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macular degeneration in young people

Ruth E Hogg, Jayne V Woodside, Alanna McGrath, Ian S Young, Jesus L Vioque, Usha Chakravarthy, Paulus T de Jong, Mati Rahu, Johan Seland, Gisele Soubrane, Laura Tomazzoli, Fotis Topouzis, Astrid E Fletcher
PURPOSE: To examine associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in countries ranging from Southern to Northern Europe. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiologic study. PARTICIPANTS: Of 5060 randomly sampled people aged 65 years or older from 7 study centers across Europe (Norway, Estonia, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Greece, and Spain), full dietary data were available in 4753...
January 2017: Ophthalmology
M Thibaut, C Delerue, M Boucart, T H C Tran
OBJECTIVE: Studies on people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have shown that they are able to detect briefly displayed objects and scenes with high accuracy (above 80%). However, in everyday life we explore our environment to search and to recognize objects. We assessed visual exploration in people with AMD during the identification of objects and scenes. METHOD: Twenty patients with AMD, fifteen age-matched and twelve young controls participated. We used colored photographs of isolated objects, natural scenes and objects in scenes, displayed centrally on a monitor...
January 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Anton Beer, Sang-Yee Go, Tina Plank, Mark Greenlee
Previous research has shown that loss of central vision resulting from macular degeneration not only affects functional processing but also the macroscopic structure of the visual pathway. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed volumetric reductions of the gray and white matter of patients with macular degeneration in portions of the calcarine sulcus that represent the central visual field. However, the basis of these macrostructural alterations due to partial vision loss is still unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based on MRI is a technique that allows inferences about the microstructure of brain tissue...
2015: Journal of Vision
Miguel Thibaut, Thi Ha Chau Tran, Céline Delerue, Muriel Boucart
PURPOSE: Previous studies showed that people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) can categorise a pre-defined target object or scene with high accuracy (above 80%). In these studies participants were asked to detect the target (e.g. an animal) in serial visual presentation. People with AMD must rely on peripheral vision which is more adapted to the low resolution required for detection than for the higher resolution required to identify a specific exemplar. We investigated the ability of people with central vision loss to identify photographs of objects and scenes...
May 2015: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Joydip Kundu, Andrew Michaelson, Petr Baranov, Michael J Young, Rebecca L Carrier
Retinal degeneration, associated with loss of photoreceptors, is the primary cause of permanent vision impairment, impacting millions of people worldwide. Age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa are two common retinal diseases resulting in photoreceptor loss and vision impairment or blindness. Presently, available treatments can only delay the progress of retinal degeneration, and there are no treatments that can restore permanent vision loss. Research is underway to develop methods of regenerating the impaired retina by delivering photoreceptor precursor cells and retinal pigment epithelium to the subretinal space...
2014: Developments in Ophthalmology
Jessica Irons, Elinor McKone, Rachael Dumbleton, Nick Barnes, Xuming He, Jan Provis, Callin Ivanovici, Alisa Kwa
Damage to central vision, of which age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause, leaves patients with only blurred peripheral vision. Previous approaches to improving face recognition in AMD have employed image manipulations designed to enhance early-stage visual processing (e.g., magnification, increased HSF contrast). Here, we argue that further improvement may be possible by targeting known properties of mid- and/or high-level face processing. We enhance identity-related shape information in the face by caricaturing each individual away from an average face...
2014: Journal of Vision
Gum-Yong Kang, Joo Young Bang, Ae Jin Choi, Jeehyun Yoon, Won-Chul Lee, Soyoung Choi, Soojin Yoon, Hyung Chan Kim, Je-Hyun Baek, Hyung Soon Park, Hyunjung Jade Lim, Hyewon Chung
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) describes the progressive degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), retina, and choriocapillaris and is the leading cause of blindness in people over 50. The molecular mechanisms underlying this multifactorial disease remain largely unknown. To uncover novel secretory biomarkers related to the pathogenesis of AMD, we adopted an integrated approach to compare the proteins identified in the conditioned medium (CM) of cultured RPE cells and the exosomes derived from CM and from the aqueous humor (AH) of AMD patients by LC-ESI-MS/MS...
