jacob Brogren
OBJECTIVE: The use of the standard procedure for managing overdoses with immediate release (IR) paracetamol is questionable when applied to overdoses with modified release (MR) formulations. This study describes the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol and the clinical outcomes following overdoses with a MR formulation. METHODS: Medical records including laboratory analyses concerning overdoses of MR paracetamol from 2009 to 2015 were collected retrospectively. Inclusion criteria were ingestion of a toxic dose, known time of intake and documented measurements of serum paracetamol and liver function tests...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639400/motion-estimation-for-cardiac-functional-analysis-using-two-x-ray-computed-tomography-scans
#3
George S K Fung, Luisa Ciuffo, Hiroshi Ashikaga, Katsuyuki Taguchi
PURPOSE: This work concerns computed tomography (CT)-based cardiac functional analysis (CFA) with a reduced radiation dose. As CT-CFA requires images over the entire heartbeat, the scans are often performed at 10-20% of the tube current settings that are typically used for coronary CT angiography. A large image noise then degrades the accuracy of motion estimation. Moreover, even if the scan was performed during the sinus rhythm, the cardiac motion observed in CT images may not be cyclic with patients with atrial fibrillation...
June 22, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639068/what-about-the-rheological-properties-of%C3%A2-prp-microfat-mixtures-in-fat-grafting-procedure
#4
R Ghazouane, B Bertrand, C Philandrianos, J Veran, M Abellan, P Francois, M Velier, C Orneto, P Piccerelle, J Magalon
BACKGROUND: Fat grafting has emerged as a reference procedure in daily plastic surgery practice. Unpredictable fat resorption is the main clinical problem. For this purpose, the addition of PRP to enhance fat revascularization is now an easy and popular procedure. However, no consensus exists regarding the respective volume of fat and PRP used to obtain the ideal mixture. This study investigated the rheological properties of microfat mixed with different proportions of PRP. Results obtained were compared with commercialized hyaluronic acid fillers...
June 21, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638301/toxic-and-essential-trace-element-content-of-commonly-administered-pediatric-oral-medications
#5
Robert A Yokel, Sarah E Seger, Jason M Unrine
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that commonly administered pediatric oral medications are a significant source of toxic elements. The concentrations of 16 elements were determined in 14 frequently used pediatric oral medications. METHODS: Samples were prepared for analysis by dilution or nitric acid microwave-assisted digestion and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The intake of each element from administration for 1 week of the medication's maximum recommended daily dose to 6-month-olds was calculated and compared to an exposure guideline for that element...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637959/examination-of-dose-reduction-using-image-noise-reduction-technology-in-cardiovascular-x-ray-systems
#6
Takaya Saijo, Shigenobu Seguchi
The aim of this study is to establish radiation exposure dose reduction protocols during cardiac intervention by decreasing the entrance dose at flat panel detector (FPD) with image quality evaluations. For measuring entrance surface dose (ESD), we have used a Radical 9015 dosimeter (6 cc ion chamber) placed under 20 cm thick acrylic plates at the patient's entrance reference point. We performed an image quality assessment based on quantitative as well as visual evaluation of the images obtained via current and dose reduction protocols...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632453/survey-of-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins-polychlorinated-dibenzofurans-and-non-ortho-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-u-s-meat-and-poultry-from-2012-2013-toxic-equivalency-levels-patterns-temporal-trends-and-implications
#7
Sara J Lupton, Margaret O'Keefe, Jorge G Muñiz-Ortiz, Nelson Clinch, Pat Basu
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically-based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken, and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs) every five years. Fat samples for each slaughter class were collected from U.S. federally licensed slaughter facilities. The samples were processed and analyzed for 17 PCDD/Fs and 3 no-PCBs. The sum of PCDD, PCDF, and no-PCB toxic equivalencies (sum-TEQ) calculated using 2005 toxic equivalency factors for all slaughter classes, ranged from non-detect (nd) to 6...
