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Tethering complex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645217/microtubule-organizing-centers
#1
Jingchao Wu, Anna Akhmanova
The organization of microtubule networks is crucial for controlling chromosome segregation during cell division, positioning, and transport of different organelles and for cell polarity and morphogenesis. The geometry of microtubule arrays strongly depends on the localization and activity of the sites where microtubules are nucleated and where their minus ends are anchored. Such sites are often clustered into structures known as microtubule-organizing centers, which include the centrosomes in animals and spindle pole bodies in fungi...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640448/overview-of-the-muscle-cytoskeleton
#2
Christine A Henderson, Christopher G Gomez, Stefanie M Novak, Lei Mi-Mi, Carol C Gregorio
Cardiac and skeletal striated muscles are intricately designed machines responsible for muscle contraction. Coordination of the basic contractile unit, the sarcomere, and the complex cytoskeletal networks are critical for contractile activity. The sarcomere is comprised of precisely organized individual filament systems that include thin (actin), thick (myosin), titin, and nebulin. Connecting the sarcomere to other organelles (e.g., mitochondria and nucleus) and serving as the scaffold to maintain cellular integrity are the intermediate filaments...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637866/endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-junction-is-required-for-iron-homeostasis
#3
Yong Xue, Stefan Schmollinger, Narsis Attar, Oscar Campos, Maria Vogelauer, Michael F Carey, Sabeeha S Merchant, Siavash K Kurdistani
The Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Encounter Structure (ERMES) is a protein complex that physically tethers the two organelles to each other and creates the physical basis for communication between them. ERMES functions in lipid and calcium exchange between the ER and mitochondria, protein import into mitochondria and maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and genome. Here we report that ERMES is also required for iron homeostasis. Loss of ERMES components activates an Aft1-dependent iron deficiency response even in iron-replete conditions, leading to accumulation of excess iron inside the cell...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637767/a-short-region-upstream-of-the-yeast-vacuolar-qa-snare-heptad-repeats-promotes-membrane-fusion-through-enhanced-snare-complex-assembly
#4
Hongki Song, William Wickner
While SNARE heptad-repeats are well studied, SNAREs also have upstream N-domains of indeterminate function. The assembly of yeast vacuolar SNAREs into complexes for fusion can be studied in chemically-defined reactions. Complementary proteoliposomes bearing a Rab:GTP and either the vacuolar R-SNARE or one of the 3 integrally-anchored Q-SNAREs were incubated with the tethering/SM protein complex HOPS and the two other soluble SNAREs (lacking a trans-membrane anchor) or their SNARE heptad-repeat domains. Fusion required a trans-membrane anchored R-SNARE on one membrane and an anchored Q-SNARE on the other...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627777/cation-driven-self-assembly-of-a-gold-i-based-metallo-tweezer
#5
Eduardo Victor Peris, Susana Ibañez, Macarena Poyatos
A combination of self-complementary pi-pi-stacking interactions and metallophilic interactions triggers the self-assembly of a new di-gold(I) metallotweezer in the presence of several M+ ions. Titrations by fluorescence spectroscopy allowed determining the association constants of the resulting inclusion duplex complexes. The quasi-orthogonal disposition of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the tether (anthracene), and at the NHC ligand (pyrene), together with the presence of the Au(I) centers, affords the self-complementarity needed for the formation of self-assembled structures with a cavity capable of recognizing metal cations and establishing M-Au metallophilic interactions...
June 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627726/the-arl3-and-arl1-gtpase-cooperates-with-cog8-to-regulate-selective-autophagy-via-atg9-trafficking
#6
I-Hao Wang, Yi-Jie Chen, Jia-Wei Hsu, Fang-Jen S Lee
The Arl3-Arl1 GTPase cascade plays important roles in vesicle trafficking at the late Golgi and endosomes. Subunits of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, a tethering factor, are important for endosome-to-Golgi transport and contribute to the efficient functioning of the cytoplasm-to-vacuole (Cvt) pathway, a well-known selective autophagy pathway. According to our findings, the Arl3-Arl1 GTPase cascade cooperates with Cog8 to regulate the Cvt pathway via Atg9 trafficking. arl3cog8Δ and arl1cog8Δ exhibit profound defects in aminopeptidase I maturation in rich medium...
