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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458211/synthesis-of-vegetable-oil-based-polymer-by-terpolymerization-of-epoxidized-soybean-oil-propylene-oxide-and-carbon-dioxide
#1
Farra Wahida Shaarani, Jordi J Bou
Although carbon dioxide (CO2) is well known as one of the major green-house gases, it is also an economical C1 resource. Thus, CO2 has been regarded as an appealing starting material for the synthesis of polymers, like polycarbonates by the reaction with epoxides. Herein the reaction between natural epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), propylene oxide (PO) and CO2 under high pressure (4.0MPa) with the presence of Co-Zn double metal cyanide (Co-Zn DMC) catalyst was studied. Temperature and reaction time were varied accordingly and the products obtained were characterized by FTIR, GPC and (1)H NMR...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222834/acute-and-chronic-outcomes-of-gas-bubble-disease-in-a-colony-of-african-clawed-frogs-xenopus-laevis
#2
Julia Y Tsai, Stephen A Felt, Donna M Bouley, Sherril L Green
Gas-bubble disease occurs in aquatic species that are exposed to water that is supersaturated with gases. In February 2007, municipal water supersaturated with gas was inadvertently pumped into the vivarium's aquatic housing systems and affected approximately 450 adult female Xenopus laevis. The inflow of supersaturated water was stopped immediately, the holding tanks aggressively aerated, and all experimental manipulations and feeding ceased. Within the first 6 h after the event, morbidity approached 90%, and mortality reached 3...
February 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196141/changing-patterns-of-meat-consumption-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-australia-will-kangaroo-meat-make-a-difference
#3
Shyama Ratnasiri, Jayatilleke Bandara
The Australian per capita consumption of ruminant meat such as beef and lamb has declined over the last two decades. Over the same period, however, per capita consumption of non-ruminant meat such as chicken and pork has continued to increase. Furthermore, it is now observed that the human consumption of kangaroo meat is on the rise. This study investigates the implications of these changes in meat consumption patterns on Green House Gases (GHGs) emission mitigation in Australia using a Vector Auto Regression (VAR) forecasting approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142125/potential-role-of-compost-and-green-manure-amendment-to-mitigate-soil-ghgs-emissions-in-mediterranean-drip-irrigated-maize-production-systems
#4
Annachiara Forte, Massimo Fagnano, Angelo Fierro
Organic fertilization can preserve soil organic matter (SOM) and is foreseen as an effective strategy to reduce green house gases (GHGs) emissions in agriculture. However, its effectiveness needs to be clarified under specific climate, crop management and soil characteristics. A field experiment was carried out in a Mediterranean drip irrigated maize system to assess the pattern of soil CO2 and N2O fluxes in response to the replacement of a typical bare fallow-maize cycle under urea fertilization (130 kg N ha(-1) y(-1)) (CONV) with: (i) bare fallow-maize cycles under two doses of compost (COM1 and COM2, 130 and 260 kg N ha(-1) y(-1), respectively) and (ii) a vetch-maize cycle, with vetch incorporation as green manure (130 kg N ha(-1) y(-1)) (GMAN)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066511/biomass-waste-to-energy-valorisation-technologies-a-review-case-for-banana-processing-in-uganda
#5
REVIEW
Robert Gumisiriza, Joseph Funa Hawumba, Mackay Okure, Oliver Hensel
BACKGROUND: Uganda's banana industry is heavily impeded by the lack of cheap, reliable and sustainable energy mainly needed for processing of banana fruit into pulp and subsequent drying into chips before milling into banana flour that has several uses in the bakery industry, among others. Uganda has one of the lowest electricity access levels, estimated at only 2-3% in rural areas where most of the banana growing is located. In addition, most banana farmers have limited financial capacity to access modern solar energy technologies that can generate sufficient energy for industrial processing...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011287/green-residues-from-bangkok-green-space-for-renewable-energy-recovery-phosphorus-recycling-and-greenhouse-gases-emission-reduction
#6
Bussarakam Thitanuwat, Chongchin Polprasert, Andrew J Englande
Effective ways to integrate human life quality, environmental pollution mitigation and efficient waste management strategies are becoming a crisis challenge for sustainable urban development. The aims of this study are: (1) to evaluate and recommend an optimum Urban Green Space (UGS) area for the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA); and (2) to quantify potential renewable resources including electricity generation and potential nutrient recovery from generated ash. Green House Gases (GHGs) emissions from the management of Green Residues (GR) produced in a recommended UGS expansion are estimated and compared with those from the existing BMA waste management practice...
