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Functional reconstruction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342238/rhythmic-spontaneous-activity-mediates-the-age-related-decline-in-somatosensory-function
#1
Rachel K Spooner, Alex I Wiesman, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
Sensory gating is a neurophysiological process whereby the response to a second stimulus in a pair of identical stimuli is attenuated, and it is thought to reflect the capacity of the CNS to preserve neural resources for behaviorally relevant stimuli. Such gating is observed across multiple sensory modalities and is modulated by age, but the mechanisms involved are not understood. In this study, we examined somatosensory gating in 68 healthy adults using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and advanced oscillatory and time-domain analysis methods...
January 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342233/quantumclone-clonal-assessment-of-functional-mutations-in-cancer-based-on-a-genotype-aware-method-for-clonal-reconstruction
#2
Paul Deveau, Leo Colmet Daage, Derek Oldridge, Virginie Bernard, Angela Bellini, Mathieu Chicard, Nathalie Clement, Eve Lapouble, Valerie Combaret, Anne Boland, Vincent Meyer, Jean-Francois Deleuze, Isabelle Janoueix-Lerosey, Emmanuel Barillot, Olivier Delattre, John Maris, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Valentina Boeva
Motivation: In cancer, clonal evolution is assessed based on information coming from single nucleotide variants and copy number alterations. Nonetheless, existing methods often fail to accurately combine information from both sources to truthfully reconstruct clonal populations in a given tumor sample or in a set of tumor samples coming from the same patient. Moreover, previously published methods detect clones from a single set of variants. As a result, compromises have to be done between stringent variant filtering (reducing dispersion in variant allele frequency estimates, VAFs) and using all biologically relevant variants...
January 12, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341249/reconstruction-of-an-upper-posterior-thigh-extensive-defect-with-a-free-split-anterolateral-thigh-s-alt-flap-by-perforator-to-perforator-anastomosis-a-case-report
#3
Mario F Scaglioni, Andrè A Barth, Pietro Giovanoli
The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is one of the most commonly used flap worldwide in reconstructive surgery, as both free flap and pedicled local flap. Here, we report the use of a free split anterolateral thigh (s-ALT) flap for reconstruction of a 14 cm × 16 cm soft tissue defect of the left upper posterior thigh region due to sarcoma resection in a patient. The ALT flap was harvested based on two musculocutaneous perforators from the right thigh and anastomosed to the contralateral descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA) in perforator-to-perforator manner, in order to gain more pedicle length and being able to cover the posterior thigh defect...
January 17, 2018: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340065/integrating-gene-and-lncrna-expression-to-infer-subpathway-activity-for-tumor-analyses
#4
Chunlong Zhang, Yanjun Xu, Haixiu Yang, Yingqi Xu, Qun Dong, Siyao Liu, Tan Wu, Yunpeng Zhang
LncRNAs acting as miRNA sponges to indirectly regulate mRNAs is a novel layer of gene regulation, therefore, it is necessary to integrate lncRNA and gene levels for interpreting tumor biological mechanism. In this study, we developed a lncRNA-gene integrated strategy to infer functional activities for tumor analyses at the subpathway level. In this strategy, we reconstructed subpathway graphs by embedding lncRNA components and considered the expression levels of both genes and lncRNAs to infer subpathway activities for each tumor sample...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339848/habitual-patellar-dislocation-in-children-results-of-surgical-treatment-by-modified-four-in-one-technique
#5
Ravi Mittal, Avtar Singh Balawat, Vikrant Manhas, Amit Roy, Navin Kumar Singh
Background: Habitual patellar dislocation is a rare condition affecting children. The growth plates are open in children and any surgical intervention should take that in to consideration. We are describing a modified four in one technique for habitual patellar dislocation, which is a soft tissue procedure without the use of any implant. Method: In this study we included 6 children (4 females and 2 males) with open growth plates, which were diagnosed with habitual patellar dislocation...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339717/complex-reconstruction-with-flaps-after-abdominoperineal-resection-and-groin-dissection-for-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-difficult-case-involving-many-specialities
#6
Claudia Reali, Richard Guy, Christopher R Darby, Lucy Cogswell, Roel Hompes
BACKGROUND Anal squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 2-4% of all lower gastrointestinal malignancies, with a distant disease reported in less than 5%. Although surgical treatment is rarely necessary, this often involve large dissections and difficult reconstructive procedures. CASE REPORT We present a complex but successful case of double-flap reconstruction after abdominoperineal resection and groin dissection for anal squamous cell carcinoma (cT3N3M0) with metastatic right inguinal lymph nodes and ipsilateral threatening of femoral vessels...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339575/dynamic-pet-image-reconstruction-integrating-temporal-regularization-associated-with-respiratory-motion-correction-for-applications-in-oncology
#7
Thibaut Merlin, Dimitris Visvikis, Philippe Fernandez, Frederic Lamare
Respiratory motion reduces both the qualitative and quantitative accuracy of PET images in oncology. This impact is more significant for quantitative applications based on kinetic modeling, where dynamic acquisitions are associated with limited statistics due to the necessity of enhanced temporal resolution. The aim of this study is to address these drawbacks by combining within a unique reconstruction algorithm in dynamic PET imaging, a respiratory motion correction approach, as well as a temporal regularization...