June 19, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624199/engineering-next-generation-bet-independent-mlv-vectors-for-safer-gene-therapy
#7
Sara El Ashkar, Dominique Van Looveren, Franziska Schenk, Lenard S Vranckx, Jonas Demeulemeester, Jan De Rijck, Zeger Debyser, Ute Modlich, Rik Gijsbers
Retroviral vectors have shown their curative potential in clinical trials correcting monogenetic disorders. However, therapeutic benefits were compromised due to vector-induced dysregulation of cellular genes and leukemia development in a subset of patients. Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins act as cellular cofactors that tether the murine leukemia virus (MLV) pre-integration complex to host chromatin via interaction with the MLV integrase (IN) and thereby define the typical gammaretroviral integration distribution...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619950/how-neutrophils-resist-shear-stress-at-blood-vessel-walls-molecular-mechanisms-subcellular-structures-and-cell-cell-interactions
#8
REVIEW
Daniela Begandt, Sarah Thome, Markus Sperandio, Barbara Walzog
Neutrophils are the first cells arriving at sites of tissue injury or infection to combat invading pathogens. Successful neutrophil recruitment to sites of inflammation highly depends on specific molecular mechanisms, fine-tuning the received information into signaling pathways and converting them into well-described recruitment steps. This review highlights the impact of vascular flow conditions on neutrophil recruitment and the multitude of mechanisms developed to enable this sophisticated process under wall shear stress conditions...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615693/the-ccr4-not-complex-contributes-to-repression-of-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-ii-transcription
#9
Alfonso Rodríguez-Gil, Olesja Ritter, Vera V Saul, Jochen Wilhelm, Chen-Yuan Yang, Rudolf Grosschedl, Yumiko Imai, Keiji Kuba, Michael Kracht, M Lienhard Schmitz
The multi-subunit CCR4 (carbon catabolite repressor 4)-NOT (Negative on TATA) complex serves as a central coordinator of all different steps of eukaryotic gene expression. Here we performed a systematic and comparative analysis of cells where the CCR4-NOT subunits CNOT1, CNOT2 or CNOT3 were individually downregulated using doxycycline-inducible shRNAs. Microarray experiments showed that downregulation of either CNOT subunit resulted in elevated expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) genes which are found in a gene cluster on chromosome 6...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605454/stacks-off-tracks-a-role-for-the-golgin-atcasp-in-plant-endoplasmic-reticulum-golgi-apparatus-tethering
#10
Anne Osterrieder, Imogen A Sparkes, Stan W Botchway, Andy Ward, Tijs Ketelaar, Norbert de Ruijter, Chris Hawes
The plant Golgi apparatus modifies and sorts incoming proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and synthesizes cell wall matrix material. Plant cells possess numerous motile Golgi bodies, which are connected to the ER by yet to be identified tethering factors. Previous studies indicated a role for cis-Golgi plant golgins, which are long coiled-coil domain proteins anchored to Golgi membranes, in Golgi biogenesis. Here we show a tethering role for the golgin AtCASP at the ER-Golgi interface. Using live-cell imaging, Golgi body dynamics were compared in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf epidermal cells expressing fluorescently tagged AtCASP, a truncated AtCASP-ΔCC lacking the coiled-coil domains, and the Golgi marker STtmd...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598369/plant-lectins-targeting-o-glycans-at-the-cell-surface-as-tools-for-cancer-diagnosis-prognosis-and-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Guillaume Poiroux, Annick Barre, Els J M van Damme, Hervé Benoist, Pierre Rougé
Aberrant O-glycans expressed at the surface of cancer cells consist of membrane-tethered glycoproteins (T and Tn antigens) and glycolipids (Lewis a, Lewis x and Forssman antigens). All of these O-glycans have been identified as glyco-markers of interest for the diagnosis and the prognosis of cancer diseases. These epitopes are specifically detected using T/Tn-specific lectins isolated from various plants such as jacalin from Artocarpus integrifola, and fungi such as the Agaricus bisporus lectin. These lectins accommodate T/Tn antigens at the monosaccharide-binding site; residues located in the surrounding extended binding-site of the lectins often participate in the binding of more extended epitopes...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592828/a-highly-conserved-sequence-of-the-viral-tap-inhibitor-icp47-is-required-for-freezing-of-the-peptide-transport-cycle
