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Tethering complex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914027/the-role-of-guided-growth-as-it-relates-to-limb-lengthening
#1
REVIEW
Peter M Stevens
For decades, the classic indication for limb lengthening has been reserved for anisomelia that was expected to reach or exceed 5 cm at maturity. Epiphysiodesis was reserved for discrepancies in the 2-5 cm range. With the increasing sophistication of fixators, including rail, hexapod, and hybrid, complex deformities may be corrected simultaneously while moderate to extreme lengthening is achieved. More recently, iterations of telescoping intramedullary rods have further strengthened our armamentarium. Meanwhile, permanent epiphysiodesis techniques, both open and percutaneous, have yielded to more versatile and reversible tethering of one (angle) or both (length) sides of a physis...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913190/synthesis-and-label-free-characterization-of-a-bimolecular-pna-homo-quadruplex
#2
Brunella Pinto, Giulia Rusciano, Stefano D'Errico, Nicola Borbone, Antonio Sasso, Vincenzo Piccialli, Luciano Mayol, Giorgia Oliviero, Gennaro Piccialli
BACKGROUND: G-quadruplex DNA is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Both clinical and experimental studies on DNA G-quadruplexes are slowed down by their enzymatic instability. In this frame, more stable chemically modified analogs are needed. METHODS: The bis-end-linked-(gggt)2 PNA molecule (BEL-PNA) was synthesized using in solution and solid phase synthetic approaches. Quadruplex formation was assessed by circular dichroism (CD) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911798/stretchable-multichannel-antennas-in-soft-wireless-optoelectronic-implants-for-optogenetics
#3
Sung Il Park, Gunchul Shin, Jordan G McCall, Ream Al-Hasani, Aaron Norris, Li Xia, Daniel S Brenner, Kyung Nim Noh, Sang Yun Bang, Dionnet L Bhatti, Kyung-In Jang, Seung-Kyun Kang, Aaron D Mickle, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price, Robert W Gereau, Michael R Bruchas, John A Rogers
Optogenetic methods to modulate cells and signaling pathways via targeted expression and activation of light-sensitive proteins have greatly accelerated the process of mapping complex neural circuits and defining their roles in physiological and pathological contexts. Recently demonstrated technologies based on injectable, microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes (μ-ILEDs) with wireless control and power delivery strategies offer important functionality in such experiments, by eliminating the external tethers associated with traditional fiber optic approaches...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911786/geometry-induced-sequence-of-nanoscale-frank-kasper-and-quasicrystal-mesophases-in-giant-surfactants
#4
Kan Yue, Mingjun Huang, Ryan L Marson, Jinlin He, Jiahao Huang, Zhe Zhou, Jing Wang, Chang Liu, Xuesheng Yan, Kan Wu, Zaihong Guo, Hao Liu, Wei Zhang, Peihong Ni, Chrys Wesdemiotis, Wen-Bin Zhang, Sharon C Glotzer, Stephen Z D Cheng
Frank-Kasper (F-K) and quasicrystal phases were originally identified in metal alloys and only sporadically reported in soft materials. These unconventional sphere-packing schemes open up possibilities to design materials with different properties. The challenge in soft materials is how to correlate complex phases built from spheres with the tunable parameters of chemical composition and molecular architecture. Here, we report a complete sequence of various highly ordered mesophases by the self-assembly of specifically designed and synthesized giant surfactants, which are conjugates of hydrophilic polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane cages tethered with hydrophobic polystyrene tails...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901298/biomimicry-promotes-the-efficiency-of-a-10-step-sequential-enzymatic-reaction-on-nanoparticles-converting-glucose-to-lactate
#5
Chinatsu Mukai, Lizeng Gao, Jacquelyn L Nelson, James P Lata, Roy Cohen, Lauren Wu, Meleana M Hinchman, Magnus Bergkvist, Robert W Sherwood, Sheng Zhang, Alexander J Travis
