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Dose reference levels

Jorge A Avila, Roseanna M Zanca, Denis Shor, Nicholas Paleologos, Amber A Alliger, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Peter A Serrano
Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive drug with neurotoxic effects on the brain producing cognitive impairment and increasing the risk for neurodegenerative disease. Research has focused largely on examining the neurochemical and behavioral deficits induced by injecting relatively high doses of MA [30 mg/kg of body weight (bw)] identifying the upper limits of MA-induced neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we have developed an appetitive mouse model of voluntary oral MA administration (VOMA) based on the consumption of a palatable sweetened oatmeal mash containing a known amount of MA...
February 2018: Heliyon
Natalie Koch Levy, Natasha A Orzeck-Byrnes, Sneha R Aidasani, Dana N Moloney, Lisa H Nguyen, Agnes Park, Lu Hu, Aisha T Langford, Binhuan Wang, Mary Ann Sevick, Erin S Rogers
BACKGROUND: The Mobile Insulin Titration Intervention (MITI) program helps patients with type 2 diabetes find their correct basal insulin dose without in-person care. Requiring only basic cell phone technology (text messages and phone calls), MITI is highly accessible to patients receiving care in safety-net settings. MITI was shown in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to be efficacious at a New York City (NYC) safety-net clinic where patients often have challenges coming for in-person care...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Barbara Różalska, Beata Sadowska, Aleksandra Budzyńska, Przemysław Bernat, Sylwia Różalska
Due to low efficacy of classic antimicrobial drugs, finding new active preparations attracts much attention. In this study an innovative, cost-effective and environmentally friendly method was applied to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using filamentous fungi Metarhizium robertsii biomass waste. It was shown that these NPs possess prominent antifungal effects against C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis reference strains. Further detailed studies were performed on C. albicans ATCC 90028. AgNPs kill curve (CFU method and esterase-mediated reduction of fluorescein diacetate); fractionally inhibitory concentration index (FICI) with fluconazole (FLC); effect on fungal cell membrane permeability (propidium iodide (PI) staining), membrane lipids profile (HPLC-MS), yeast morphotypes and intracellular reactive oxygen species level (H2DCFDA probe) were investigated...
2018: PloS One
Francesco Paolo Serpe, Filomena Fiorito, Mauro Esposito, Angelo Ferrari, Federico Fracassi, Roberto Miniero, Marco Pietra, Paola Roncada, Gianfranco Brambilla
The domestic cat (Felis catus) was used as a sentinel of exposure to polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in indoor urban environments y. Sera from 120 cats were pooled to form 30 different groups selected by age (<2 years; > 2 ≤ 8 years; > 8 years), sex, municipality (Bologna and Turin) and environment (indoor vs. outdoor). Test portions of 1 mL were analyzed by means of gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) for six selected indicators non-dioxin-like PCBs (∑6 PCBs: congeners #28, #52, #101, #132, #153 and #180) and the results were computed in the upper-bound mode...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Nicholas Russell, Rudolf Hoermann, Ada S Cheung, Michael Ching, Jd Zajac, David J Handelsman, Mathis Grossmann
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing recognition that, in men, some biological actions attributed to testosterone (T) are mediated by estradiol (E2). This study used two low doses of daily transdermal E2 gel to assess effects on circulating E2 concentrations in men with prostate cancer with suppressed endogenous E2 production arising from androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Secondarily, we aimed to assess short term biological effects of E2 addback without increasing circulating T. DESIGN: 28-day randomised, placebo-controlled trial Methods: 37 participants were randomised to either 0...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Jana Tchekalarova, Keylla da Conceição Machado, Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Albena Momchilova, Rumyana Tzoneva
PURPOSE: Activation of CB1 receptors, produces anticonvulsant effect accompanied by memory disturbance both in animal seizure tests and in patients with epilepsy. Few reports considered the role of CB2 receptor on seizure susceptibility and cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of a selective CB2 receptor agonist β-caryophyllene (BCP) in models of seizures and cognition in mice. METHODS: Dose-dependent effects of BCP was studied in maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test and Morris water maze test...
