Read by QxMD icon Read


C H Kim, J K Lim, D H Lee, S S Yoo, S Y Lee, S I Cha, J Y Park, J Lee
BACKGROUND: In an era of increasing concerns about drug resistance, there are limited data on treatment outcomes and recurrence rates after standard short-course anti-tuberculosis treatment in patients with culture-negative tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment outcomes and recurrence rates between a standard anti-tuberculosis regimen with negative culture and unavailable drug susceptibility testing (DST) data, and a tailored anti-tuberculosis regimen based on individual DST data...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Glennah Kerubo, Evans Amukoye, Stefan Niemann, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance is an emerging health problem in Kenya and especially in slums. Slum environments create a conducive environment for the spread of tuberculosis (TB) due to high population density and lack of basic amenities such as decent housing, access to clean water, lack of drainage and basic sanitation. Furthermore, ineffective health services in crowded and poorer populations, poor patient compliance, a large pool of untreated cases, delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment regimens are likely to favour selection and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains in such settings, however, precise data on this problem are only sparsely available...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yu Huang, Qingqing Wu, Shuiyang Xu, Jieming Zhong, Songhua Chen, Jinghang Xu, Liping Zhu, Haibo He, Xiaomeng Wang
With 25% of the global burden, China has the highest incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in the world. However, surveillance data on extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) from China are scant. To estimate the prevalence of XDR-TB in Zhejiang, Eastern China, 30 of 90 TB treatment centers in Zhejiang were recruited. Patients with suspected TB who reported to the clinics for diagnosis were requested to undergo a smear sputum test. Positive sputum samples were tested for drug susceptibility. Data on anti-TB drug resistance from 1999 to 2008 were also collected to assess drug resistance trends...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Maritza Samayoa-Peláez, Nancy Ayala, Zaida E Yadon, Einar Heldal
Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area), disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Katia J Romero Mercado, Belkys Marcelino, María Rodríguez, Kristien Verdonck, Mohammed Khogali, Karen Bissell
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major public health concern that threatens global progress toward effective TB control. The risk of MDR-TB is increased in patients who have received previous TB treatment. This article describes the performance of culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) in patients registered as previously treated TB patients in the Dominican Republic in 2014, based on operational research that followed a retrospective cohort design and used routine program data. Under the current system of TB culturing and DST, the majority of patients with previously treated TB do not undergo DST, and those who do often experience considerable delay in obtaining their results...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Nese Direk, Marieke J H J Dekker, Annemarie I Luik, Clemens Kirschbaum, Yolanda B de Rijke, Albert Hofman, Witte J G Hoogendijk, Henning Tiemeier
Determinants of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning are increasingly explored in population-based studies. However, functional tests measuring the negative feedback of the HPA axis cannot easily be implemented into large observational studies. Furthermore, high doses of dexamethasone often completely suppress the HPA axis in healthy persons. This study aimed to detect the effects of the health, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors, psychiatric problems and cognitive functions on the negative feedback of the HPA axis using a very low-dose (0...
2016: PloS One
Daihong Liu, Shanshan Duan, Jiuquan Zhang, Chaoyang Zhou, Minglong Liang, Xuntao Yin, Ping Wei, Jian Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with cognitive impairment. However, its neurological mechanism remains elusive. Combining regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) analyses, the present study aimed to investigate brain functional alterations in middle-aged T2DM patients, which could provide complementary information for the neural substrates underlying T2DM-associated brain dysfunction. Twenty-five T2DM patients and 25 healthy controls were involved in neuropsychological testing and structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data acquisition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ying Li, Huaijun Liu, Jiping Yang, Xin Tian, Haiqing Yang, Zuojun Geng
AIM: Our objective is to explore key changes in brain functions in relation to minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Moreover, we incorporated both resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) to enhance the detection of MHE. METHODS: We conducted fMRI scanning for 56 MHE patients and 66 healthy controls. Region functional connectivity (FC) was carried out to assess the connectivity status between pair of regions among 90 brain regions. Additionally, blood flood (BF) status was measured by ASL for all subjects...
October 7, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
S Shirodkar, L Anande, A Dalal, C Desai, G Corrêa, M Das, C Laxmeshwar, H Mansoor, D Remartinez, M Trelles, P Isaakidis
Setting: While surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is considered an important adjunct for specific cases, including drug-resistant tuberculosis, operational evidence on its feasibility and effectiveness is limited. Objective: To describe surgical outcomes and programmatic challenges of providing surgery for PTB in Mumbai, India. Design: A descriptive study of routinely collected data of surgical interventions for PTB from 2010 to 2014 in two Mumbai hospitals, one public, one private. Results: Of 85 patients, 5 (6%) died and 17 (20%) had complications, with wound infection being the most frequent...
September 2016: Public Health Action
Masao Horie, Kazuyuki Mekada, Hiromi Sano, Yoshiaki Kikkawa, Satomi Chiken, Takuro Someya, Keisuke Saito, M Ibrahim Hossain, Masaaki Nameta, Kuniya Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Katsuhiko Ono, Atsushi Nambu, Atsushi Yoshiki, Hirohide Takebayashi
We identified a novel spontaneous mutant mouse showing motor symptoms that are similar to those of the dystonia musculorum (dt) mouse. The observations suggested that the mutant mice inherited the mild dt phenotype as an autosomal recessive trait. Linkage analysis showed that the causative gene was located near D1Mit373 and D1Mit410 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1, which are close to the dystonin (Dst) gene locus. To investigate whether Dst is the causative gene of the novel mutant phenotype, we crossed the mutant with Dst gene trap (Dst(Gt)) mice...