March 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011026/experimental-modeling-of-thaw-lake-water-evolution-in-discontinuous-permafrost-zone-role-of-peat-lichen-leaching-and-ground-fire
#7
Rinat M Manasypov, Liudmila S Shirokova, Oleg S Pokrovsky
Thaw of frozen peat in discontinuous permafrost zone produces a significant number of thermokarst lakes, which are known to contribute to Green House Gases (GHG) emission in the atmosphere. In palsa peatland of western Siberia, the thermokarst lake formation includes soil subsidences, lichen submergence and peat abrasion, leading to lateral spreading of the lake border, often intensified by ground fires. Mesocosm experiments were conducted during 3weeks on two thermokarst lake waters interacting in 30-L tanks with surface horizon of peat, the dominant ground vegetation (lichen Cladonia sp...
February 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966955/physical-absorption-of-green-house-gases-in-amines-the-influence-of-functionality-structure-and-cross-interactions
#8
Gustavo A Orozco, Véronique Lachet, Allan D Mackie
Monte Carlo simulations were performed in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble (NPT) to calculate the Henry constants of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in pure H2O, amines, and alkanolamines using the classical Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules (L-B). The Henry constants of N2O and CO2 in water are highly overestimated and motivated us to propose a new set of unlike interactions. Contrarily, the Henry constant of N2O in MEA is underestimated by around 40%, and again, a new reoptimized cross unlike parameter is able to reproduce the constant to within 10%...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638318/bioremediation-techniques-classification-based-on-site-of-application-principles-advantages-limitations-and-prospects
#9
REVIEW
Christopher Chibueze Azubuike, Chioma Blaise Chikere, Gideon Chijioke Okpokwasili
Environmental pollution has been on the rise in the past few decades owing to increased human activities on energy reservoirs, unsafe agricultural practices and rapid industrialization. Amongst the pollutants that are of environmental and public health concerns due to their toxicities are: heavy metals, nuclear wastes, pesticides, green house gases, and hydrocarbons. Remediation of polluted sites using microbial process (bioremediation) has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendly features. Bioremediation can either be carried out ex situ or in situ, depending on several factors, which include but not limited to cost, site characteristics, type and concentration of pollutants...
November 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543175/prospects-of-rice-straw-as-a-raw-material-for-paper-making
#10
REVIEW
Daljeet Kaur, Nishi Kant Bhardwaj, Rajesh Kumar Lohchab
Pulp and paper mills are indispensable for any nation as far as the growth of the nation is concerned. Due to fast growth in population, urbanization and industrialization, the demand and consumption of paper has increased tremendously. These put high load on our natural resources and force the industry to look for alternative raw material. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic material abundantly available in wood short countries like China, India, Bangladesh, etc. and can be used as raw material for this industry...
February 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452233/direct-c-c-coupling-of-co2-and-the-methyl-group-from-ch4-activation-through-facile-insertion-of-co2-into-zn-ch3-%C3%AF-bond
#11
Yuntao Zhao, Chaonan Cui, Jinyu Han, Hua Wang, Xinli Zhu, Qingfeng Ge
Conversion of CO2 and CH4 to value-added products will contribute to alleviating the green-house gas effect but is a challenge both scientifically and practically. Stabilization of the methyl group through CH4 activation and facile CO2 insertion ensure the realization of C-C coupling. In the present study, we demonstrate the ready C-C coupling reaction on a Zn-doped ceria catalyst. The detailed mechanism of this direct C-C coupling reaction was examined based on the results from density functional theory calculations...
August 17, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27321139/carbon-sequestration-capacity-of-sediments-algae-and-zooplankton-from-fresh-water-aquaculture-ponds
#12
K K Anikuttan, S Adhikari, M Kavitha, P Jayasankar
The contribution of aquaculture and allied activities to the emission of green house gases and consequently to global warming is an emerging concern among environmentalists in the recent past. However, there exists ample scope for aquaculture activities to sequester carbon and thus compensate for the carbon emissions linked to aquaculture. This article attempts to elucidate the carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds. The percent organic carbon in the pond sediments ranged from 0...
July 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071767/energetic-assessment-of-fixation-of-co2-and-subsequent-biofuel-production-using-b-cereus-sm1-isolated-from-sewage-treatment-plant
#13
Somesh Mishra, Suresh Gupta, Smita Raghuvanshi, Pratibha Pal
The ongoing work on global warming resulting from green house gases (GHGs) has led to explore the possibility of bacterial strains which can fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and can generate value-added products. The present work is an effort in this direction and has carried out an exhaustive batch experiments for the fixation of CO2 using B. Cereus SM1 isolated from sewage treatment plant (STP). The work has incorporated 5-day batch run for gaseous phase inlet CO2 concentration of 13 ± 1 % (%v/v). 84.6 (±5.76) % of CO2 removal was obtained in the gaseous phase at mentioned CO2 concentration (%v/v)...
