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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775885/clinical-correlates-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-measures-in-individuals-at-risk-for-psychosis-and-with-first-episode-psychosis
#1
Javier Labad, Antonio Armario, Roser Nadal, Montse Solé, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Zotes, Itziar Montalvo, Lorena Moreno-Samaniego, Lourdes Martorell, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Elisabet Vilella
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations in at-risk mental states (ARMS) resemble those observed in established psychosis but are less consistent. We aimed to explore HPA axis abnormalities in both first-episode psychosis (FEP) and ARMS patients, while controlling for psychopathological symptoms. We studied 21 ARMS, 34 FEP patients and 34 healthy subjects. Clinical assessment included psychopathological symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized, excited and depressive symptoms) and stress measures...
May 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768561/the-role-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-among-adolescents-suspected-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#2
Thania Luiza de Andrade Sieiro, Rafaela Baroni Aurílio, Elizabeth Cristina C Soares, Silvia S Chiang, Clemax Couto Sant Anna
INTRODUCTION: The teste rápido molecular para tuberculose (TRM-TB) was introduced in 2014 in Brazil for tuberculosis screening. However, its role in adolescents in Brazil has not been studied. METHODS: A descriptive study of adolescents with suspected tuberculosis using National Laboratory software. RESULTS: Of 852 (15.4%) suspected cases, 131 were positive by TRM-TB and 2% were resistant to rifampicin. Among TRM-TB-positive cases, 105 (91...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753877/developing-a-decision-support-system-for-patients-with-severe-infection-conditions-in-prehospital-care
#3
Niclas Johansson, Carl Spindler, John Valik, Veronica Vicente
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a prehospital decision support system (DSS) for the emergency medical services (EMS), enabling identification and steering of patients with critical infectious conditions - severe respiratory tract infections, severe CNS-infections and sepsis - to a specialized emergency department (ED) for infectious diseases. METHODS: The development process has involved four consecutive steps. The first step was gathering data from the electronic Patient Care Record on patients transported by the EMS, to identify retrospectively appropriate patient categories for steering...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742573/cervical-tracheal-resection-and-anastomosis-for-postintubation-tracheal-stenosis
#4
Muzaffer Kanlikama, Fatih Celenk, Burhanettin Gonuldas, Secaattin Gulsen
In this study the authors evaluated the outcomes of tracheal resection and anastomosis in postintubation tracheal stenosis. The authors also aimed to identify clinical and radiological factors associated with restenosis. Thirty-four consecutive patients were included in the study. Patients with subglottic stenosis who underwent procedures involving cricoid cartilage and patients with other etiologies were excluded from the study. Univariate analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for restenosis...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742052/clinical-and-drug-resistance-characteristics-of-new-pediatric-tuberculosis-cases-in-northern-china
#5
Ting Wang, Fang Dong, Qin-Jing Li, Qing-Qin Yin, Wen-Qi Song, Igor Mokrousov, Wei-Wei Jiao, A-Dong Shen
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and characteristics of drug resistance in newly diagnosed pediatric tuberculosis (TB) patients in northern China. METHODS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from September 2010 to October 2016 at the Beijing Children's Hospital. Patients were divided into two groups (resistant to at least one drug and pan-susceptible) according to drug susceptibility testing (DST) results. RESULTS: A total of 132 new cases, mainly from northern China (87...
May 9, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717948/the-effect-of-a-birth-place-decision-support-tool-on-women-s-decision-making-and-information-gathering-behaviours-during-pregnancy-mybirthplace-study-protocol
#6
Daisy Wiggins
The recent Maternity Review for England highlighted the need for more choice for women with more accessible information to support decisions. This study assesses the effect of an unique Decision Support Tool (DST) called MyBirthplace on decision making and information gathering behaviours of pregnant women regarding birth place choice. The study seeks to understand women's views and opinions about using the DST and their feelings about how well the DST supports them to make a decision. METHODS: A mixed method sequential exploratory design will be utilised to meet the above aim...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717464/alteration-in-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-women-with-subclinical-hypercortisolism
#7
Jae Hyeon Kim, Mi Kyung Kwak, Seong Hee Ahn, Hyeonmok Kim, Yoon Young Cho, Sunghwan Suh, Beom-Jun Kim, Kee-Ho Song, Seung Hun Lee, Jung-Min Koh
PURPOSE: Despite the well-known deleterious effects of cortisol on skeletal muscle, whether subtle cortisol excess in subclinical hypercortisolism (SH) affects skeletal muscle mass is unknown. Our objective was to understand the effects of the cortisol level on skeletal muscle mass in patients with SH. METHODS: We compared skeletal muscle mass and fat mass (FM) between 21 patients with SH (12 women and 9 men) and 224 controls (67 women and 157 men) with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI)...