June 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630886/review-of-the-current-status-of-radiation-protection-in-diagnostic-radiology-in-africa
#8
REVIEW
Wilbroad Muhogora, Madan M Rehani
The aim of this paper is to review the available published studies from African countries on patient doses and medical radiation protection and identify strengths, weaknesses, and challenges. Papers on radiation doses to patients published until 2016 pertaining to studies in African countries were reviewed. Radiography, interventional radiology, computed tomography (CT), and mammography modalities were covered. In radiography, the entrance surface air kerma values were below the established diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency, European Commission, and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629818/corydalis-hendersonii-hemsl-protects-against-myocardial-injury-by-attenuating-inflammation-and-fibrosis-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathways
#9
Ruifeng Bai, Xu Yin, Xiao Feng, Yuan Cao, Yan Wu, Zhixiang Zhu, Chun Li, Pengfei Tu, Xingyun Chai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Corydalis hendersonii Hemsl. (CH) with heat clearing and detoxifying effects are well described in Tibetan folk medicine. It has been used for centuries in China largely for the treatment of high altitude polycythemia, a pathophysiological condition referred to "plethora" in Tibetan medicine, hypertension, hepatitis, edema, gastritis, and other infectious diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the cardioprotective effects of Corydalis hendersonii extract in an ICR mouse model of myocardial ischemic injury...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629388/the-albumin-exendin-4-recombinant-protein-e2hsa-improves-glycemic-control-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-spontaneous-diabetic-kkay-mice
#10
Caina Li, Shaocong Hou, Shuainan Liu, Yi Huan, Sujuan Sun, Quan Liu, Zhufang Shen
BACKGROUND: E2HSA is a genetic fusion protein that consists of two tandem exendin-4 molecules that are covalently bonded to recombinant human serum albumin via a peptide linker. Previous studies have demonstrated that E2HSA significantly decreased blood glucose levels, improved β-cell function and promoted β-cell proliferation in diabetic db/dB mice. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of E2HSA on glucose and lipid metabolism in a spontaneous diabetes animal model, KKAy mice. METHODS: E2HSA was acutely administered at doses of 1, 3 and 9 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection in diabetic KKAy mice with exendin-4 (2 μg/kg) as a positive reference, and then the non-fasting blood glucose and food intake levels were dynamically monitored...
June 19, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629341/protective-effects-of-cynara-scolymus-leaves-extract-on-metabolic-disorders-and-oxidative-stress-in-alloxan-diabetic-rats
#11
Maryem Ben Salem, Rihab Ben Abdallah Kolsi, Raouia Dhouibi, Kamilia Ksouda, Slim Charfi, Mahdi Yaich, Serria Hammami, Zouheir Sahnoun, Khaled Mounir Zeghal, Kamel Jamoussi, Hanen Affes
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with hyperglycemia, inflammatory disorders and abnormal lipid profiles, currently the extracts from leaves of cynara scolymus has been discovered to treat metabolic disorders and has been stated by multitudinous scientists according to a good source of polyphenols compounds. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of the ethanol leaves extract of C. scolymus in alloxan induced stress oxidant, hepatic-kidney dysfunction and histological changes in liver, kidney and pancreas of different experimental groups of rats...
June 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626983/comparison-of-systemic-pharmacodynamic-effects-of-two-combination-pressurised-metered-dose-inhalers-that-deliver-salmeterol-and-fluticasone-propionate
#12
Lester I Harrison, Victoria Sessions, Christopher J Wiggenhorn, David Chalmers, Pui Leung, John Efthimiou
AIM: The aim was to test the systemic pharmacodynamic effects of the salmeterol component of two pressurized metered dose inhalers that delivered a combination of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate (SM/FP). METHODS: This was a six-way crossover study in 43 adult subjects, using a single blind design (subject blinded to product and clinical assessor blinded for all measurements). Each subject received single doses of 2, 6, and 12 inhalations from test and reference products that delivered SM/FP as 25/125 mcg per inhalation...
June 19, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622537/intravenous-lacosamide-in-status-epilepticus-correlation-between-loading-dose-serum-levels-and-clinical-response
#13
Matthieu Perrenoud, Pascal André, Vincent Alvarez, Christine Stähli, Laurent A Decosterd, Andrea O Rossetti, Jan Novy
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous lacosamide (LCM) is increasingly used in the treatment of status epilepticus (SE), but optimal loading dose and target serum levels are unclear. We analysed the correlation between LCM serum levels after intravenous loading dose and clinical response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study in two centres from December 2014 to May 2016 including consecutive SE patients treated with LCM, in which trough serum levels after intravenous loading dose were available...