For nanobiotechnology to achieve its potential, complex organic-inorganic systems must grow to utilize the sequential functions of multiple biological components. Critical challenges exist: immobilizing enzymes can block substrate-binding sites or prohibit conformational changes, substrate composition can interfere with activity, and multistep reactions risk diffusion of intermediates. As a result, the most complex tethered reaction reported involves only 3 enzymes. Inspired by the oriented immobilization of glycolytic enzymes on the fibrous sheath of mammalian sperm, here we show a complex reaction of 10 enzymes tethered to nanoparticles...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899560/not5-dependent-co-translational-assembly-of-ada2-and-spt20-is-essential-for-functional-integrity-of-saga
#6
Sari Kassem, Zoltan Villanyi, Martine A Collart
Acetylation of histones regulates gene expression in eukaryotes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae it depends mainly upon the ADA and SAGA histone acetyltransferase complexes for which Gcn5 is the catalytic subunit. Previous screens have determined that global acetylation is reduced in cells lacking subunits of the Ccr4-Not complex, a global regulator of eukaryotic gene expression. In this study we have characterized the functional connection between the Ccr4-Not complex and SAGA. We show that SAGA mRNAs encoding a core set of SAGA subunits are tethered together for co-translational assembly of the encoded proteins...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899338/high-touch-and-high-tech-ht2-proposal-transforming-patient-engagement-throughout-the-continuum-of-care-by-engaging-patients-with-portal-technology-at-the-bedside
#7
Ann Scheck McAlearney, Cynthia J Sieck, Jennifer L Hefner, Alison M Aldrich, Daniel M Walker, Milisa K Rizer, Susan D Moffatt-Bruce, Timothy R Huerta
BACKGROUND: For patients with complex care needs, engagement in disease management activities is critical. Chronic illnesses touch almost every person in the United States. The costs are real, personal, and pervasive. In response, patients often seek tools to help them manage their health. Patient portals, personal health records tethered to an electronic health record, show promise as tools that patients value and that can improve health. Although patient portals currently focus on the outpatient experience, the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center (OSUWMC) has deployed a portal designed specifically for the inpatient experience that is connected to the ambulatory patient portal available after discharge...
November 29, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886318/site-specific-covalent-capture-of-human-o-6-alkylguanine-dna-alkyltransferase-using-single-stranded-intrastrand-cross-linked-dna
#8
D K O'Flaherty, C J Wilds
A methodology is reported to conjugate human O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (hAGT) to the 3'-end of DNA in excellent yields with short reaction times by using intrastrand cross-linked (IaCL) DNA probes. This strategy exploited the substrate specificity of hAGT to generate the desired DNA-protein covalent complex. IaCL DNA linking two thymidine residues, or linking a thymidine residue to a 2'-deoxyguanosine residue (either in a 5'→3' or 3'→5' fashion), lacking a phosphodiester linkage at the cross-linked site, were prepared using a phosphoramidite strategy followed by solid-phase synthesis...
November 25, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883243/alternative-mechanistic-strategy-for-enzyme-catalysis-in-a-ni-dependent-lactate-racemase-lara-intermediate-destabilization-by-the-cofactor
#9
Xiaoyong Zhang, Lung Wa Chung
Recently, a lactate racemase was discovered as a new Ni-dependent enzyme with a unique tethered NAD-like cofactor. We report the first computational study aimed at deciphering the previously unclear role of the Ni-tethered cofactor in reactions of lactate racemase. Our calculations revealed that the cofactor increases the dehydrogenation barriers. The formation of a metastable NADH-like pyruvate intermediate and two nearby histidine bases are proposed as the key factors in the racemization reaction. Such destabilization of intermediates by the cofactor is uncommon in enzymatic catalysis...