May 1, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717043/roughness-dependent-tribology-effects-on-discontinuous-shear-thickening
#8
Chiao-Peng Hsu, Shivaprakash N Ramakrishna, Michele Zanini, Nicholas D Spencer, Lucio Isa
Surface roughness affects many properties of colloids, from depletion and capillary interactions to their dispersibility and use as emulsion stabilizers. It also impacts particle-particle frictional contacts, which have recently emerged as being responsible for the discontinuous shear thickening (DST) of dense suspensions. Tribological properties of these contacts have been rarely experimentally accessed, especially for nonspherical particles. Here, we systematically tackle the effect of nanoscale surface roughness by producing a library of all-silica, raspberry-like colloids and linking their rheology to their tribology...
May 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694278/signals-driving-the-adaptation-of-saccades-that-require-spatial-updating
#9
Robijanto Soetedjo
Saccades adapt to persistent natural or artificially imposed dysmetrias. The characteristics and circuitry of saccade adaptation have been revealed using a visually guided task (VGT) where the vectors of the target step and the intended saccade command are the same. However, in real life, another saccade occasionally intervenes before the saccade to the target occurs. This necessitates an updating of the intended saccade to account for the intervening saccadic displacement, which dissociates the visual target signal and the intended saccade command...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687767/growth-characteristics-of-liquid-cultures-increase-the-reliability-of-presumptive-identification-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#10
Juliana Maira Watanabe Pinhata, Isis Moreira Felippe, Juliana Failde Gallo, Erica Chimara, Lucilaine Ferrazoli, Rosangela Siqueira de Oliveira
We evaluated the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) cultures for the presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and assessed the reliability of this strategy for correctly directing isolates to drug susceptibility testing (DST) or species identification. A total of 1526 isolates of mycobacteria received at the Instituto Adolfo Lutz were prospectively subjected to presumptive identification by the observation of growth characteristics along with cord formation detection via microscopy...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685006/spoligotyping-analysis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-with-tb-sprint-technology
#11
S Ali, C Sola, M Harrison, M Tahir, A Sheed Khan, M Mumtaz, E Chimara, F Hassan
Spoligotyping is a highly reproducible, fast polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach for identification of different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB). Molecular typing of MTB is helpful for understanding and controlling TB epidemics. Spoligotyping was performed on 166 strains of MTB collected from 25 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Results were analyzed using online database, SITVIT2, developed by the Institute Pasteur de Guadeloupe, France and SPSS software V...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677210/provider-reported-barriers-and-solutions-to-improve-testing-among-tuberculosis-patients-eligible-for-drug-susceptibility-test-a-qualitative-study-from-programmatic-setting-in-india
#12
Hemant Deepak Shewade, Arun M Kokane, Akash Ranjan Singh, Malik Parmar, Manoj Verma, Prabha Desikan, Sheeba Naz Khan, Ajay M V Kumar
BACKGROUND: In a study conducted in Bhopal district (a setting with facility for molecular drug susceptibility testing (DST)) located in central India in 2014-15, we found high levels of pre-diagnosis attrition among patients with presumptive multi drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)-meaning TB patients who were eligible for DST, were not being tested. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we explored the health care provider perspectives into barriers and suggested solutions for improving DST...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664638/probing-triplet-excited-states-and-managing-blue-light-emission-of-neutral-tetradentate-platinum-ii-complexes
#13
Cong You, Fang Xia, Yue Zhao, Yin Zhang, Yongjian Sheng, Yipei Wu, Xiao-Chun Hang, Fei Chen, Huili Ma, Kang Shen, Zhengyi Sun, Takahiro Ueba, Satoshi Kera, Cong Zhang, Hong-Hai Zhang, Zhi-Kuan Chen, Wei Huang
The structural and photophysical properties of well-selected tetradentate Pt(II) frames including Pt(ppzOppz), Pt(ppzOpopy), Pt(ppzOczpy) and Pt(czpyOczpy) have been experimentally and theoretically explored in detail. Single crystal diffraction measurements of the four complexes provided accurate bond lengths, angles and other integrate structural information. Their characteristic electrochemical and photophysical information clearly revealed internal electronic levels in ground and excited states. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) uncovered electron distributions in transition process of excitation (S0→S1) and radiation (S1→T1→S0)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663960/impact-of-pyrazinamide-resistance-on-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-karakalpakstan-uzbekistan
#14
J Kuhlin, C Smith, A Khaemraev, Z Tigay, N Parpieva, M Tillyashaykhov, J Achar, J Hajek, J Greig, P du Cros, D Moore
SETTING: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of pyrazinamide (PZA) in treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) unless resistance has been confirmed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between PZA susceptibility and MDR-TB treatment outcome among patients treated with a PZA-containing regimen and whether the duration of the intensive phase of the PZA-containing regimen affected treatment outcome. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all eligible MDR-TB patients starting treatment in 2003-2013 in the TB programme in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653190/evaluation-of-whole-genome-sequencing-and-software-tools-for-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Janko van Beek, Marjo Haanperä, Pieter W Smit, Silja Mentula, Hanna Soini
OBJECTIVES: Culture-based assays are currently the gold standard for drug susceptibility testing (DST) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They provide good sensitivity and specificity, but are time-consuming. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether whole genome sequencing (WGS), combined with software tools for data analysis, can replace routine culture based assays for drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis. METHODS: M. tuberculosis cultures sent to the Finnish mycobacterial reference laboratory in 2014 (n=211) were phenotypically tested by Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) for first line drug susceptibilities...