March 12, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Kasper Meidahl Petersen, Søren Bøgevig, Jens Juul Holst, Filip Krag Knop, Mikkel Bring Christensen
Context: Glucagon's effects on hemodynamic parameters - most notably heart rate and cardiac contractility - are overlooked. The glucagon receptor is a central target in novel and anticipated type 2 diabetes therapies and hemodynamic consequences of glucagon signaling have therefore become increasingly important. In this review we summarize and evaluate published studies on glucagon pharmacology with focus on clinical hemodynamic effects in humans. Evidence acquisition: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were searched for clinical studies concerning hemodynamic effects of glucagon (no year restriction)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Scott Pardo, Rimma M Shaginian, David A Simmons
BACKGROUND: Diabetes treatment is intended to maintain near-normal glycemic levels. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) allows patients to track their BG levels compared with glycemic targets and is associated with improved health outcomes. Because of the importance of SMBG, it is essential that results are accurate to prevent errors in nutritional intake and drug dosing. This study presents a new methodology to evaluate the accuracy of BG monitoring systems (BGMSs). METHODS: Sensitivity analyses were performed using real and simulated BGMS data to compute probabilities that, for any BG value, the BGMS result would be within prescribed error bounds and confidence limits compared with laboratory reference values...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
L Tagliaferri, C Casà, G Macchia, A Pesce, G Garganese, B Gui, G Perotti, S Gentileschi, F Inzani, R Autorino, S Cammelli, A G Morganti, V Valentini, M A Gambacorta
OBJECTIVE/PURPOSE: Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm of the skin generally affecting the anogenital area. Because of the low-frequency of the disease, no specific guidelines about the treatment strategy are available. Surgery is the recommended therapy for resectable and localized disease, but several other local treatments have been reported such as radiotherapy (RT). Most articles report small retrospective studies, referring to patients treated decades ago with large heterogeneity in terms of RT dose and technique...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Alfredo Mirandola, Giuseppe Magro, Marco Lavagno, Andrea Mairani, Silvia Molinelli, Stefania Russo, Edoardo Mastella, Alessandro Vai, Davide Maestri, Vanessa La Rosa, Mario Ciocca
PURPOSE: To dosimetrically characterize a multi-layer ionization chamber (MLIC) prototype for quality assurance (QA) of pristine integral ionization curves (ICs) and spread-out-Bragg-peaks (SOBPs) for scanning light ion beams. METHODS: QUBE (De.Tec.Tor., Torino, Italy) is a modular detector designed for QA in particle therapy (PT). Its main module is a MLIC detector, able to evaluate particle beam relative depth ionization distributions at different beam energies and modulations...
March 14, 2018: Medical Physics
James R Kerns, David Followill, Jessica Lowenstein, Andrea Molineu, Paola Alvarez, Paige A Taylor, Stephen F Kry
PURPOSE: Reference dosimetry data can provide an independent second check of acquired values when commissioning or validating a treatment planning system (TPS). The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core at Houston (IROC-Houston) has measured numerous linear accelerators throughout its existence. The results of those measurements are given here, comparing accelerators and the agreement of measurement versus institutional TPS calculations. METHODS: Data from IROC-Houston on-site reviews from 2000 through 2014 were analyzed for all Elekta accelerators, approximately 50...
March 14, 2018: Medical Physics
L Alejo, E Corredoira, F Sánchez-Muñoz, C Huerga, Z Aza, R Plaza-Núñez, A Serrada, M Bret-Zurita, M Parrón, C Prieto-Areyano, G Garzón-Moll, R Madero, E Guibelalde
Objective: The new 2013/59 EURATOM Directive (ED) demands dosimetric optimisation procedures without undue delay. The aim of this study was to optimise paediatric conventional radiology exams applying the ED without compromising the clinical diagnosis. METHODS: Automatic dose management software (ADMS) was used to analyse 2678 studies of children from birth to 5 years of age, obtaining local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of entrance surface air kerma. Given local DRL for infants and chest exams exceeded the European Commission (EC) DRL, an optimisation was performed decreasing the kVp and applying the automatic control exposure...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
John W Hayes, Daniel Gomez-Cardona, Ran Zhang, Ke Li, Juan Pablo Cruz-Bastida, Guang-Hong Chen
PURPOSE: Low signal correction (LSC) in the raw counts domain has been shown to effectively reduce noise streaks in CT because the data inconsistency associated with photon-starved regions may be mitigated prior to the log transformation step. However, a systematic study of the performance of these raw data correction methods is still missing in literature. The purpose of this work was to provide such a systematic study for two well-known low signal correction schemes using either the adaptive trimmed mean (ATM) filter or the anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter in the raw counts domain...