November 24, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875301/an-intrinsically-disordered-aplf-links-ku-dna-pkcs-and-xrcc4-dna-ligase-iv-in-an-extended-flexible-non-homologous-end-joining-complex
#10
Michal Hammel, Yaping Yu, Sarvan Kumar Radhakrishnan, Chirayu Chokshi, Miaw-Sheue Tsai, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Monica Kuzdovich, Soumya G Remesh, Shujuan Fang, Alan E Tomkinson, Susan P Lees-Miller, John A Tainer
DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in human cells is initiated by Ku heterodimer binding to a DSB, followed by recruitment of core NHEJ factors including DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), XRCC4-like factor (XLF) and XRCC4 (X4)-DNA ligase IV (L4). In addition, Ku interacts with accessory factors such as Aprataxin and Polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase-Like Factor (APLF), yet how these factors interact to tether, process and ligate DSB ends while allowing regulation and chromatin interactions remains enigmatic...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874972/a-hemilabile-and-cooperative-n-donor-functionalized-1-2-3-triazol-5-ylidene-ligand-for-selective-and-base-free-rhodium-i-catalyzed-alkyne-hydrothiolation-reactions
#11
Ian Strydom, Gregorio Guisado-Barrios, Israel Fernandez, David C Liles, Eduardo Peris, Daniela Ina Bezuidenhout
A series of novel cationic and neutral Rh-complexes with an N-donor functionalized 1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (TRZ) ligand (where pendant N-donor is NHBoc, NH2 or NMe2 respectively) is described. Their catalytic activity was evaluated towards the hydrothiolation of alkynes. Among the catalysts, a neutral dicarbonyl complex featuring the tethered-NBoc amido-TRZ ligand proved very selective for alkyne hydrothiolation with an aryl thiol. Remarkably, the reaction could be carried out in the absence of pyridine or base additive...
November 22, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872253/gtpase-cross-talk-regulates-trappii-activation-of-rab11-homologues-during-vesicle-biogenesis
#12
Laura L Thomas, J Christopher Fromme
Rab guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) control cellular trafficking pathways by regulating vesicle formation, transport, and tethering. Rab11 and its paralogs regulate multiple secretory and endocytic recycling pathways, yet the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates Rab11 in most eukaryotic cells is unresolved. The large multisubunit transport protein particle (TRAPP) II complex has been proposed to act as a GEF for Rab11 based on genetic evidence, but conflicting biochemical experiments have created uncertainty regarding Rab11 activation...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865066/newly-synthesized-camp-is-integrated-at-a-membrane-protein-complex-signalosome-to-ensure-receptor-response-specificity
#13
Raquel Guinzberg, Antonio Díaz-Cruz, Carlos Acosta-Trujillo, María Magdalena Vilchis-Landeros, Héctor Vázquez-Meza, Carlos Lozano-Flores, Natalia Chiquete-Felix, Alfredo Varela-Echavarría, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal, Héctor Riveros-Rosas, Enrique Piña
Spatiotemporal regulation of cAMP within the cell is required to achieve receptor-specific responses. The mechanism through which the cell selects a specific response to new synthesized cAMP is not fully understood. In hepatocyte plasma membranes, we identified two functional and independent cAMP-responsive signaling protein macrocomplexes that produce, use, degrade, and regulate their own non-diffusible (sequestered) cAMP pool to achieve their specific responses. Each complex responds to the stimulation of an adenosine G-protein coupled receptor (Ado-GPCR), bound to either A2A or A2B , but not simultaneously to both...
November 19, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863241/the-chromatin-remodeler-isw1-is-a-quality-control-factor-that-surveys-nuclear-mrnp-biogenesis
#14
Anna Babour, Qingtang Shen, Julien Dos-Santos, Struan Murray, Alexandre Gay, Drice Challal, Milo Fasken, Benoît Palancade, Anita Corbett, Domenico Libri, Jane Mellor, Catherine Dargemont
Chromatin dynamics play an essential role in regulating DNA transaction processes, but it is unclear whether transcription-associated chromatin modifications control the mRNA ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs) pipeline from synthesis to nuclear exit. Here, we identify the yeast ISW1 chromatin remodeling complex as an unanticipated mRNP nuclear export surveillance factor that retains export-incompetent transcripts near their transcription site. This tethering activity of ISW1 requires chromatin binding and is independent of nucleosome sliding activity or changes in RNA polymerase II processivity...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858498/sun1-splice-variants-sun1_888-sun1_785-and-predominant-sun1_916-variably-function-in-directional-cell-migration
#15
Yu Nishioka, Hiromasa Imaizumi, Junko Imada, Jun Katahira, Nariaki Matsuura, Miki Hieda
The LINC complex is a multifunctional protein complex that is involved in various processes at the nuclear envelope, such as nuclear migration, mechanotransduction and chromatin tethering in the meiotic phase. However, it remains unknown how these functions are regulated in different cell contexts. An inner nuclear membrane component of the LINC complex, SUN1, is ubiquitously expressed. The human SUN1 gene produces over 10 variants by alternative splicing. Although functions of SUN1 are relatively well characterized, functional differences among SUN1 splice variants are poorly characterized...
