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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138284/rapid-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-detection-of-drug-resistance-by-combined-simultaneous-amplification-testing-and-reverse-dot-blot
#1
Yiwen Chen, Lahong Zhang, Liquan Hong, Xian Luo, Juping Chen, Leiming Tang, Jiahuan Chen, Xia Liu, Zhaojun Chen
AIMS: Making a correct and rapid diagnosis is essential for managing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), particularly multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of simultaneous amplification testing (SAT) and reverse dot blot (RDB) for the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and drug-resistant mutants in respiratory samples. METHODS: 225 suspected PTB and 32 non-TB pulmonary disease samples were collected. All sputum samples were sent for acid-fast bacilli smear, SAT, culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) by the BACTEC(TM) MGIT(TM) 960 system...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137626/treatment-outcomes-of-mdr-tuberculosis-patients-in-brazil-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#2
Mayara Lisboa Bastos, Lorrayne Beliqui Cosme, Geisa Fregona, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Adelmo Inácio Bertolde, Eliana Zandonade, Mauro N Sanchez, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo, Afrânio Kritski, Anete Trajman, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat for the global TB epidemic control. Despite existing evidence that individualized treatment of MDR-TB is superior to standardized regimens, the latter are recommended in Brazil, mainly because drug-susceptibility tests (DST) are often restricted to first-line drugs in public laboratories. We compared treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients using standardized versus individualized regimens in Brazil, a high TB-burden, low resistance setting...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136186/clonal-spread-and-azole-resistant-mechanisms-of-non-susceptible-candida-albicans-isolates-from-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-patients-in-three-shanghai-maternity-hospitals
#3
YongQin Wu, Cui Li, ZhiHeng Wang, Jing Gao, ZhenHua Tang, HuiFen Chen, ChunMei Ying
In our multicenter study, 43 fluconazole non-susceptible and 45 fluconazole-susceptible isolates were collected from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) patients from three Shanghai maternity hospitals to analyze their molecular epidemiological features and fluconazole resistant mechanisms. Cross-resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole was observed in 53.5% of the nonsusceptible isolates. Though we acquired 12 clonal complexes (CCs) of diploid sequence types (DSTs) in clinical isolates by a multilocus sequence typing method, fluconazole nonsusceptible isolates all belonged to CC69 with a predominant genotype of DST 79...
November 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133554/what-is-resistance-impact-of-phenotypic-versus-molecular-drug-resistance-testing-on-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-therapy
#4
Jan Heyckendorf, Sönke Andres, Claudio U Köser, Ioana D Olaru, Thomas Schön, Erik Sturegård, Patrick Beckert, Viola Schleusener, Thomas A Kohl, Doris Hillemann, Danesh Moradigaravand, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock, Stefan Niemann, Christoph Lange, Matthias Merker
Rapid and accurate drug-susceptibility testing (DST) is essential for the treatment of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB). We compared the utility of genotypic DST assays with phenotypic DST (pDST) using BACTEC 960 MGIT or Löwenstein-Jensen to construct M/XDR-TB treatment regimens for a cohort of 25 consecutive M/XDR-TB patients and 15 possible anti-TB drugs.Genotypic DST results from Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) and line probe assays (LPAs: Hain GenoType MTBDRplus 2.0 and MTBDRsl 2...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131662/isoniazid-monoresistance-and-rate-of-culture-conversion-among-confirmed-tuberculosis-patients-in-the-state-of-georgia-2009-2014
#5
Argita D Salindri, Rose-Marie F Sales, Lauren DiMiceli, Marcos C Schechter, Russell R Kempker, Matthew J Magee
RATIONALE: Isoniazid-monoresistant tuberculosis (INH-monoresistant TB) is the most common drug-resistant TB type in the US; however, its impact on TB treatment outcomes is not clear. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to understand: 1) factors associated with INH-monoresistant TB and 2) the association between INH-monoresistance and response to TB treatment. METHODS: We studied all patients with TB aged ≥15 years reported to the Georgia State Electronic Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (SENDSS) from 2009-2014...
November 13, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129484/detection-of-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-and-injectable-drugs-among-antituberculosis-drugs-by-allele-specific-primer-extension-on-a-microsphere-based-platform
#6
Kyungjong Kim, Jeong Seong Yang, Hee Baeg Choi, Seung Heon Lee
Molecular drug susceptibility testing (DST) for antituberculosis drugs is important for improving the efficacy of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) treatment. In this study, we developed a molecular high-throughput assay system based on allele-specific primer extension (ASPE) and MagPlex-TAG microspheres, referred to here as TAG-ASPE, which can detect mutations related to resistance to injectable second-line drugs and fluoroquinolones. Target genes were amplified by multiplex PCR using DNA from H37Rv and 190 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and extended by ASPE using 22 ASPE primers...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126225/bedaquiline-resistance-its-emergence-mechanism-and-prevention
#7
Thi Van Anh Nguyen, Richard M Anthony, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Dinh Hoa Vu, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar
Bedaquiline, a new anti-tuberculosis drug, has already been used in more than 50 countries. The emergence of bedaquiline resistance is alarming, as it may result in the rapid loss of this new drug. This paper aims to review currently identified mechanisms of resistance, the emergence of bedaquiline resistance, and discuss strategies to delay the resistance acquisition. In vitro and clinical studies as well as reports from the compassionate use have identified the threat of bedaquiline resistance and cross-resistance with clofazimine, emphasizing the crucial need for the systematic surveillance of resistance...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123441/evaluation-of-the-bactec-mgit-960-sl-dst-kit-and-the-genotype-mtbdrsl-test-for-detecting-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-cases
#8
Kemal Tekin, Ali Albay, Hulya Simsek, Ali Korhan Sig, Mustafa Guney
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Materials and Methods: Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test...
