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Fan Ye, Andrew R Nager, Maxence V Nachury
A diffusion barrier at the transition zone enables the compartmentalization of signaling molecules by cilia. The BBSome and the small guanosine triphosphatase Arl6, which triggers BBSome coat polymerization, are required for the exit of activated signaling receptors from cilia, but how diffusion barriers are crossed when membrane proteins exit cilia remains to be determined. In this study, we found that activation of the ciliary G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) Smoothened and SSTR3 drove the Arl6-dependent assembly of large, highly processive, and cargo-laden retrograde BBSome trains...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Peiwei Liu, Karl F Lechtreck
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a ciliopathy resulting from defects in the BBSome, a conserved protein complex. BBSome mutations affect ciliary membrane composition, impairing cilia-based signaling. The mechanism by which the BBSome regulates ciliary membrane content remains unknown. Chlamydomonas bbs mutants lack phototaxis and accumulate phospholipase D (PLD) in the ciliary membrane. Single particle imaging revealed that PLD comigrates with BBS4 by intraflagellar transport (IFT) while IFT of PLD is abolished in bbs mutants...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Björn Udo Klink, Eldar Zent, Puneet Juneja, Anne Kuhlee, Stefan Raunser, Alfred Wittinghofer
Cilia are small, antenna-like structures on the surface of eukaryotic cells that harbor a unique set of sensory proteins, including GPCRs and other membrane proteins. The transport of these proteins involves the BBSome, an eight-membered protein complex that is recruited to ciliary membranes by the G-protein Arl6. BBSome malfunction leads to Bardet-Biedl syndrome, a ciliopathy with severe consequences. Short ciliary targeting sequences (CTS) have been identified that trigger the transport of ciliary proteins...
November 15, 2017: ELife
Tanya L Dilan, Ratnesh K Singh, Thamaraiselvi Saravanan, Abigail Moye, Andrew F X Goldberg, Peter Stoilov, Visvanathan Ramamurthy
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by developmental abnormalities and vision loss. To date, mutations in 21 genes have been linked to BBS. The products of eight of these BBS genes form a stable octameric complex termed the BBSome. Mutations in BBS8, a component of the BBSome, cause early vision loss, but the role of BBS8 in supporting vision is not known. To understand the mechanisms by which BBS8 supports rod and cone photoreceptor function, we generated animal models lacking BBS8...
November 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Ying Hsu, Janelle E Garrison, Gunhee Kim, Addison R Schmitz, Charles C Searby, Qihong Zhang, Poppy Datta, Darryl Y Nishimura, Seongjin Seo, Val C Sheffield
Genetic mutations disrupting the structure and function of primary cilia cause various inherited retinal diseases in humans. Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a genetically heterogeneous, pleiotropic ciliopathy characterized by retinal degeneration, obesity, postaxial polydactyly, intellectual disability, and genital and renal abnormalities. To gain insight into the mechanisms of retinal degeneration in BBS, we developed a congenital knockout mouse of Bbs8, as well as conditional mouse models in which function of the BBSome (a protein complex that mediates ciliary trafficking) can be temporally inactivated or restored...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
Jonathan Woodsmith, Luise Apelt, Victoria Casado-Medrano, Ziya Özkan, Bernd Timmermann, Ulrich Stelzl
The identification of genomic variants in healthy and diseased individuals continues to rapidly outpace our ability to functionally annotate these variants. Techniques that both systematically assay the functional consequences of nucleotide-resolution variation and can scale to hundreds of genes are urgently required. We designed a sensitive yeast two-hybrid-based 'off switch' for positive selection of interaction-disruptive variants from complex genetic libraries. Combined with massively parallel programmed mutagenesis and a sequencing readout, this method enables systematic profiling of protein-interaction determinants at amino-acid resolution...
