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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330667/diversity-and-phenology-of-wild-bees-in-a-highly-disturbed-tropical-dry-forest-desierto-de-la-tatacoa-huila-colombia
#1
C A Poveda-Coronel, D Riaño-Jiménez, J R Cure
Colombian tropical dry forest is considered the most endangered tropical biome due to anthropic activities. Desierto de la Tatacoa (DsT) is an example of high disturbed tropical dry forest which still maintains a high biodiversity. The objective of the study was to record the diversity and phenology of wild bees in this place by monthly sampling between December 2014 and December 2016 in a 9-km2 area. During the study, there was a prolonged El Niño-Southern Oscillation period. Bees were collected by entomological nets, malaise traps, eugenol scent trapping, and nest traps...
January 12, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322864/effects-of-danshen-tablets-on-pharmacokinetics-of-atorvastatin-calcium-in-rats-and-its-potential-mechanism
#2
Sen Sun, Rong Wang, Jie Fan, Guoqing Zhang, Hai Zhang
CONTEXT: Danshen tablets (DST), an effective traditional Chinese multi-herbal formula, are often combined with atorvastatin calcium (AC) for treating coronary heart disease in the clinic. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of DST on the pharmacokinetics of AC and the potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pharmacokinetics of AC (1 mg/kg) with or without pretreatment of DST (100 mg/kg) were investigated using LC-MS/MS...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305543/genotyping-multi-drug-resistant-m-tuberculosis-from-primary-sputum-and-decontaminated-sediment-with-an-integrated-microfluidic-amplification-microarray
#3
Yvonne Linger, Christopher Knickerbocker, David Sipes, Julia Golova, Molly Franke, Roger Calderon, Leonid Lecca, Nitu Thakore, Rebecca Holmberg, Peter Qu, Alexander Kukhtin, Megan B Murray, Christopher G Cooney, Darrell P Chandler
There is a growing awareness that molecular diagnostics for detect-to-treat applications will soon need a highly multiplexed mutation detection and identification capability. In this study, we converted an open-amplicon MDR-TB microarray hybridization test into an entirely closed-amplicon consumable (an amplification microarray) and evaluated its performance on matched sputum and sediment extracts. Reproducible genotyping (LoD) was achieved with ∼25 MTB genomes (100 fg of MTB DNA) per reaction; the estimated shelf life of the test was least 18 months when stored at 4°C...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297426/risk-factors-for-extensive-drug-resistance-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-cases-a-case-case-study
#4
L Guglielmetti, N Veziris, A Aubry, F Brossier, C Bernard, W Sougakoff, V Jarlier, J Robert
SETTINGS: Identification of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) may be delayed because of the lack of availability of molecular testing for second-line drugs (SLDs). Early suspicion of XDR-TB is therefore necessary to avoid developing further drug resistance. OBJECTIVE: To identify the characteristics associated with XDR-TB among multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases before the availability of second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST) results. METHODS: All MDR-TB cases with available second-line DST results recorded in France from 1998 to 2013 were classified as simple MDR-TB (no resistance to fluoroquinolones [FQs] or second-line injectable drugs [SLIDs]), pre-XDR-TB (resistance to FQs or SLIDs) and XDR-TB cases (resistance to both)...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297425/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-myanmar-burden-and-mutations-causing-second-line-drug-resistance
#5
P W Ei, W W Aung, W W Nyunt, T L Swe, M M Htwe, S M Win, S T Aung, C L Chang, H-Y Lee, J S Lee
SETTING: Two tuberculosis (TB) reference laboratories in Myanmar. OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) cases among multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases and the mutations that cause resistance to second-line drugs in Myanmar. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected during 2015-2016. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed and drug-resistant mutations identified by sequencing...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288564/luteinizing-hormone-and-insulin-resistance-in-menopausal-patients-with-adrenal-incidentalomas-the-cause-effect-relationship
#6
Ljiljana V Marina, Miomira Ivović, Milina Tančić-Gajić, Zorana Arizanović, Dragana Raković, Jelena Milin-Lazović, Aleksandra Kendereški, Dragan Micić, Svetlana Vujović
OBJECTIVE: A high prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) has proven to manifest in patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI). It has been demonstrated that an increase in IR is related to the size of tumourous masses; additionally, luteinizing hormone (LH) dependent adrenal pathologies are well documented in patients with LH responsive adrenal tumours occurring under conditions of physiologically elevated LH. We hypothesized that an association between LH and insulin might play a role in adrenal tumourigenesis and steroidogenesis...
December 30, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285367/clinical-study-on-collagen-gel-droplet-embedded-culture-drug-sensitivity-test-for-multidrug-combination-chemotherapy-and-super-selective-intra-arterial-infusion-chemoradiotherapy-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#7
Kaname Sakuma, Ryuki Tamura, Shintaro Hanyu, Haruka Takahashi, Hideaki Sato, Takahiro Oneyama, Akira Yamaguchi, Akira Tanaka
Using trace three-dimensional culture, the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) can be tested even in cases with a small number of cells, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and evaluation of the antitumor effect with a drug concentration close to the in vivo level is possible. The present report aimed to evaluate the utility of the CD-DST in the assessment of the in vitro efficacy of single-agent and multidrug combination chemotherapy for OSCC in comparison with the clinical response rates and to examine the possible clinical application of CD-DST for such cases...
