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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931690/evaluation-of-the-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-for-detection-of-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-central-ethiopia
#1
Zufan Bedewi Omer, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Adane Worku, Aboma Zewde, Girmay Medhin, Temesgen Mohammed, Rembert Pieper, Gobena Ameni
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is growing globally and becoming a major challenge for national TB control programs. Therefore, rapid identification of MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and monitoring their transmission could contribute significantly to the control of TB. The GenoType MTBDRplus assay has been recommended by the World Health Organization to identify rifampicin (RIF)- and isoniazid (INH)-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates. This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the GenoType MTBDRplus assay for the detection of RIF- and INH-resistant M...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924662/empathy-and-its-relationship-with-cognitive-and-emotional-functions-in-alcohol-dependency
#2
Almila Erol, Asusinem Akyalcin Kirdok, Nabi Zorlu, Serap Polat, Levent Mete
BACKGROUND: Empathy can be defined as the ability to understand the other's thoughts and feelings. It contains both cognitive and emotional components. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the empathy ability of patients with alcohol dependency in association with cognitive and emotional functions, after acute detoxification and during long-term abstinence. METHODS: Thirty-three alcohol dependent inpatients that completed a detoxification process and stayed abstinent throughout the study, and 33 healthy comparison subjects that matched the patients for age, gender, and education level were included in the study...
December 7, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922635/increased-plasma-levels-of-circulating-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-in-suicide-attempters-associations-with-hpa-axis-hyperactivity
#3
D Lindqvist, J Fernström, C Grudet, L Ljunggren, L Träskman-Bendz, L Ohlsson, Å Westrin
Preclinical data suggest that chronic stress may cause cellular damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, potentially leading to the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the bloodstream. Major depressive disorder has been associated with an increased amount of mtDNA in leukocytes from saliva samples and blood; however, no previous studies have measured plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA in a clinical psychiatric sample. In this study, free circulating mtDNA was quantified in plasma samples from 37 suicide attempters, who had undergone a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 37 healthy controls...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919386/donor-s-support-tool-enabling-informed-secondary-use-of-patient-s-biomaterial-and-personal-data
#4
Haridimos Kondylakis, Lefteris Koumakis, Stephanie Hänold, Iheanyi Nwankwo, Nikolaus Forgó, Kostas Marias, Manolis Tsiknakis, Norbert Graf
PURPOSE: Biomedical research is being catalyzed by the vast amount of data rapidly collected through the application of information technologies (IT). Despite IT advances, the methods for involving patients and citizens in biomedical research remain static, paper-based and organized around national boundaries and anachronistic legal frameworks. The purpose of this paper is to study the current practices for obtaining consent for biobanking and the legal requirements for reusing the available biomaterial and data in EU and finally to present a novel tool to this direction enabling the secondary use of data and biomaterial...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915298/multilocus-sequence-typing-mlst-analysis-of-candida-albicans-isolates-colonizing-acrylic-dentures-before-and-after-denture-replacement
#5
Khai How Choo, Hee Ji Lee, Nicholas J Knight, Ann R Holmes, Richard D Cannon
Yeast, in particular Candida albicans, are the principal fungal cause of denture stomatitis, and can also be present as a commensal in many individuals. Few studies, however, have examined oral retention of yeast strains over time. We analyzed the yeast present in saliva samples and from the dentures of 10 individuals colonized with yeast but with no signs of stomatitis, before new complete maxillary dentures were fitted and also at 1, 3, and 6 months after denture replacement. Yeast species were presumptively identified on selective agar plates and were present in nine individuals before denture replacement and in six at the 6-month time point...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895017/molecular-investigation-of-resistance-to-second-line-injectable-drugs-in-multidrug-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-france
#6
Florence Brossier, Anne Pham, Christine Bernard, Alexandra Aubry, Vincent Jarlier, Nicolas Veziris, Wladimir Sougakoff
The second line injectable drugs (SLID, i.e. amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin) are key drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Mutations in rrs region 1400, tlyA and eis promoter are associated with resistance to SLID, to capreomycin and to kanamycin respectively. In this study, the sequencing data of SLID resistance-associated genes were compared to the results of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing by the proportion method for the SLID in 206 multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis collected in France...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894266/tuberculosis-drug-resistance-in-bamako-mali-from-2006-to-2014
#7
B Diarra, D Goita, S Tounkara, M Sanogo, B Baya, A C G Togo, M Maiga, Y S Sarro, A Kone, B Kone, O M'Baye, N Coulibaly, H Kassambara, A Cisse, M Belson, M A Polis, J Otu, F Gehre, M Antonio, S Dao, S Siddiqui, R L Murphy, B C de Jong, S Diallo
BACKGROUND: Although Drug resistance tuberculosis is not a new phenomenon, Mali remains one of the "blank" countries without systematic data. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2014, we enrolled pulmonary TB patients from local TB diagnostics centers and a university referral hospital in several observational cohort studies. These consecutive patients had first line drug susceptibility testing (DST) performed on their isolates. A subset of MDR was subsequently tested for second line drug resistance...