March 12, 2018: Medical Physics
Ming Li, Yonglai Xue, Zhenjiang Liu, Jin Guo, Liyun Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Lu Gao, Lizhao Wang, Yin Cui, Daolin Du
Arabidopsis thaliana was selected as model organisms to investigate the toxic effect and mechanism of four kinds of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids (ILs) on plant seedling taproots. After exposure to ILs, the growth of seedling taproots was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. The toxicity of ILs on seedling taproots was [Bmim][BF4 ] > [Bmpy][BF4 ] > [Bmim][Br] > [Bmpy][Br]. The reduction of seedling root cell vitality, aggravation of seedling root cell death, and repression of gravitropic growth responses were observed...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ibrahim H Saleh, Aly A Abdel-Halim
Beryllium-7 is a radionuclide produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic-ray spallation with ions of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. It is one of radionuclides that can be used to trace the fine particulate matter of 2.5-µm diameter (PM2.5 ) and smaller. In this work,7 Be was determined in leaves of 10 plant species collected from streets, parks and open land and in 5 consecutive rains over Alexandria, Egypt.7 Be levels were also measured in soil covered by each type of plant as well as in the nearest uncovered soil to be reference values to determine its intercepted amount and consequently PM2...
March 12, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Olivier van Wulfften Palthe, Kyung-Wook Jee, Jos A M Bramer, Francis J Hornicek, Yen-Lin E Chen, Joseph H Schwab
BACKGROUND: Effects of high-dose radiation using protons and photons on bone are relatively unexplored, but high rates of insufficiency fractures are reported, and the causes of this are incompletely understood. Imaging studies with pre- and postradiation scans can help one understand the effect of radiation on bone. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high-dose radiation on the trabecular density of bone in the sacrum using CT-derived Hounsfield units (HU)...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Muzafar Khan, Gerd Heilemann, Peter Kuess, Dietmar Georg, Andreas Berg
Recent developments in radiation therapy aimed at more precise dose delivery along with higher dose gradients (dose painting) and more efficient dose delivery with higher dose rates e.g. flattening filter free (FFF) irradiation. Magnetic-resonance-imaging based polymer gel dosimetry offers 3D information for precise dose delivery techniques. Many of the proposed polymer gels have been reported to exhibit a dose response, measured as relaxation rate ΔR2(D) , which is dose rate dependent. A lack of or a reduced dose-rate sensitivity is very important for dosimetric accuracy, especially with regard to the increasing clinical use of FFF irradiation protocols with LINACs at high dose rates...
March 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Christian Dualé, Jean-Michel Cardot, Fabienne Joanny, Anna Trzeciakiewicz, Elodie Martin, Gisèle Pickering, Claude Dubray
While general recommendations are for 300-mg magnesium intake a day, an advanced low-dose formulation of magnesium chloride, ChronoMag®, was designed to provide 100 mg of magnesium element, thus decreasing the risk of gastrointestinal side effects and allowing long-term supplementation in health conditions related to low magnesium levels. The present study aimed to compare magnesium release profile and bioavailability between this patented low-dose continuous-release magnesium chloride tablet (100 mg magnesium element) and a reference tablet at the usually prescribed dose (300 mg magnesium element)...
March 9, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Yuko Hashimoto, Ko Matsudaira, Susumu S Sawada, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawakami, Robert A Sloan, Chihiro Kinugawa, Takashi Okamoto, Koji Tsukamoto, Motohiko Miyachi, Hisashi Naito
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the combination of physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) with low back pain (LBP) is unclear. The present study offers a cross-sectional assessment of how combinations of PA and BMI are related to LBP in Japanese men. METHODS: Participants were 4022 Japanese men (mean age = 47) who underwent regular clinical examinations. PA was measured using a uniaxial accelerometer and divided into tertiles (PAhigh , PAmiddle , PAlow )...
March 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
Rajesh Dabur, Amey Shirolkar, Vijender Mishra, Baljeet Singh Yadav
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption damages the intestine and liver cells directly as well as through unbalancing the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to correlate the alcohol consumption and change in urinary metabolites profile linked with gut microbiota. METHOD: Non-alcoholic (control) healthy (n=22) and moderate alcoholic (n=26) males with an average age of 39.3±1.83 years subjected to alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) were considered for study...
March 7, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
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