February 7, 2014: Journal of Proteome Research
Christian Nezelof
Although intracellular protein synthesis has been studied extensively, protein degradation and disposal, know as proteolysis, has been relatively neglected. Modern studies which led two Nobel prizes (de Duve in 1950 and Herschko, Rose and Ciechanover in 1980) established that proteolysis is ensured by two separate but complementary mechanisms: lysosomes responsible for auto and heterophagy and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS). The UPS involves ubiquitin, a small molecule consisting of 76 amino acids found in all eukaryotic cells that ensures the identification of the protein to be degraded and its transport to the proteasome, an intracellular complex with enzymes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins...
November 2012: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Usha Chakravarthy, Gareth J McKay, Paulus T V M de Jong, Mati Rahu, Johan Seland, Gisele Soubrane, Laura Tomazzoli, Fotis Topouzis, Johannes R Vingerling, Jesus Vioque, Ian S Young, Reecha Sofat, Aroon D Hingorani, Astrid E Fletcher
OBJECTIVE: To study associations between severity stages of early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and genetic variations in age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) and complement factor H (CFH) and to investigate potential interactions between smoking and ARMS2. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional European Eye Study in 7 countries in Europe. PARTICIPANTS: Four thousand seven hundred fifty participants, 65 years of age and older, recruited through random sampling...
February 2013: Ophthalmology
K Rohrschneider
AIM: There are no exact figures on the number of blind and visually impaired persons in Germany. The purpose of this study was to compare the development over the last years with earlier predictions and an outlook into the future. METHODS: Data from scientific publications as well as the Federal Statistical Office and from organizations for the blind on the frequency of blindness was compared to the forecast development of blindness. In addition the development of the frequency of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) was taken into consideration...
April 2012: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Michael J Goldacre, Clare J Wotton, Tiarnan D L Keenan
AIMS: Associations among hypertension, diabetes mellitus and some ophthalmic diseases are well established; associations with others are more equivocal. The aim was to quantify associations accurately using large epidemiological datasets. METHODS: Analysis of the Oxford Record Linkage Study (ORLS), 1963-1998, and English linked hospital episode statistics (LHES), 1999-2010; calculation of rate ratios of eye disease in a hypertension cohort and a diabetes cohort, compared with a reference cohort as control...
June 2012: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Julie M Crewe, William H Morgan, Nigel Morlet, Katrina Spilsbury, Aqif Mukhtar, Antony Clark, Jonathon Q Ng, Margaret Crowley, James B Semmens
BACKGROUND: To validate the accuracy of clinical ophthalmic information held on the West Australian blind register. DESIGN: Community-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Legally blind or severely vision-impaired people were selected randomly from the Association for the Blind of Western Australia register. METHODS: Individuals were reviewed by one of two consultant ophthalmologists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The positive predictive value (ppv), sensitivity and specificity for legal blindness status and diagnostic causes of vision loss were calculated using data extracted from the Association for the Blind of Western Australia blind register...
August 2011: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Edward Loane, John M Nolan, Gareth J McKay, Stephen Beatty
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in older people in developed countries, and risk for this condition may be classified as genetic or environmental, with an interaction between such factors predisposing to this disease. This study investigated the relationship between AMD risk genes, macular pigment optical density (MPOD), which may protect against AMD, and serum concentrations of the macular carotenoids, lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z). This was a cross-sectional study of 302 healthy adult subjects...
November 2011: Experimental Eye Research
Ryan David Kennedy, Marlee M Spafford, Carla M Parkinson, Geoffrey T Fong
PURPOSE: Smoking is causally associated with certain prevalent visually impairing eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration and cataract. Studies have found that people are afraid of "going blind" and may be motivated to quit smoking if they know that vision loss is associated with smoking behavior. METHODS: A random-digit dialed telephone survey was used to measure health knowledge of adult smokers in Canada (n = 2,765), the United States (n = 3,178), the United Kingdom (n = 2,767), and Australia (n = 2,623) as part of the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Project...