December 2017: Nature Methods
Bin Dong, Song Wu, Jing Wang, Yan-Xia Liu, Zhao Peng, De-Mei Meng, Kaiyao Huang, Mingfu Wu, Zhen-Chuan Fan
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles are composed of polyprotein complexes IFT-A and IFT-B as well as cargo adaptors such as the BBSome. Two IFT-B subunits, IFT25 and IFT27 were found to form a heterodimer, which is essential in exporting the BBSome out of the cilium but not involved in flagellar assembly and cytokinesis in vertebrates. Controversial results were, however, recorded to show that defects in IFT, flagellar assembly and even cytokinesis were caused by IFT27 knockdown in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Using C...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
Sarah C Goetz, Fiona Bangs, Chloe L Barrington, Nicholas Katsanis, Kathryn V Anderson
The importance of primary cilia in human health is underscored by the link between ciliary dysfunction and a group of primarily recessive genetic disorders with overlapping clinical features, now known as ciliopathies. Many of the proteins encoded by ciliopathy-associated genes are components of a handful of multi-protein complexes important for the transport of cargo to the basal body and/or into the cilium. A key question is whether different complexes cooperate in cilia formation, and whether they participate in cilium assembly in conjunction with intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins...
2017: PloS One
Corey L Williams, Cedric R Uytingco, Warren W Green, Jeremy C McIntyre, Kirill Ukhanov, Arthur D Zimmerman, Dana T Shively, Lian Zhang, Darryl Y Nishimura, Val C Sheffield, Jeffrey R Martens
Olfactory dysfunction is a pervasive but underappreciated health concern that affects personal safety and quality of life. Patients with olfactory dysfunctions have limited therapeutic options, particularly those involving congenital diseases. Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is one such disorder, where olfactory loss and other symptoms manifest from defective cilium morphology and/or function in various cell types/tissues. Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of BBS mutant mice lack the capacity to build/maintain cilia, rendering the cells incapable of odor detection...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Deniz Conkar, Efraim Culfa, Ezgi Odabasi, Navin Rauniyar, John R Yates, Elif N Firat-Karalar
Centriolar satellites are membrane-less structures that localize and move around the centrosome and cilium complex in a microtubule-dependent manner. They play important roles in centrosome- and cilium-related processes, including protein trafficking to the centrosome and cilium complex, and ciliogenesis, and they are implicated in ciliopathies. Despite the important regulatory roles of centriolar satellites in the assembly and function of the centrosome and cilium complex, the molecular mechanisms of their functions remain poorly understood...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Elena V Ignatieva, Dmitry A Afonnikov, Olga V Saik, Evgeny I Rogaev, Nikolay A Kolchanov
BACKGROUND: Obesity is heritable. It predisposes to many diseases. The objectives of this study were to create a compendium of genes relevant to feeding behavior (FB) and/or body weight (BW) regulation; to construct and to analyze networks formed by associations between genes/proteins; and to identify the most significant genes, biological processes/pathways, and tissues/organs involved in BW regulation. RESULTS: The compendium of genes controlling FB or BW includes 578 human genes...
December 22, 2016: BMC Genetics
Andrew R Nager, Jaclyn S Goldstein, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, Didier Portran, Fan Ye, Jose Manuel Garcia-Verdugo, Maxence V Nachury
Signaling receptors dynamically exit cilia upon activation of signaling pathways such as Hedgehog. Here, we find that when activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) fail to undergo BBSome-mediated retrieval from cilia back into the cell, these GPCRs concentrate into membranous buds at the tips of cilia before release into extracellular vesicles named ectosomes. Unexpectedly, actin and the actin regulators drebrin and myosin 6 mediate ectosome release from the tip of cilia. Mirroring signal-dependent retrieval, signal-dependent ectocytosis is a selective and effective process that removes activated signaling molecules from cilia...