September 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Ira Shah, Forum Shah
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) in children is increasing. Although, in India, multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB rates have been relatively stable, the number of children with pre-extensively drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB is increasing. AIM: To determine whether the prevalence of DR TB in children in Mumbai is changing and to study the evolving patterns of resistance. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken in 1311 paediatric patients referred between April 2007 and March 2013 to the Paediatric TB clinic at B...
August 9, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
G B Cansu, R Sarı, N Yılmaz, S Özdem, M Çubuk
Introduction: Data regarding cardiovascular risk in patients with non-functional adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI) are limited. The objectives of this study are to investigate markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease like carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and leptin levels in NFAI patients without traditional cardiovascular risk factors and healthy control group. Methods: This study involved 35 patients with NFAI (11 males, 24 females; mean age, 52...
September 29, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Dimitrios Papaventsis, Nicola Casali, Irina Kontsevaya, Francis Drobniewski, Daniela Maria Cirillo, Vlad Nikolayevskyy
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) of M. tuberculosis for the detection of resistance to first and second line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs. METHODS: The study was conducted according to the criteria of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews group. A total of 20 publications were included. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of WGS using phenotypic Drug Susceptibility Testing (DST) methods as a gold standard were determined...
September 22, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Abdulrahman Al Muftah, Andrew I Selwood, Amanda J Foss, Hareb Mohammed S J Al-Jabri, Malcolm Potts, Mete Yilmaz
Harmful Algal Bloom species are ubiquitous and their blooms occur in the Arabian Gulf. In this study, two cruises were performed in 2012 and 2013 to collect phytoplankton samples from 4 sites in the Arabian Gulf. Toxin analyses of phytoplankton samples for 32 algal toxins from 5 different toxin groups were conducted on the samples using both enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), diarrhetic shellfish toxin (DST), amnesic shellfish toxin (AST), cyclic imines (CIs) and polyether-lactone toxins in freeze-dried phytoplankton samples...
September 21, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Mei Yuan, Yan Lyu, Su Ting Chen, Chao Cai, Yuan Li, Zhi Guo Zhang, Yun Xu Li, Ling Ling Dong, Yu Hong Fu, Hai Rong Huang, Ji Min Gao, Wei Min Li
We evaluate the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in China. The performance of Xpert was evaluated compared to the composite reference standard (CRS), drug susceptibility testing (DST), and imaging examination. The overall sensitivity and specificity of Xpert were 64.1% (195/304) and 100% (24/24), respectively, using CRS as the gold standard. The sensitivity was significantly higher than that of culture for pus (P<0.05). The proportion of EPTB-positive cases diagnosed by imaging was two times more than that diagnosed using Xpert; however, 6 out of 19 cases may have been overdiagnosed by imaging...
August 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Yong Chen, Zhengan Yuan, Xin Shen, Jie Wu, Zheyuan Wu, Biao Xu
Introduction. Second-line antituberculosis drugs (SLDs) are used for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Prolonged delays before confirming MDR-TB with drug susceptibility testing (DST) could result in transmission of drug-resistant strains and inappropriate use of SLDs, thereby increasing the risk of resistance to SLDs. This study investigated the diagnostic delay in DST and prevalence of baseline SLD resistance in Shanghai and described the distribution of SLD resistance with varied delays to DST...
2016: BioMed Research International
Giuseppe Reimondo, Iacopo Chiodini, Soraya Puglisi, Anna Pia, Valentina Morelli, Darko Kastelan, Salvatore Cannavo, Paola Berchialla, Daniela Giachino, Paola Perotti, Alessandra Cuccurullo, Piero Paccotti, Paolo Beck-Peccoz, Mario De Marchi, Massimo Terzolo
CONTEXT: Patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI) may experience detrimental consequences due to a minimal cortisol excess sustained by adrenal adenoma. SNPs of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) modulate individual sensitivity to glucocorticoids and may interfere with the clinical presentation. OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of N363S, ER22/23EK and BclI SNPs in patients with AI with the general population and to evaluate whether these SNPs are linked to consequences of cortisol excess...
2016: PloS One
Krisztina D László, Sven Cnattingius, Imre Janszky
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the circadian rhythm disruption following the transition into and out of daylight saving time (DST) is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous delivery. DESIGN: We compared the number of spontaneous deliveries in the Swedish Medical Birth Register during the week after the change to and the week after the change from DST (exposure periods) with the average number of spontaneous deliveries in the control period, defined as the week before and the week after each exposure period...
September 14, 2016: BMJ Open
Nina Kaseva, Riikka Pyhälä, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Katri Räikkönen, Anna-Liisa Järvenpää, Sture Andersson, Johan G Eriksson, Petteri Hovi, Eero Kajantie
BACKGROUND: Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i...
2016: PloS One
You-Qiang Jian, Jian Ye, Hui Qi, Chun-Yan Deng, Shao-Ping Deng, Fu-Rong Li
Donor-reactive memory T (Tm)cells mediate accelerated rejection, which is known as a barrier to the survival of transplanted organs. Selective interference with the anti-CD45RB monoclonal antibody (α-CD45RB) reliably induces donor-specific tolerance. In this study, pre-sensitization to female C57BL/6 mice with the skin of female BLAB/c mice generated a large number of Tm cells and resulted in rapid rejection of the secondly transplanted allografts. α-CD45RB did induce the tolerance to skin allograft primarily transplanted but failed to induce tolerance in the pre-sensitized mice...
October 4, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"