May 2011: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association
Gareth J McKay, Giuliana Silvestri, Usha Chakravarthy, Shilpa Dasari, Lars G Fritsche, Bernhard H Weber, Claudia N Keilhauer, Michael L Klein, Peter J Francis, Caroline C Klaver, Johannes R Vingerling, Lintje Ho, Paulus T D V De Jong, Michael Dean, Julie Sawitzke, Paul N Baird, Robyn H Guymer, Dwight Stambolian, Anton Orlin, Johanna M Seddon, Inga Peter, Alan F Wright, Caroline Hayward, Andrew J Lotery, Sarah Ennis, Michael B Gorin, Daniel E Weeks, Chia-Ling Kuo, Aroon D Hingorani, Reecha Sofat, Valentina Cipriani, Anand Swaroop, Mohammad Othman, Atsuhiro Kanda, Wei Chen, Goncalo R Abecasis, John R Yates, Andrew R Webster, Anthony T Moore, Johan H Seland, Mati Rahu, Gisele Soubrane, Laura Tomazzoli, Fotis Topouzis, Jesus Vioque, Ian S Young, Astrid E Fletcher, Chris C Patterson
Variation in the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has been reported to be associated with longevity in humans. The authors assessed the allelic distribution of APOE isoforms ε2, ε3, and ε4 among 10,623 participants from 15 case-control and cohort studies of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in populations of European ancestry (study dates ranged from 1990 to 2009). The authors included only the 10,623 control subjects from these studies who were classified as having no evidence of AMD, since variation within the APOE gene has previously been associated with AMD...
June 15, 2011: American Journal of Epidemiology
Justin C Sherwin, Lisa S Kearns, Alex W Hewitt, Yaling Ma, John Kelly, Lyn R Griffiths, David A Mackey
PURPOSE: Over 40% of the permanent population of Norfolk Island possesses a unique genetic admixture dating to Pitcairn Island in the late 18(th) century, with descendents having varying degrees of combined Polynesian and European ancestry. We conducted a population-based study to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and low vision on Norfolk Island. METHODS: All permanent residents of Norfolk Island aged ≥ 15 years were invited to participate. Participants completed a structured questionnaire/interview and underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including slit-lamp biomicroscopy...
April 2011: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Robert P Finger, Rolf Fimmers, Frank G Holz, Hendrik P N Scholl
AIM: As no current estimates for the prevalence and causes of blindness in Germany are available, the database of Germany's largest welfare institution (covering 9.5 million people in the federal state of Northrhine) assessing eligibility for an allowance payable to blind people was used to investigate the prevalence and the specific causes of blindness and visual impairment. METHODS: Data from a representative sample of 5100 cases out of 20 365 cases were extracted, entered into an electronic database and statistically analysed...
August 2011: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Claire S Barnes, William De L'Aune, Ronald A Schuchard
PURPOSE: The ability to recognize faces is fundamental to social interactions but has not been studied extensively in visual disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We report here the development of a face discrimination test, in which both response times (RTs) and accuracies are measured. Results are compared for young and older control subjects and older adults with AMD to determine the factors underlying performance on this test. METHODS: Subjects were 14 older controls, 11 young adult controls, and 34 individuals with binocular AMD...
February 2011: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
E Kanonidou, V Konidaris, C Kanonidou, A Praidou
PURPOSE: To assess the young people's knowledge regarding the ophthalmic effects of smoking. METHODS: 198 students (111 males and 87 females) with a mean age of 27 years old (+/- 6 years) participated in the study. A simple questionnaire was used and the participants were requested to fill out the questionnaire themselves. RESULTS: 77% (152) of the participants were smokers. 67% (130) have never heard about the adverse effect of smoking to the eyes...
2010: Bulletin de la Société Belge D'ophtalmologie
C Bunce, W Xing, R Wormald
PURPOSE: The last complete report on causes of blindness in England and Wales was for the data collected during April 1999-March 2000. This study updates these figures, with data collected during April 2007-March 2008. METHODS: In England and Wales, registration for blindness and partial sight is initiated with certification by a consultant ophthalmologist with the consent of the patient. The main cause of visual impairment was ascertained where possible for all certificates completed during April 2007-March 2008 and a proportional comparison with 1999-2000 figures was made...
November 2010: Eye
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