December 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283286/missed-medical-appointments-during-shifts-to-and-from-daylight-saving-time
#8
David A Ellis, Kirk Luther, Rob Jenkins
Transitions into and out of Daylight Saving Time (DST) can provide insights into how a minor change to a regular sleep-wake cycle can inadvertently affect health. We examined the relationship between DST and missed medical appointments. Using a large dataset, the proportion of missed appointments were examined prior and post spring and autumn clock changes. As predicted, the number of missed medical appointments significantly increased following the spring (forward) clock change and the week of the clock change...
December 28, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282012/comparison-of-line-probe-assay-to-bactec-mgit-960-system-for-susceptibility-testing-of-first-and-second-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-in-a-referral-laboratory-in-south-africa
#9
Nontuthuko E Maningi, Lesibana A Malinga, John F Antiabong, Ruth M Lekalakala, Nontombi M Mbelle
BACKGROUND: The incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is increasing and the emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a major challenge. Controlling resistance, reducing transmission and improving treatment outcomes in MDR/XDR-TB patients is reliant on susceptibility testing. Susceptibility testing using phenotypic methods is labour intensive and time-consuming. Alternative methods, such as molecular assays are easier to perform and have a rapid turn-around time...
December 28, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242075/molecular-drug-resistance-profiles-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-sputum-specimens-using-ion-semiconductor-sequencing
#10
Joonhong Park, Woori Jang, Myungshin Kim, Yonggoo Kim, So Youn Shin, Kuhn Park, Myung Sook Kim, Soyoung Shin
The increasing burden of multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB, defined by resistance to rifampin (RFP) and isoniazid (INH), and extensively drug resistant-TB, defined by MDR-TB with additional resistance to fluoroquinolones (FQs) and more than one second-line injectable drug, is a serious impediment to global TB control. We evaluated the feasibility of full-length gene analysis including inhA, katG, rpoB, pncA, rpsL embB, eis, and gyrA using a semiconductor NGS with the Ion AmpliSeq TB panel to directly analyse 34 sputum specimens confirmed by phenotypic DST: INH, RFP, ethambutol (EMB), pyrazinamide (PZA), amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin (SM), FQs including ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223028/accident-rates-and-the-impact-of-daylight-saving-time-transitions
#11
David Robb, Thomas Barnes
One-third of nations have adopted some form of Daylight Saving Time (DST). Associated costs and benefits include impacts on accident rates. Using data from 12.6 million accident claims in New Zealand during 2005-2016, we model accident rates as a function of various date-based predictors including days before/after the start and end of DST, holidays, day of week, and month of year. This is the first study to consider multiple accident categories (Road, Work, Falls and Home & Community), and the first in the southern hemisphere...
December 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217277/absence-of-hybridization-with-the-wild-type-and-mutant-rpob-probes-in-the-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-detects-disputed-rifampicin-mutations
#12
Ngu Njei Abanda, Josiane Yvonne Djieugoué, Vedbar S Khadka, Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Guy Vernet, Veronique Mbeng Penlap, Youping Deng, Sara Irene Eyangoh, Diane Wallace Taylor, Rose Gana Fomban Leke
OBJECTIVE: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates that fail to hybridize to at least one rpoB wildtype or any mutation probe on the Genotype MTBDRplus strip are assumed Rifampicin-resistant. However, the precise mutation(s) are unknown. We sought to identify the mutations in isolates with such hybridization patterns and determine if the mutations are associated with resistance to Rifampicin. METHODS: In this study, 275 M. tuberculosis isolates were screened with the Genotype MTBDRplus assay to identify isolates with the hybridization pattern...
December 4, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206569/application-of-miniature-heart-rate-data-loggers-for-use-in-large-free-moving-decapod-crustaceans-method-development-and-validation
#13
Iain J McGaw, S Clay Steell, Travis E Van Leeuwen, Erika J Eliason, Steven J Cooke
Cardiovascular responses of decapod crustaceans to environmental challenges have received extensive attention. However, nearly all of these studies have been restricted to lab-based experiments; here we describe a methodology that will enable measurement of heart rate (HR) in free-moving decapods in the field. Data storage tag heart rate and temperature loggers (DST micro-HRT; Star-Oddi) were used to record electrocardiograms (ECG) and HR in large decapod crustaceans. These loggers were originally designed for use in vertebrates and must be surgically implanted in the body cavity near the heart in order to function...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197331/genotyping-and-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterial-isolates-from-population-based-tuberculosis-prevalence-survey-in-ghana
#14
Kennedy Kwasi Addo, Samuel Ofori Addo, Gloria Ivy Mensah, Lydia Mosi, Frank Adae Bonsu
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM) infections differ clinically, making rapid identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) very critical for infection control and drug therapy. This study aims to use World Health Organization (WHO) approved line probe assay (LPA) to differentiate mycobacterial isolates obtained from tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey in Ghana and to determine their drug resistance patterns. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted whereby a total of 361 mycobacterial isolates were differentiated and their drug resistance patterns determined using GenoType Mycobacterium Assays: MTBC and CM/AS for differentiating MTBC and NTM as well MTBDRplus and NTM-DR for DST of MTBC and NTM respectively...