#12
Tony Matschulla, Richard Berry, Carolin Gerke, Marius Döring, Julia Busch, Jennifer Paijo, Ulrich Kalinke, Frank Momburg, Hartmut Hengel, Anne Halenius
The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates antigenic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen for loading onto MHC class I molecules. This is a key step in the control of viral infections through CD8+ T-cells. The herpes simplex virus type-1 encodes an 88 amino acid long species-specific TAP inhibitor, ICP47, that functions as a high affinity competitor for the peptide binding site on TAP. It has previously been suggested that the inhibitory function of ICP47 resides within the N-terminal region (residues 1-35)...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591827/tethering-not-required-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-binds-directly-to-activator-protein-1-recognition-motifs-to-repress-inflammatory-genes
#13
Emily R Weikum, Ian Mitchelle S de Vera, Jerome C Nwachukwu, William H Hudson, Kendall W Nettles, Douglas J Kojetin, Eric A Ortlund
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand-regulated transcription factor that controls the expression of extensive gene networks, driving both up- and down-regulation. GR utilizes multiple DNA-binding-dependent and -independent mechanisms to achieve context-specific transcriptional outcomes. The DNA-binding-independent mechanism involves tethering of GR to the pro-inflammatory transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) through protein-protein interactions. This mechanism has served as the predominant model of GR-mediated transrepression of inflammatory genes...
June 7, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576968/localisation-of-nup153-and-senp1-to-nuclear-pore-complexes-is-required-for-53bp1-mediated-dna-double-strand-break-repair
#14
Vincent Duheron, Nadine Nilles, Sylvia Pecenko, Valérie Martinelli, Birthe Fahrenkrog
The nuclear basket of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is composed of three nucleoporins: Nup153, Nup50 and Tpr. Nup153 has a role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by promoting nuclear import of 53BP1, a mediator of DNA damage response. Here we provide evidence that loss of Nup153 compromises 53BP1 sumoylation, prerequisite for efficient accumulation of 53BP1 at DSBs. Depletion of Nup153 resulted in reduced SUMO1 modification of 53BP1 and the displacement of the SUMO protease SENP1 from NPCs. Artificial tethering of SENP1 to NPCs restored non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in the absence of Nup153 and re-established 53BP1 sumoylation...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576471/connection-of-protein-transport-and-organelle-contact-sites-in-mitochondria
#15
REVIEW
Lars Ellenrieder, Heike Rampelt, Thomas Becker
Mitochondrial biogenesis and function depend on the intensive exchange of molecules with other cellular compartments. The mitochondrial outer membrane plays a central role in this communication process. It is equipped with a number of specific protein machineries that enable the transport of proteins and metabolites. Furthermore, the outer membrane forms molecular contact sites with other cell organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thus integrating mitochondrial function in cellular physiology. The best-studied mitochondrial organelle contact site, the ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) has been linked to many vital processes including mitochondrial division, inheritance, mitophagy, and phospholipid transport...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576081/the-effects-of-tether-placement-on-antibody-stability-on-surfaces
#16
Rebecca W Grawe, Thomas A Knotts