January 17, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339287/scalable-fabrication-of-sulfated-silk-fibroin-nanofibrous-membranes-for-efficient-lipase-adsorption-and-recovery
#8
Shixiong Yi, Fangyin Dai, Yuehan Wu, Cunyi Zhao, Yang Si, Gang Sun
Fabricating adsorptive materials for fast and high efficient adsorption of enzymes is critical to match the great demands for separation and recovery of enzymes used as biocatalysts. However, it has proven extremely challenging. Here, we report a cost-effective strategy to construct the sulfated group surface-functionalized silk fibroin nanofibrous membranes (SS-SFNM) under mild conditions for positively charged Candida rugosa lipase adsorption. The naturally abundant silk is thus reconstructed into nanofibrous membranes with tunable surface functions...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339213/nrp-2-in-tumor-lymphangiogenesis-and-lymphatic-metastasis
#9
Jingwen Wang, Yuhong Huang, Jun Zhang, Boyi Xing, Wei Xuan, Honghai Wang, He Huang, Jiayu Yang, Jianwu Tang
Neuropilin-2 (NRP-2) not only functions as a receptor for semaphorins, a family of neural axon guidance factors, but also interacts with VEGFs, a family of vascular endothelial growth factors. As an independent receptor or a co-receptor, NRP-2 binds to ligands VEGF-C/D, activates the VEGF-C/D-NRP-2 signaling axis, and further regulates lymphangiogenesis-associated factors in both lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and some tumor cells during tumor progression. Via VEGF-C/D-NRP-2 axis, NRP-2 induces LEC proliferation, reconstruction and lymphangiogenesis and subsequently promotes tumor cell migration, invasion and lymphatic metastasis...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338941/epiglottoplasty-technique-in-endoscopic-partial-laryngectomy
#10
M Moulin, C A Righini, P F Castellanos, I Atallah
The main advantage of endoscopic laser surgery for laryngeal cancer is to allow tumour resection, while limiting functional sequelae, thereby improving the postoperative course. In this type of surgery, the epiglottis is often partially resected, leaving a raw zone without any reconstruction. The surgical technique described here involves endoscopic reconstruction of the epiglottis after partial resection. The sectioned edge of the epiglottis is sutured to the base of the tongue to create a neoepiglottis and to reconstruct the vallecula, thus resembling preoperative anatomy, allowing improvement of postoperative swallowing...
January 12, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338834/advances-in-tissue-engineered-oral-mucosa
#11
Fan Hao Meng, Xiao Lin Shao, Yu Song, Tao Zhang
The large defect of oral and maxillofacial region doesn't only affect the function and aesthetics but also has an adverse impact on patients' psychology. The traditional way to restore the defects are limited by donor site and secondary trauma. In recent years,the oral mucosal tissue engineering has developed rapidly and provides a new solution for craniofacial reconstruction. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa is an ideal substitute of oral mucosa. It can be used in clinical settings and in vitro experiments. This articles review the recent advances in tissue-engineered oral mucosa and its applications...