December 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182223/tuberculosis-in-poland-in-2015
#15
Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2015 in Poland and to compare with the data on the same phenomena in the EU/EEA countries. METHODS: Analysis of case – based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2015, data from National Institute of Public Health- National Institute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office on deaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176595/the-presence-of-nonfunctioning-adrenal-incidentalomas-increases-arterial-hypertension-frequency-and-severity-and-is-associated-with-cortisol-levels-after-dexamethasone-suppression-test
#16
Mariana Arruda, Emanuela Mello Ribeiro Cavalari, Marcela Pessoa de Paula, Felipe Fernandes Cordeiro de Morais, Guilherme Furtado Bilro, Maria Caroline Alves Coelho, Nathalie Anne de Oliveira E Silva de Morais, Diana Choeri, Aline Moraes, Leonardo Vieira Neto
There are limited data regarding the frequency of hypertension in nonfunctioning adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI). Our objectives were to investigate rates of hypertension and resistant hypertension in NFAI patients, and compare them to a control group without adrenal adenoma. We also aimed to evaluate the relationship between cortisol levels after 1 mg-dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and hypertension in NFAI patients. We selected 40 patients with NFAI and 40 control patients over the age of 18 without adrenal lesions on abdominal imaging...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175379/ex-vivo-sensitivity-profiling-to-guide-clinical-decision-making-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-pilot-study
#17
Ronan T Swords, Diana Azzam, Hassan Al-Ali, Ines Lohse, Claude-Henry Volmar, Justin M Watts, Aymee Perez, Ana Rodriguez, Fernando Vargas, Roy Elias, Francisco Vega, Arthur Zelent, Shaun P Brothers, Taher Abbasi, Jonathan Trent, Shaukat Rangwala, Yehuda Deutsch, Eibhlin Conneally, Leylah Drusbosky, Christopher R Cogle, Claes Wahlestedt
A precision medicine approach is appealing for use in AML due to ease of access to tumor samples and the significant variability in the patients' response to treatment. Attempts to establish a precision medicine platform for AML, however, have been unsuccessful, at least in part due to the use of small compound panels and having relatively slow turn over rates, which restricts the scope of treatment and delays its onset. For this pilot study, we evaluated a cohort of 12 patients with refractory AML using an ex vivo drug sensitivity testing (DST) platform...
January 2018: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173450/outcomes-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-discordant-phenotypic-isoniazid-resistance-testing
#18
Sukyeon Kim, Hyun Lee, Hye Yun Park, Kyeongman Jeon, Hee Jae Huh, Nam Yong Lee, Byeong-Ho Jeong
INTRODUCTION: The discrepancy rates of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results between solid and liquid media have been reported to range from 2.4 to 7.4% for isoniazid. Most isolate with isoniazid DST discrepancies between solid and liquid media test as susceptible on solid medium and resistant in liquid medium, however, the optimal management of patients with discordant testing is unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of treatment regimen on treatment outcomes when patients with rifampicin-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis have isoniazid resistance (INH-R) in liquid medium but isoniazid susceptibility (INH-S) on solid medium...
December 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169127/a-decision-support-tool-for-selecting-the-optimal-sewage-sludge-treatment
#19
Ville Turunen, Jaana Sorvari, Anna Mikola
Sewage sludge contains significant amounts of resources, such as nutrients and organic matter. At the same time, the organic contaminants (OC) found in sewage sludge are of growing concern. Consequently, in many European countries incineration is currently favored over recycling in agriculture. This study presents a Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT)-based decision support tool (DST) for facilitating sludge treatment decisions. Essential decision criteria were recognized and prioritized, i.e., weighted, by experts from water utilities...
November 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167290/evaluation-of-whole-genome-sequencing-for-mycobacterial-species-identification-and-drug-susceptibility-testing-in-a-clinical-setting-a-large-scale-prospective-assessment-of-performance-against-line-probe-assays-and-phenotyping
#20
T Phuong Quan, Zharain Bawa, Dona Foster, Tim Walker, Carlos Del Ojo Elias, Priti Rathod, Zamin Iqbal, Phelim Bradley, Janet Mowbray, A Sarah Walker, Derrick W Crook, David H Wyllie, Timothy E A Peto, E Grace Smith
Use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for routine Mycobacterial species identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) is becoming a reality. We compared performance of WGS and standard laboratory workflows prospectively, by parallel processing at a major Mycobacterial Reference Service over one year, for species identification, first-line Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) resistance prediction, and turnaround time. Of 2039 isolates with line-probe results for species identification, 74 (3.6%) failed sequencing or WGS species identification...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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