August 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26810792/volatile-emissions-during-storing-of-green-food-waste-under-different-aeration-conditions
#14
A Agapiou, J P Vamvakari, A Andrianopoulos, A Pappa
Controlled field experiments were carried out for monitoring the emissions of three plastic commercial household waste bins, which were adapted for studying the effect of aeration process in the evolved volatiles, during house storing of green food waste for 2 weeks, prior to collection. Three experimental scenarios were examined based on no aeration ("NA," closed commercial waste bin), diffusion-based aeration ("DA," closed commercial waste bin with tiny holes), and enforced aeration ("EA," closed commercial waste bin with tiny holes and enforced aeration)...
May 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26560387/effect-of-colliding-partners-on-the-performance-of-sf6-and-so2-trace-measurements-in-photoacoustic-spectroscopy
#15
B Dibaee, P Parvin, A Bavali, V Daneshafrooz, M R Mohebbifar
A photoacoustic (PA) cell was designed based on the numerical simulation and then was fabricated in order to investigate the effect of various buffer gases on the acoustic signals and the resonant frequencies. The sizes of resonator and buffer chambers were suitably selected to improve signal-to-noise ratio. Atmospheric SF<sub>6</sub> impact is high due to its significant green house effect. A series of experiments were performed to detect SF<sub>6</sub> trace in the air and various types of rare gases...
October 20, 2015: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26386464/transport-related-measures-to-mitigate-climate-change-in-basel-switzerland-a-health-effectiveness-comparison-study
#16
L Perez, S Trüeb, H Cowie, M P Keuken, P Mudu, M S Ragettli, D A Sarigiannis, M Tobollik, J Tuomisto, D Vienneau, C Sabel, N Künzli
BACKGROUND: Local strategies to reduce green-house gases (GHG) imply changes of non-climatic exposure patterns. OBJECTIVE: To assess the health impacts of locally relevant transport-related climate change policies in Basel, Switzerland. METHODS: We modelled change in mortality and morbidity for the year 2020 based on several locally relevant transport scenarios including all decided transport policies up to 2020, additional realistic and hypothesized traffic reductions, as well as ambitious diffusion levels of electric cars...
December 2015: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26023265/application-environmental-epidemiology-to-vehicular-air-pollution-and-health-effects-research
#17
REVIEW
Rajan R Patil, Satish Kumar Chetlapally, M Bagvandas
Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25464715/organized-and-optimized-composting-of-agro-waste-some-important-considerations-and-approaches
#18
Shilpa Tripathi
In the modern industrialized society, generation of solid waste, such as agricultural waste, yard waste, waste paper and food waste is increasing at an alarming rate. In countries, like India, a common method of their disposal adopted by farmers, agro- industries, municipal workers and contracting agencies is to burn such waste on site or in incinerators leading to emission of green house gases and release of pollutants directly into atmosphere. In developed countries, these solid wastes are disposed of through landfilling, which are clogging under ever-increasing load...
January 2013: Journal of Environmental Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25355286/nebulized-perflubron-and-carbon-dioxide-rapidly-dilate-constricted-airways-in-an-ovine-model-of-allergic-asthma
#19
Tamer Y El Mays, Parichita Choudhury, Richard Leigh, Emmanuel Koumoundouros, Joanne Van der Velden, Grishma Shrestha, Cora A Pieron, John H Dennis, Francis Hy Green, Ken J Snibson
BACKGROUND: The low toxicity of perfluorocarbons (PFCs), their high affinity for respiratory gases and their compatibility with lung surfactant have made them useful candidates for treating respiratory diseases such as adult respiratory distress syndrome. We report results for treating acute allergic and non-allergic bronchoconstriction in sheep using S-1226 (a gas mixture containing carbon dioxide and small volumes of nebulized perflubron). The carbon dioxide, which is highly soluble in perflubron, was used to relax airway smooth muscle...
2014: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25079990/probing-the-potential-of-polyester-for-co%C3%A2-capture
#20
Sonia Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ilyas Sarwar
Global warming, the major environmental issue confronted by humanity today, is caused by rising level of green house gases. Carbon capture and storage technologies offer potential for tapering CO₂ emission in the atmosphere. Adsorption is believed to be a promising technology for CO₂ capture. For this purpose, a polyester was synthesized by polycondensation of 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl trichloride and cyanuric acid in pyridine and dichloromethane mixture. The polymer was then characterized using FT-IR, TGA, BET surface area and pore size analysis, FESEM and CO₂ adsorption measurements...
July 2014: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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