December 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338761/is-total-femoral-replacement-for-non-oncologic-and-oncologic-indications-a-safe-procedure-in-limb-preservation-surgery-a-single-center-experience-of-22-cases
#12
Andreas Toepfer, Norbert Harrasser, Isabel Petzschner, Florian Pohlig, Ulrich Lenze, Ludger Gerdesmeyer, Ruediger von Eisenhart-Rothe, Heinrich Mühlhofer, Christian Suren
BACKGROUND: Several surgical options for the reconstruction of massive bone defects have been described and include biologic methods with autografts and allografts, and the use of tumor endoprostheses (total femoral replacement, TFR). Several types of modular TFR are available, but nevertheless unpredictable outcomes and high complication rates have been described from most authors. The present study aims to compare results after TFR performed with modular total femur prosthesis MML (Fa...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337596/the-influence-of-graft-fixation-methods-on-revision-rates-after-primary-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#13
Niclas H Eysturoy, Kåre Amtoft Nissen, Torsten Nielsen, Martin Lind
BACKGROUND: The method of graft fixation in primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is important for initial stability of the graft. Poor graft fixation can result in failure of the reconstruction. The effect of ACL graft fixation principles and fixation implant combinations on the risk of revision after ACL reconstruction is not well understood. PURPOSE: The study aimed to compare the risk of revision among 4 categories of femoral fixation divided by their principle of function using a hamstring tendon (HT) graft only...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337028/bipolar-pedicled-teres-major-transfer-for-irreparable-subscapularis-tendon-tears-an-anatomic-feasibility-study
#14
Thibault Lafosse, Malo Le Hanneur, Julia Lee, Bassem Elhassan
BACKGROUND: Subscapularis (SSC) tendon tears are a challenging problem because they can significantly alter shoulder mechanics and function. Tendon retraction and advanced fatty degeneration associated with a chronic tear may make it irreparable. Tendon transfers options for such tears are viable, but results in the setting of associated glenohumeral instability are inconsistent. With the potential to recreate the SSC line of pull, the teres major (TM) may be a viable option for transfer...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336922/segmentation-free-direct-tumor-volume-and-metabolic-activity-estimation-from-pet-scans
#15
Saeid Asgari Taghanaki, Noirin Duggan, Hillgan Ma, Xinchi Hou, Anna Celler, Francois Benard, Ghassan Hamarneh
Tumor volume and metabolic activity are two robust imaging biomarkers for predicting early therapy response in F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), which is a modality to image the distribution of radiotracers and thereby observe functional processes in the body. To date, estimation of these two biomarkers requires a lesion segmentation step. While the segmentation methods requiring extensive user interaction have obvious limitations in terms of time and reproducibility, automatically estimating activity from segmentation, which involves integrating intensity values over the volume is also suboptimal, since PET is an inherently noisy modality...
December 27, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336836/current-status-of-tissue-engineering-applied-to-bladder-reconstruction-in-humans
#16
C Gasanz, C Raventós, J Morote
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bladder reconstruction is performed to replace or expand the bladder. The intestine is used in standard clinical practice for tissue in this procedure. The complications of bladder reconstruction range from those of intestinal resection to those resulting from the continuous contact of urine with tissue not prepared for this contact. In this article, we describe and classify the various biomaterials and cell cultures used in bladder tissue engineering and reviews the studies performed with humans...
January 11, 2018: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336767/surgery-for-acromioclavicular-dislocation-factors-affecting-functional-recovery
#17
Jun Zhang, Zhengran Ying, You Wang
The objective of the study is to compare the clinical outcomes of two different interventions for Rockwood type III (or above) acromioclavicular dislocation and study the factors influencing postoperative functional recovery. A total of 60 patients with Rockwood type III (or above) acromioclavicular dislocation were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups based on the surgical intervention: Clavicular Hook Plate Fixation (Group A) and EndoButton technique of Coracoclavicular Ligament Reconstruction (Group B)...
December 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335555/metatranscriptome-of-human-faecal-microbial-communities-in-a-cohort-of-adult-men
#18
Galeb S Abu-Ali, Raaj S Mehta, Jason Lloyd-Price, Himel Mallick, Tobyn Branck, Kerry L Ivey, David A Drew, Casey DuLong, Eric Rimm, Jacques Izard, Andrew T Chan, Curtis Huttenhower
The gut microbiome is intimately related to human health, but it is not yet known which functional activities are driven by specific microorganisms' ecological configurations or transcription. We report a large-scale investigation of 372 human faecal metatranscriptomes and 929 metagenomes from a subset of 308 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We identified a metatranscriptomic 'core' universally transcribed over time and across participants, often by different microorganisms. In contrast to the housekeeping functions enriched in this core, a 'variable' metatranscriptome included specialized pathways that were differentially expressed both across participants and among microorganisms...
January 15, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335417/europe-s-lost-forests-a-pollen-based-synthesis-for-the-last-11-000-years
#19
N Roberts, R M Fyfe, J Woodbridge, M-J Gaillard, B A S Davis, J O Kaplan, L Marquer, F Mazier, A B Nielsen, S Sugita, A-K Trondman, M Leydet
8000 years ago, prior to Neolithic agriculture, Europe was mostly a wooded continent. Since then, its forest cover has been progressively fragmented, so that today it covers less than half of Europe's land area, in many cases having been cleared to make way for fields and pasture-land. Establishing the origin of Europe's current, more open land-cover mosaic requires a long-term perspective, for which pollen analysis offers a key tool. In this study we utilise and compare three numerical approaches to transforming pollen data into past forest cover, drawing on >1000 14C-dated site records...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335032/-sit-and-tilt-preparation-for-subscapular-system-free-flaps
#20
J Mark, H Patwa, M S Costello, Y Patil
BACKGROUND: The ablation of advanced head and neck cancer often results in large three-dimensional defects that require free tissue transfer to optimally address functional and cosmetic issues. The subscapular system is a highly versatile donor site for flaps used for head and neck reconstruction. Traditional methods of harvesting subscapular flaps require repositioning and re-preparing, which significantly increases the operative time and prevents simultaneous harvesting of the flap...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
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