January 12, 2017: Cell
Boyan Zhang, Gang Wang, Xiaowei Xu, Sisi Yang, Tenghan Zhuang, Guopeng Wang, He Ren, Steven Y Cheng, Qing Jiang, Chuanmao Zhang
The function of the primary cilia, which is assembled in most vertebrate cells, is achieved by transport in and out of kinds of signaling receptors. The BBSome protein complex could recognize and target membrane proteins to the cilia, but how the BBSome itself is transported into the cilia is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the centrosome protein Dzip1 mediates the assembly of the BBSome-Dzip1-PCM1 complex in the centriolar satellites (CS) at the G0 phase for ciliary translocation of the BBSome...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Victor L Jensen, Stephen Carter, Anna A W M Sanders, Chunmei Li, Julie Kennedy, Tiffany A Timbers, Jerry Cai, Noemie Scheidel, Breandán N Kennedy, Ryan D Morin, Michel R Leroux, Oliver E Blacque
Primary cilia are specialised sensory and developmental signalling devices extending from the surface of most eukaryotic cells. Defects in these organelles cause inherited human disorders (ciliopathies) such as retinitis pigmentosa and Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), frequently affecting many physiological and developmental processes across multiple organs. Cilium formation, maintenance and function depend on intracellular transport systems such as intraflagellar transport (IFT), which is driven by kinesin-2 and IFT-dynein motors and regulated by the Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) cargo-adaptor protein complex, or BBSome...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
Samuel Dean, Flavia Moreira-Leite, Vladimir Varga, Keith Gull
The transition zone (TZ) of eukaryotic cilia and flagella is a structural intermediate between the basal body and the axoneme that regulates ciliary traffic. Mutations in genes encoding TZ proteins (TZPs) cause human inherited diseases (ciliopathies). Here, we use the trypanosome to identify TZ components and localize them to TZ subdomains, showing that the Bardet-Biedl syndrome complex (BBSome) is more distal in the TZ than the Meckel syndrome (MKS) complex. Several of the TZPs identified here have human orthologs...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
André Mourão, Søren T Christensen, Esben Lorentzen
Cilia and flagella on eukaryotic cells are slender microtubule-based projections surrounded by a membrane with a unique lipid and protein composition. It is now appreciated that cilia in addition to their established roles in motility also constitute hubs for cellular signaling by sensing external environmental cues necessary for organ development and maintenance of human health. Pathways reported to rely on the cilium organelle include Hedgehog, TGF-β, Wnt, PDGFRα, integrin and DNA damage repair signaling...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Miguel López
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: PLoS Genetics
Yohei Katoh, Masaya Terada, Yuya Nishijima, Ryota Takei, Shohei Nozaki, Hiroshi Hamada, Kazuhisa Nakayama
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is essential for assembly and maintenance of cilia and flagella as well as ciliary motility and signaling. IFT is mediated by multisubunit complexes, including IFT-A, IFT-B, and the BBSome, in concert with kinesin and dynein motors. Under high salt conditions, purified IFT-B complex dissociates into a core subcomplex composed of at least nine subunits and at least five peripherally associated proteins. Using the visible immunoprecipitation assay, which we recently developed as a convenient protein-protein interaction assay, we determined the overall architecture of the IFT-B complex, which can be divided into core and peripheral subcomplexes composed of 10 and 6 subunits, respectively...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Deng-Fu Guo, Huxing Cui, Qihong Zhang, Donald A Morgan, Daniel R Thedens, Darryl Nishimura, Justin L Grobe, Val C Sheffield, Kamal Rahmouni
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a highly pleiotropic autosomal recessive disorder associated with a wide range of phenotypes including obesity. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that neuronal BBSome is a critical determinant of energy balance through its role in the regulation of the trafficking of the long signaling form of the leptin receptor (LRb). Targeted disruption of the BBSome by deleting the Bbs1 gene from the nervous system causes obesity in mice, and this phenotype is reproduced by ablation of the Bbs1 gene selectively in the LRb-expressing cells, but not from adipocytes...
February 2016: PLoS Genetics
Susan N Bolch, Donald R Dugger, Timothy Chong, J Hugh McDowell, W Clay Smith
PURPOSE: Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a complex ciliopathy that usually manifests with some form of retinal degeneration, amongst other ciliary-related deficiencies. One of the genetic causes of this syndrome results from a defect in Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 5 (BBS5) protein. BBS5 is one component of the BBSome, a complex of proteins that regulates the protein composition in cilia. In this study, we identify a smaller molecular mass form of BBS5 as a variant formed by alternative splicing and show that expression of this splice variant is restricted to the retina...
2016: PloS One
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