November 18, 2016: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855118/tethering-telomerase-to-telomeres-increases-genome-instability-and-promotes-chronological-aging-in-yeast
#16
Jun Liu, Ming-Hong He, Jing Peng, Yi-Min Duan, Yi-Si Lu, Zhenfang Wu, Ting Gong, Hong-Tao Li, Jin-Qiu Zhou
Chronological aging of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is attributed to multi-faceted traits especially those involving genome instability, and has been considered to be an aging model for post-mitotic cells in higher organisms. Telomeres are the physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, and are essential for genome integrity and stability. It remains elusive whether dysregulated telomerase activity affects chronological aging. We employed the CDC13-EST2 fusion gene, which tethers telomerase to telomeres, to examine the effect of constitutively active telomerase on chronological lifespan (CLS)...
November 13, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852901/multivalent-rab-interactions-determine-tether-mediated-membrane-fusion
#17
Anna Lürick, Jieqiong Gao, Anne Kuhlee, Erdal Yavavli, Lars Langemeyer, Angela Perz, Stefan Raunser, Christian Ungermann
Membrane fusion at endomembranes requires crosstalk between Rab GTPases and tethers to drive SNARE-mediated lipid bilayer mixing. Several tethers have multiple Rab binding sites with largely untested function. Here, we dissected the lysosomal HOPS complex as a tethering complex with just two binding sites for the Rab7-like Ypt7 protein to determine their relevance for fusion. Using tethering and fusion assays combined with HOPS mutants we show that HOPS-dependent fusion requires both Rab binding sites, with Vps39 being the stronger Ypt7-interactor than Vps41...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845380/integrins-outside-focal-adhesions-transmit-tensions-during-stable-cell-adhesion
#18
Yongliang Wang, Xuefeng Wang
Integrins coupled with other proteins form protein complexes named focal adhesions (FA) which are considered as the primary sites for cellular forces transduction during cell stable adhesion. Cell traction forces transmitted by FAs and integrin tensions inside FAs have been extensively studied. However, it remains unknown whether integrins outside FAs can transmit tension, and if so, what is the tension range. We previously developed a tension sensor named tension gauge tether (TGT). To calibrate integrin tensions outside FAs, here we applied multiplex TGT (mTGT) to simultaneously monitor integrin tensions at separate levels...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844436/single-molecule-protein-folding-experiments-using-high-precision-optical-tweezers
#19
Junyi Jiao, Aleksander A Rebane, Lu Ma, Yongli Zhang
How proteins fold from linear chains of amino acids to delicate three-dimensional structures remains a fundamental biological problem. Single-molecule manipulation based on high-resolution optical tweezers (OT) provides a powerful approach to study protein folding with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. In this method, a single protein or protein complex is tethered between two beads confined in optical traps and pulled. Protein unfolding induced by the mechanical force is counteracted by the spontaneous folding of the protein, reaching a dynamic equilibrium at a characteristic force and rate...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836746/trf2-recruits-orc-through-trfh-domain-dimerization
#20
Mitsunori Higa, Tatsunori Kushiyama, Seiichiro Kurashige, Daisuke Kohmon, Kouki Enokitani, Satoko Iwahori, Nozomi Sugimoto, Kazumasa Yoshida, Masatoshi Fujita
Telomeres are specialized chromatin structures that prevent the degradation and instability of the ends of linear chromosomes. While telomerase maintains long stretches of the telomeric repeat, the majority of telomeric DNA is duplicated by conventional DNA replication. A fundamental step in eukaryotic DNA replication involves chromatin binding of the origin recognition complex (ORC). In human cells, telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) is thought to play a role in the recruitment of ORC onto telomeres...
November 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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