October 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118425/the-study-on-the-association-between-beijing-genotype-family-and-drug-susceptibility-phenotypes-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-beijing
#9
Yi Liu, Xiaoying Jiang, Wensheng Li, Xuxia Zhang, Wei Wang, Chuanyou Li
The predominant prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) lineage was the Beijing genotype family in Beijing. There has been no systematic study on the association between drug resistance and Beijing genotype. Here we collected 268 M. tb strains, analyzed the background information and the bacteriological characteristics. The mean age of the cases was 40.12 years; male patients were almost three times than female patients. After genotyping analyzation, 81.7% (219/268) strains were categorized as Beijing genotype; no significant difference was observed between Beijing and non-Beijing genotype in gender, age and treatment history...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117859/a-novel-chemotherapeutic-sensitivity-testing-system-based-on-collagen-gel-droplet-embedded-3d-culture-methods-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Jun Hou, Zhixian Hong, Fan Feng, Yantao Chai, Yunkai Zhang, Qiyu Jiang, Yan Hu, Shunquan Wu, Yingsong Wu, Xunian Gao, Qiong Chen, Yong Wan, Jingfeng Bi, Zheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) often exhibit a poor prognosis or dismal clinical outcomes due to ineffective chemotherapy or a multi-drug resistance (MDR) process. Thus, it is urgent to develop a new chemotherapeutic sensitivity testing system for HCC treatment. The presence study investigated the potential application of a novel chemotherapeutic sensitivity-testing system based on a collagen gel droplet embedded 3D-culture system (CD-DST)...
November 8, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116638/evolution-of-phenotypic-and-molecular-drug-susceptibility-testing
#11
Daniela M Cirillo, Paolo Miotto, Enrico Tortoli
Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (DRTB) is an emerging problem world-wide. In order to control the disease and decrease the number of cases overtime a prompt diagnosis followed by an appropriate treatment should be provided to patients. Phenotypic DST based on liquid automated culture has greatly reduced the time needed to generate reliable data but has the drawback to be expensive and prone to contamination in the absence of appropriate infrastructures. In the past 10 years molecular biology tools have been developed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113244/impact-of-the-individualization-of-the-first-line-chemotherapy-for-advanced-colorectal-cancer-based-on-collagen-gel-droplet-embedded-drug-sensitivity-test
#12
Takumi Ochiai, Kazuhiko Nishimura, Tomoo Watanabe, Masayuki Kitajima, Akinori Nakatani, Kiichi Nagayasu, Shigetoshi Naito, Tsuyoshi Sato, Kenji Kishine, Yu Abe, Chihiro Hara, Susumu Yamada, Satomi Mashiko, Isao Nagaoka
Leucovorin (FOL) and fluorouracil (5-FU) plus oxaliplatin (l-OHP; FOLFOX) or FOL and 5-FU plus irinotecan (SN-38; FOLFIRI) are widely used as first-line chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, second-line chemotherapy must be abandoned in certain cases due to disease progression, adverse effects or high medical cost. Therefore, the most effective regimen should be selected as first-line chemotherapy. We reported that individualization of first-line treatment (FOLFOX/FOLFIRI/Dual/Poor responder) was possible using the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) and that individualized first-line chemotherapy with CD-DST may improve the prognosis of patients with unresectable CRC...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110862/low-pre-diagnosis-attrition-but-high-pre-treatment-attrition-among-patients-with-mdr-tb-an-operational-research-from-chennai-india
#13
Hemant Deepak Shewade, Dina Nair, Joel S Klinton, Malik Parmar, J Lavanya, Lakshmi Murali, Vivek Gupta, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Soumya Swaminathan, Ajay M V Kumar
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there's concern over high pre-diagnosis and pre-treatment attritions or delays in Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) diagnosis and treatment pathway (DTP). We conducted this operational research among patients with presumptive MDR-TB in north and central Chennai, India to determine attrition and turnaround times (TAT) at various steps of DTP and factors associated with attrition. METHODS: Study was conducted in Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme setting...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104778/change-in-the-content-of-immunoproteasomes-and-macrophages-in-rat-liver-at-the-induction-of-donor-specific-tolerance
#14
Ya D Karpova, V D Ustichenko, N M Alabedal'karim, A A Stepanova, Yu V Lyupina, K I Boguslavski, G A Bozhok, N P Sharova
Induction of donor specific tolerance (DST) by the introduction of donor cells into a recipient's portal vein is one of the approaches used to solve the problem of transplant engraftment. However, the mechanism of DST development remains unclear to this moment. In the present work, we first studied the change in the content of immunoproteasomes and macrophages of the liver at early stages of the development of allospecific portal tolerance in rats by Western blotting and flow cytofluorimetry. On the basis of the data obtained, we can conclude that the induction of DST is an active process characterized by two phases during which the level of the proteasome immune subunits LMP2 and LMP7 in liver mononuclear cells, including Kupffer cells, and the number of Kupffer cells change...