April 10, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650842/-evaluated-cases-of-anastomotic-recurrence-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Jun Ikeda, Hirotaka Furuke, Chikage Kato, Kazuya Takabatake, Takuma Kishimoto, Tatsuya Kumano, Kenichiro Imura, Katsumi Shimomura, Takeshi Kubota, Fumihiro Taniguchi, Yasuhiro Shioaki
Anastomotic recurrence in 6 colorectal cancer cases during the postoperative surveillance between 2008 and 2015 was evaluated retrospectively. Five cases had undergone DST anastomosis for sigmoidectomy and proctectomy. They had a pathological tendency to have T3 tumor and deeper, positive lymph node metastases and positive lymphatic and vascular invasion. There were 2 cases with the anastomotic recurrence diagnosis 6 to 8 months after the primary tumor resection while 4 resected cases had recurrent tumor depth of T3, though 3 cases were diagnosed 1 year after the primary tumor resection...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649711/the-interaction-of-bdnf-val66met-ptsd-and-child-abuse-on-psychophysiological-reactivity-and-hpa-axis-function-in-a-sample-of-gulf-war-veterans
#17
Dmitri A Young, Thomas C Neylan, Aoife O'Donovan, Thomas Metzler, Anne Richards, Jessica A Ross, Sabra S Inslicht
INTRODUCTION: While the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been linked to various psychological disorders, limited focus has been on its relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and early traumas such as child abuse. Therefore, we assessed whether Val66Met was associated with fear potentiated psychophysiological response and HPA axis dysfunction and whether PTSD status or child abuse history moderated these outcomes in a sample of Veterans. METHODS: 226 and 173 participants engaged in a fear potentiated acoustic startle paradigm and a dexamethasone suppression test (DST) respectively...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611381/determining-genotypic-drug-resistance-by-ion-semiconductor-sequencing-with-the-ion-ampliseq%C3%A2-tb-panel-in-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#18
Joonhong Park, So Youn Shin, Kyungjong Kim, Kuhn Park, Soyoung Shin, Chunhwa Ihm
BACKGROUND: We examined the feasibility of a full-length gene analysis for the drug resistance-related genes inhA, katG, rpoB, pncA, rpsL, embB, eis, and gyrA using ion semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) and compared the results with those obtained from conventional phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. METHODS: We extracted genomic DNA from 30 pure MDR-TB isolates with antibiotic susceptibility profiles confirmed by phenotypic DST for isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), pyrazinamide (PZA), amikacin (AMK), kanamycin (KM), streptomycin (SM), and fluoroquinolones (FQs) including ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin...
July 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610587/high-resolution-melting-curve-analysis-for-rapid-detection-of-streptomycin-and-ethambutol-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Faranak Rezaei, Mehri Haeili, Abbasali Imani Fooladi, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi
Objectives: Development of molecular techniques for rapid detection of drug resistant tuberculosis allows for the prompt initiation of appropriate anti-TB treatment. We aimed to assess high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the detection of rpsL, rrs and embB mutations to identify streptomycin and ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Material and Methods: A total of 76 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis including 25 SM-R, 21 EB-R and 30 drug susceptible - determined by the proportion method of drug susceptibility testing (DST) - were analyzed by HRM analysis, and the results were confirmed using DNA sequencing...
December 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608991/how-orchids-concentrate-the-relationship-between-physiological-stress-reactivity-and-cognitive-performance-during-infancy-and-early-childhood
#20
REVIEW
Sam V Wass
The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is involved both in higher-order cognition such as attention and learning, and in responding to unexpected, threatening events. Increased ANS reactivity may confer both superior short-term cognitive performance, and heightened long-term susceptibility to adverse events. Here, we evaluate this hypothesis within the Differential Susceptibility Theory (DST) framework. We hypothesise that individuals with increased reactivity may show heightened biological sensitivity to context, conferring both positive (development-enhancing) effects (superior attention and learning) and negative (risk-promoting) effects (increased sensitivity to unsupportive environments)...
March 30, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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