November 28, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889251/modified-protocol-for-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mgit-cultures-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-the-mgit-960
#8
Aline Gois Adami, Juliana Failde Gallo, Juliana Maira Watanabe Pinhata, Maria Conceição Martins, Carmen Maria Saraiva Giampaglia, Rosangela Siqueira de Oliveira
A rapid detection of resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for management and control of tuberculosis. This study evaluated a more rapid and cost-effective drug susceptibility testing (DST) protocol using primary isolates of M. tuberculosis in mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT). Ninety-four M. tuberculosis isolates in MGIT were subjected to DST by the manufacturer's method, i.e., primary isolates were subcultured and DST was performed from positive cultures for a maximum of 5days; and by our modified method, i...
October 30, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881767/daylight-saving-time-can-decrease-the-frequency-of-wildlife-vehicle-collisions
#9
William A Ellis, Sean I FitzGibbon, Benjamin J Barth, Amanda C Niehaus, Gwendolyn K David, Brendan D Taylor, Helena Matsushige, Alistair Melzer, Fred B Bercovitch, Frank Carrick, Darryl N Jones, Cathryn Dexter, Amber Gillett, Martin Predavec, Dan Lunney, Robbie S Wilson
Daylight saving time (DST) could reduce collisions with wildlife by changing the timing of commuter traffic relative to the behaviour of nocturnal animals. To test this idea, we tracked wild koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in southeast Queensland, where koalas have declined by 80% in the last 20 years, and compared their movements with traffic patterns along roads where they are often killed. Using a simple model, we found that DST could decrease collisions with koalas by 8% on weekdays and 11% at weekends, simply by shifting the timing of traffic relative to darkness...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867796/highly-relativistic-radiation-belt-electron-acceleration-transport-and-loss-large-solar-storm-events-of-march-and-june-2015
#10
D N Baker, A N Jaynes, S G Kanekal, J C Foster, P J Erickson, J F Fennell, J B Blake, H Zhao, X Li, S R Elkington, M G Henderson, G D Reeves, H E Spence, C A Kletzing, J R Wygant
Two of the largest geomagnetic storms of the last decade were witnessed in 2015. On 17 March 2015, a coronal mass ejection-driven event occurred with a Dst (storm time ring current index) value reaching -223 nT. On 22 June 2015 another strong storm (Dst reaching -204 nT) was recorded. These two storms each produced almost total loss of radiation belt high-energy (E ≳ 1 MeV) electron fluxes. Following the dropouts of radiation belt fluxes there were complex and rather remarkable recoveries of the electrons extending up to nearly 10 MeV in kinetic energy...
July 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865234/rapid-detection-of-extensively-drug-resistant-xdr-tb-strains-from-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-cases-isolated-from-smear-negative-pulmonary-samples-in-an-intermediate-reference-laboratory-in-india
#11
Himanshu Vashistha, M Hanif, Sanjeev Saini, Ashwani Khanna, Srashty Sharma, Zeeshan Sidiq, Vasim Ahmed, Manoj Dubey, K K Chopra, Divya Shrivastava
BACKGROUND: Direct sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). The objectives of the study were first, to determine the recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in smear-negative sputum samples through liquid culture (using MGIT 960) and solid culture (using LJ slant) and second, to screen multidrug-resistant isolates through line probe assay and further third, to identify XDR isolates through MGIT second-line DST from these positive MDR cultures in Delhi region...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847018/more-than-half-of-presumptive-multidrug-resistant-cases-referred-to-a-tuberculosis-referral-laboratory-in-the-tigray-region-of-ethiopia-are-multidrug-resistant
#12
Kebede Tesfay, Shinesh Tesfay, Etsay Nigus, Araya Gebreyesus, Dawit Gebreegziabiher, Kelemework Adane
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Generating epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is essential to assess the magnitude and trends of anti-TB drug resistance. This study determined the prevalence of MDR-TB among presumptive MDR cases referred to a TB referral laboratory in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 262 culture-positive presumptive MDR-TB samples submitted to the Tigray Regional Research Laboratory for MDR testing between January 2013 and August 2014...
September 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847013/fluorescein-diacetate-vital-staining-for-detecting-viability-of-acid-fast-bacilli-in-patients-on-antituberculosis-treatment
#13
Swapna Kanade, Gita Nataraj, Milind Ubale, Preeti Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To determine the performance of FDA vital staining method in detecting viability of acid fast bacilli in comparison with culture and also its correlation with conventional drug susceptibility testing results for isoniazid and rifampicin. DESIGN: The study was conducted from Jan 2014 to June 2015. Sputum samples of patients taking either Cat I or Cat II anti-TB treatment were tested by Ziehl Neelsen and FDA staining, culture and susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid at the end of intensive phase...
