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green house gases

Christopher Chibueze Azubuike, Chioma Blaise Chikere, Gideon Chijioke Okpokwasili
Environmental pollution has been on the rise in the past few decades owing to increased human activities on energy reservoirs, unsafe agricultural practices and rapid industrialization. Amongst the pollutants that are of environmental and public health concerns due to their toxicities are: heavy metals, nuclear wastes, pesticides, green house gases, and hydrocarbons. Remediation of polluted sites using microbial process (bioremediation) has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendly features. Bioremediation can either be carried out ex situ or in situ, depending on several factors, which include but not limited to cost, site characteristics, type and concentration of pollutants...
November 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Daljeet Kaur, Nishi Kant Bhardwaj, Rajesh Kumar Lohchab
Pulp and paper mills are indispensable for any nation as far as the growth of the nation is concerned. Due to fast growth in population, urbanization and industrialization, the demand and consumption of paper has increased tremendously. These put high load on our natural resources and force the industry to look for alternative raw material. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic material abundantly available in wood short countries like China, India, Bangladesh, etc. and can be used as raw material for this industry...
August 16, 2016: Waste Management
Yuntao Zhao, Chaonan Cui, Jinyu Han, Hua Wang, Xinli Zhu, Qingfeng Ge
Conversion of CO2 and CH4 to value-added products will contribute to alleviating the green-house gas effect but is a challenge both scientifically and practically. Stabilization of the methyl group through CH4 activation and facile CO2 insertion ensure the realization of C-C coupling. In the present study, we demonstrate the ready C-C coupling reaction on a Zn-doped ceria catalyst. The detailed mechanism of this direct C-C coupling reaction was examined based on the results from density functional theory calculations...
August 17, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
K K Anikuttan, S Adhikari, M Kavitha, P Jayasankar
The contribution of aquaculture and allied activities to the emission of green house gases and consequently to global warming is an emerging concern among environmentalists in the recent past. However, there exists ample scope for aquaculture activities to sequester carbon and thus compensate for the carbon emissions linked to aquaculture. This article attempts to elucidate the carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds. The percent organic carbon in the pond sediments ranged from 0...
July 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Somesh Mishra, Suresh Gupta, Smita Raghuvanshi, Pratibha Pal
The ongoing work on global warming resulting from green house gases (GHGs) has led to explore the possibility of bacterial strains which can fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and can generate value-added products. The present work is an effort in this direction and has carried out an exhaustive batch experiments for the fixation of CO2 using B. Cereus SM1 isolated from sewage treatment plant (STP). The work has incorporated 5-day batch run for gaseous phase inlet CO2 concentration of 13 ± 1 % (%v/v). 84.6 (±5.76) % of CO2 removal was obtained in the gaseous phase at mentioned CO2 concentration (%v/v)...
August 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
A Agapiou, J P Vamvakari, A Andrianopoulos, A Pappa
Controlled field experiments were carried out for monitoring the emissions of three plastic commercial household waste bins, which were adapted for studying the effect of aeration process in the evolved volatiles, during house storing of green food waste for 2 weeks, prior to collection. Three experimental scenarios were examined based on no aeration ("NA," closed commercial waste bin), diffusion-based aeration ("DA," closed commercial waste bin with tiny holes), and enforced aeration ("EA," closed commercial waste bin with tiny holes and enforced aeration)...
May 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
B Dibaee, P Parvin, A Bavali, V Daneshafrooz, M R Mohebbifar
A photoacoustic (PA) cell was designed based on the numerical simulation and then was fabricated in order to investigate the effect of various buffer gases on the acoustic signals and the resonant frequencies. The sizes of resonator and buffer chambers were suitably selected to improve signal-to-noise ratio. Atmospheric SF<sub>6</sub> impact is high due to its significant green house effect. A series of experiments were performed to detect SF<sub>6</sub> trace in the air and various types of rare gases...