May 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620251/physiological-alteration-quality-of-anesthesia-and-economy-of-isoflurane-in-domestic-chickens-gallus-domesticus
#14
Parag Deori, Kushal Konwar Sarma, Parsha Jyoti Nath, Chandan Kumar Singh, Rita Nath
AIM: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of isoflurane anesthesia on physiological parameters, assessment of anesthetic qualities, and economy of use of isoflurane in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 18 apparently healthy adult domestic chickens were selected randomly and divided into three groups. The birds were anesthetized by masked induction with isoflurane at a dose rate of 3.5%, 4%, and 5% and were maintained with 1...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616956/tramadol-for-neuropathic-pain-in-adults
#15
REVIEW
Rudolf Martin Duehmke, Sheena Derry, Philip J Wiffen, Rae F Bell, Dominic Aldington, R Andrew Moore
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a review of tramadol for neuropathic pain, published in 2006; updating was to bring the review in line with current standards. Neuropathic pain, which is caused by a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system, may be central or peripheral in origin. Peripheral neuropathic pain often includes symptoms such as burning or shooting sensations, abnormal sensitivity to normally painless stimuli, or an increased sensitivity to normally painful stimuli...
June 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616955/niacin-for-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events
#16
REVIEW
Stefan Schandelmaier, Matthias Briel, Ramon Saccilotto, Kelechi K Olu, Armon Arpagaus, Lars G Hemkens, Alain J Nordmann
BACKGROUND: Nicotinic acid (niacin) is known to decrease LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, and increase HDL-cholesterol levels. The evidence of benefits with niacin monotherapy or add-on to statin-based therapy is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of niacin therapy versus placebo, administered as monotherapy or add-on to statin-based therapy in people with or at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of mortality, CVD events, and side effects...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610702/a-quality-control-based-correction-method-for-displayed-dose-indices-on-ct-scanner-consoles-in-patient-dose-surveys
#17
Masoumeh Parsi, Mehdi Sohrabi, Fereidoun Mianji, Reza Paydar
PURPOSE: A new quality-control-based (QC-based) method is introduced to obtain correction factors to be applied to displayed patient dose indices (CTDIVol and DLP) on CT scanner consoles to verify improvement of dose surveys for diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) determination. METHOD: An available data-base of QC documents and reports of 57 CT scanners in Tehran, Iran was used to estimate CTDIVol, DLP and relevant correction factors for three CT examination types including head, chest and abdomen/pelvis...
June 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610543/does-diathermy-smoke-contaminate-processed-salvaged-blood-in-cardiac-surgery
#18
Katherine R Hulme, Jon van den Burg
INTRODUCTION: A cell salvage device is used in cardiac surgery with the aim of reducing allogeneic blood transfusion. Suction of blood from the operating field used for the device is often accompanied by diathermy smoke. There is limited published research to know if this blood is then contaminated with clinically significant levels of harmful chemicals from this smoke. Postoperative cardiac surgery patients are already physiologically vulnerable, making the optimization of salvaged blood worth considering...
June 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607763/in%C3%A2-vitro-evaluation-of-a-new-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-for-dose-reduction-in-coronary-artery-calcium-scoring
#19
Tobias Gassenmaier, Thomas Allmendinger, Andreas S Kunz, Maike Veyhl-Wichmann, Süleyman Ergün, Thorsten A Bley, Bernhard Petritsch
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring is a widespread tool for cardiac risk assessment in asymptomatic patients and accompanying possible adverse effects, i.e. radiation exposure, should be as low as reasonably achievable. PURPOSE: To evaluate a new iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm for dose reduction of in vitro coronary artery calcium scoring at different tube currents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An anthropomorphic calcium scoring phantom was scanned in different configurations simulating slim, average-sized, and large patients...
May 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604064/bolus-insulin-dose-error-distributions-based-on-results-from-two-clinical-trials-comparing-blood-glucose-monitoring-systems
#20
Scott Pardo, Nancy Dunne, David A Simmons
BACKGROUND: In 2 previous clinical trials, fingertip capillary blood samples were evaluated using prespecified blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMSs) and a reference YSI glucose analyzer. In post hoc analyses, hypothetical insulin doses were calculated using these blood glucose measurements; dosing errors were compared for each trial. METHOD: For each blood glucose measurement, premeal bolus insulin dosing was determined for a hypothetical person, assuming a 60-g carbohydrate meal and 100-mg/dL target blood glucose level (adjusting 1/25 insulin sensitivity and 1/15 insulin:carbohydrate ratio inputs to account for BGMS measurement error)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
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