September 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846235/population-based-drug-resistance-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-taiwan-2007-2014
#14
Pei-Hua Chuang, Mei-Hua Wu, Shin-Yuan Fan, Keng-Yu Lin, Ruwen Jou
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of drug resistance in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases, we conducted a retrospective, population-based analysis using drug susceptibility testing (DST) results of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates obtained from 2007-2014 in Taiwan. METHODS: M. tuberculosis isolates collected from 1,331 MDR-TB cases were included in this survey. Treatment histories, age, sex, chest radiograph and bacteriological results of patients were analyzed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833397/investigating-the-heart-pump-implant-decision-process-opportunities-for-decision-support-tools-to-help
#15
Qian Yang, John Zimmerman, Aaron Steinfeld, Lisa Carey, James F Antaki
Clinical decision support tools (DSTs) are computational systems that aid healthcare decision-making. While effective in labs, almost all these systems failed when they moved into clinical practice. Healthcare researchers speculated it is most likely due to a lack of user-centered HCI considerations in the design of these systems. This paper describes a field study investigating how clinicians make a heart pump implant decision with a focus on how to best integrate an intelligent DST into their work process...
May 2016: ACM Transactions on Computer-human Interaction: a Publication of the Association for Computing Machinery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830170/behavior-data-of-battery-and-battery-pack-soc-estimation-under-different-working-conditions
#16
Xu Zhang, Yujie Wang, Duo Yang, Zonghai Chen
This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of battery behavior. The constant current condition and the dynamic stress test (DST) condition were carried out to analyze the battery discharging and charging features. The datasets were achieved at room temperature, in April, 2016. The shared data contributes to clarify the battery pack state-of-charge (SOC) and the battery inconsistency, which is also shown in the article of "An on-line estimation of battery pack parameters and state-of-charge using dual filters based on pack model" (X...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825061/new-sensitive-micro-measurements-of-dynamic-surface-tension-and-diffusion-coefficients-validated-and-tested-for-the-adsorption-of-1-octanol-at-a-microscopic-air-water-interface-and-its-dissolution-into-water
#17
Koji Kinoshita, Elisa Parra, David Needham
Currently available dynamic surface tension (DST) measurement methods, such as Wilhelmy plate, droplet- or bubble-based methods, still have various experimental limitations such as the large size of the interface, convection in the solution, or a certain "dead time" at initial measurement. These limitations create inconsistencies for the kinetic analysis of surfactant adsorption/desorption, especially significant for ionic surfactants. Here, the "micropipette interfacial area-expansion method" was introduced and validated as a new DST measurement having a high enough sensitivity to detect diffusion controlled molecular adsorption at the air-water interfaces...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824436/tuberculosis-in-poland-in-2014
#18
Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2014 in Poland and to compare with the data on the same phenomena in EU/EEA countries. METHODS: Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drugsusceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2014, data from National Institute of Public Health- NationalInstitute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office ondeaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for DiseasePrevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815415/reduction-of-cocaine-induced-locomotor-effects-by-enriched-environment-is-associated-with-cell-specific-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-fosb-in-striatal-and-cortical-subregions
#19
Audrey Lafragette, Michael T Bardo, Virginie Lardeux, Marcello Solinas, Nathalie Thiriet
BACKGROUND: Early exposure to enriched environments has been shown to decrease the locomotor effects induced by repeated injections of cocaine and modify basal and cocaine-induced total protein levels of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the whole striatum of mice. In this study, we aimed at characterizing whether the profile of ΔFosB accumulation induced by enriched environments and cocaine would be similar or different in terms of brain areas and cell type. METHODS: We used mice expressing the eGFP protein in D1 receptor positive (D1R(+)) neurons to determine whether Δ FosB induced by enriched environment or cocaine injections (5×15 mg/kg) would occur in selective subpopulations of neurons in several subregions of the striatum and prefrontal cortex...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797672/low-dheas-a-sensitive-and-specific-test-for-detection-of-subclinical-hypercortisolism-in-adrenal-incidentalomas
#20
Michael Conall Dennedy, Anand K Annamalai, Olivia Prankerd Smith, Natalie Freeman, Kuhan Vengopal, Johann Graggaber, Olympia Koulouri, Andrew S Powlson, Ashley Shaw, David J Halsall, Mark Gurnell
CONTEXT: Subclinical hypercortisolism (SH) occurs in 5-30% of adrenal incidentalomas (AIs). Common screening tests for adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-independent hypercortisolism have significant false positive rates, mandating further time and resource intensive investigations. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether low basal dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) is a sensitive and specific screening test for SH in AI. SETTING AND PATIENTS: 185 patients with AI were screened for adrenal medullary (plasma metanephrines) and cortical [1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (ONDST), 24h urinary free cortisol (UFC), serum DHEAS, plasma renin and aldosterone] hyperfunction...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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