July 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103551/decision-support-tools-in-low-back-pain
#15
REVIEW
Veerle M H Coupé, Miranda L van Hooff, Marinus de Kleuver, Ewout W Steyerberg, Raymond W J G Ostelo
Information from individual classification systems or clinical prediction rules that aim to facilitate stratified care in low back pain is important but often not comprehensive enough to be used to support clinical decision-making. The development and implementation of a clinically useful decision support tool (DST) that considering all key features is a challenging enterprise, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Key features are inclusion of all relevant treatment options, patient characteristics, and benefits and harms and presentation as an accessible and easy to use toolkit...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102838/correlations-between-working-memory-impairment-and-neurometabolites-of-prefrontal-cortex-and-lenticular-nucleus-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Yanyan Shan, Yanbin Jia, Shuming Zhong, Xueguo Li, Hui Zhao, Junhao Chen, Qianyi Lu, Lu Zhang, Zhinan Li, Shunkai Lai, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of working memory (WM) impairment in MDD remains unclear. We aimed to find out the mechanism by using neuropsychological tests and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). METHODS: 31 MDD patients and 31 healthy controls were recruited in our study. The WM performance and neurometabolite ratios of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and lenticular nucleus (LN) between two groups were evaluated and compared. And the correlations between abnormal neurometabolite ratios and WM dysfunction were computed...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097814/multi-sensory-integration-impairment-in-patients-with-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#17
Kyoungwon Seo, Dae Won Jun, Jae-Kwan Kim, Hokyoung Ryu
Paper-and-pencil-based psychometric tests are the gold standard for diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in liver disease. However, they take time, can be affected by demographic factors, and lack ecological validity. This study explored multi-sensory integration ability to discriminate cognitive dysfunction in cirrhosis. Thirty-two healthy controls and 30 cirrhotic patients were recruited. The sensory integration test presents stimuli from two different modalities (e.g., image/sound) with a short time lag, and subjects judge which stimuli appeared first...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094256/efficacy-of-dexamethasone-suppression-test-during-the-diagnosis-of-primary-pigmented-nodular-adrenocortical-disease-in-chinese-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-independent-cushing-syndrome
#18
Shi Chen, Ran Li, Lin Lu, Lian Duan, Xuebin Zhang, Anli Tong, Hui Pan, Huijuan Zhu, Zhaolin Lu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cut-off value of the ratio of 24 h urinary free cortisol (24 h UFC) levels post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome. DESIGN: Retrospective study. PARTICIPANTS: The patients diagnosed with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, n = 25), bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH, n = 27), and adrenocortical adenoma (ADA, n = 84) were admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2001 to 2016...
November 1, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093504/mycobacterial-genomic-dna-from-used-xpert-mtb-rif-cartridges-can-be-utilised-for-accurate-second-line-genotypic-drug-susceptibility-testing-and-spoligotyping
#19
Rouxjeane Venter, Brigitta Derendinger, Margaretha de Vos, Samantha Pillay, Tanya Dolby, John Simpson, Natasha Kitchin, Ashley Ruiters, Paul D van Helden, Robin M Warren, Grant Theron
Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is a widely-used test for tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin-resistance. Second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST), which is recommended by policymakers, typically requires additional specimen collection that delays effective treatment initiation. We examined whether cartridge extract (CE) from used Xpert TB-positive cartridges was, without downstream DNA extraction or purification, suitable for both genotypic DST (MTBDRplus, MTBDRsl), which may permit patients to rapidly receive a XDR-TB diagnosis from a single specimen, and spoligotyping, which could facilitate routine genotyping...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091137/correlation-between-the-bactec-mgit-960-culture-system-with-genotype-mtbdrplus-and-tb-sprint-in-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-from-brazil
#20
Nayanne Gama Teixeira Dantas, Phillip Noel Suffys, Wânia da Silva Carvalho, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Isabela Neves de Almeida, Lida Jouca de Assis Figueiredo, Alan Douglas Gonçalves, Michel Kireopori Gomgnimbou, Guislaine Refregier, Christophe Sola, Silvana Spíndola de Miranda
BACKGROUND: The accurate detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is critical for the application of appropriate patient treatment and prevention of transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. The goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation between phenotypic and molecular techniques for drug-resistant tuberculosis diagnostics. Molecular techniques used were the line probe assay genotype MTBDRplus and the recently described tuberculosis-spoligo-rifampin-isoniazid typing (TB-SPRINT) bead-based assay...
November 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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