Despite their potential benefits, antibody microarrays have fallen short of performing reliably and have not found widespread use outside of the research setting. Experimental techniques have been unable to determine what is occurring on the surface of an atomic level, so molecular simulation has emerged as the primary method of investigating protein/surface interactions. Simulations of small proteins have indicated that the stability of the protein is a function of the residue on the protein where a tether is placed...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574251/non-native-metal-ion-reveals-the-role-of-electrostatics-in-synaptotagmin-1-membrane-interactions
#17
Sachin Katti, Sarah B Nyenhuis, Bin Her, Atul K Srivastava, Alexander B Taylor, P John Hart, David S Cafiso, Tatyana I Igumenova
C2 domains are independently folded modules that often target their host proteins to anionic membranes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. In these cases, membrane association is triggered by Ca(2+) binding to the negatively charged loop region of the C2 domain. Here, we used a non-native metal ion, Cd(2+), in lieu of Ca(2+) to gain insight into the contributions made by long-range Coulombic interactions and direct metal ion-lipid bridging to membrane binding. Using X-ray crystallography, NMR, Förster resonance energy transfer, and vesicle cosedimentation assays, we demonstrate that, although Cd(2+) binds to the loop region of C2A/B domains of synaptotagmin 1 with high affinity, long-range Coulombic interactions are too weak to support membrane binding of individual domains...
June 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570695/molecular-basis-for-the-binding-and-modulation-of-v-atpase-by-a-bacterial-effector-protein
#18
Jianhua Zhao, Ksenia Beyrakhova, Yao Liu, Claudia P Alvarez, Stephanie A Bueler, Li Xu, Caishuang Xu, Michal T Boniecki, Voula Kanelis, Zhao-Qing Luo, Miroslaw Cygler, John L Rubinstein
Intracellular pathogenic bacteria evade the immune response by replicating within host cells. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' Disease, makes use of numerous effector proteins to construct a niche supportive of its replication within phagocytic cells. The L. pneumophila effector SidK was identified in a screen for proteins that reduce the activity of the proton pumping vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. SidK is secreted by L. pneumophila in the early stages of infection and by binding to and inhibiting the V-ATPase, SidK reduces phagosomal acidification and promotes survival of the bacterium inside macrophages...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559361/ap3-adaptor-protein-dependent-vacuolar-trafficking-involves-a-subpopulation-of-copii-and-hops-tethering-proteins
#19
Qiang-Nan Feng, Shi-Jian Song, Shi-Xia Yu, Jia-Gang Wang, Sha Li, Yan Zhang
Plant vacuoles are versatile organelles critical for plant growth and responses to environment. Vacuolar proteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via multiple routes in plants. Two classic routes bear great similarity to other phyla with major regulators known, such as COPII and Rab5 GTPases. By contrast, vacuolar trafficking mediated by adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) or that independent of Golgi has few recognized cargos and none of the regulators. In search of novel regulators for vacuolar trafficking routes and by using a fluorescence-based forward genetic screen, we demonstrated that the multi-span transmembrane protein, Arabidopsis PROTEIN S-ACYL TRANSFERASE 10 (PAT10), is an AP-3-mediated vacuolar cargo...
May 30, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556288/application-of-surface-click-reactions-to-localized-surface-plasmon-resonance-lspr-biosensing
#20
Israel Rubinstein, Noga Yaakov, Yulia Chaikin, Ezequiel Wexselblatt, Yitzhak Tor, Alexander Vaskevich
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy is an effective tool for sensitive, affordable and label-free biosensing. LSPR transducers based on nanoparticulate Au films have been applied to biosensing of receptor-analyte interactions, employing primarily thiolated receptors for constructing biorecognition interfaces on nanostructured Au surfaces. This popular method suffers from a major drawback, i.e., the need to prepare a thiolated receptor for each system used, which is typically synthetically complex and time-consuming...
May 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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