October 20, 2015: Applied Optics
L Perez, S Trüeb, H Cowie, M P Keuken, P Mudu, M S Ragettli, D A Sarigiannis, M Tobollik, J Tuomisto, D Vienneau, C Sabel, N Künzli
BACKGROUND: Local strategies to reduce green-house gases (GHG) imply changes of non-climatic exposure patterns. OBJECTIVE: To assess the health impacts of locally relevant transport-related climate change policies in Basel, Switzerland. METHODS: We modelled change in mortality and morbidity for the year 2020 based on several locally relevant transport scenarios including all decided transport policies up to 2020, additional realistic and hypothesized traffic reductions, as well as ambitious diffusion levels of electric cars...
December 2015: Environment International
Rajan R Patil, Satish Kumar Chetlapally, M Bagvandas
Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Shilpa Tripathi
In the modern industrialized society, generation of solid waste, such as agricultural waste, yard waste, waste paper and food waste is increasing at an alarming rate. In countries, like India, a common method of their disposal adopted by farmers, agro- industries, municipal workers and contracting agencies is to burn such waste on site or in incinerators leading to emission of green house gases and release of pollutants directly into atmosphere. In developed countries, these solid wastes are disposed of through landfilling, which are clogging under ever-increasing load...
January 2013: Journal of Environmental Science & Engineering
Tamer Y El Mays, Parichita Choudhury, Richard Leigh, Emmanuel Koumoundouros, Joanne Van der Velden, Grishma Shrestha, Cora A Pieron, John H Dennis, Francis Hy Green, Ken J Snibson
BACKGROUND: The low toxicity of perfluorocarbons (PFCs), their high affinity for respiratory gases and their compatibility with lung surfactant have made them useful candidates for treating respiratory diseases such as adult respiratory distress syndrome. We report results for treating acute allergic and non-allergic bronchoconstriction in sheep using S-1226 (a gas mixture containing carbon dioxide and small volumes of nebulized perflubron). The carbon dioxide, which is highly soluble in perflubron, was used to relax airway smooth muscle...
2014: Respiratory Research
Sonia Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ilyas Sarwar
Global warming, the major environmental issue confronted by humanity today, is caused by rising level of green house gases. Carbon capture and storage technologies offer potential for tapering CO₂ emission in the atmosphere. Adsorption is believed to be a promising technology for CO₂ capture. For this purpose, a polyester was synthesized by polycondensation of 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl trichloride and cyanuric acid in pyridine and dichloromethane mixture. The polymer was then characterized using FT-IR, TGA, BET surface area and pore size analysis, FESEM and CO₂ adsorption measurements...
July 2014: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
A Rodriguez-Caballero, I Aymerich, M Poch, M Pijuan
In this study, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission dynamics of a plug-flow bioreactor located in a municipal full-scale wastewater treatment plant were monitored during a period of 10 weeks. In general, CH4 and N2O gas emissions from the bioreactor accounted for 0.016% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 0.116% of the influent total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) respectively. In order to identify the emission patterns in the different zones, the bioreactor was divided in six different sampling sites and the gas collection hood was placed for a period of 2-3 days in each of these sites...
September 15, 2014: Science of the Total Environment
S Murali, Rajnish Shrivastava, Mohini Saxena
In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India...
October 2010: Journal of Environmental Science & Engineering
Javier Nori, J Nicolás Urbina-Cardona, Rafael D Loyola, Julián N Lescano, Gerardo C Leynaud
BACKGROUND: Biological invasion and climate change pose challenges to biodiversity conservation in the 21(st) century. Invasive species modify ecosystem structure and functioning and climatic changes are likely to produce invasive species' range shifts pushing some populations into protected areas. The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is one of the hundred worst invasive species in the world. Native from the southeast of USA, it has colonized more than 75% of South America where it has been reported as a highly effective predator, competitor and vector of amphibian diseases...
2011: PloS One
Hesham M El-Naggar
BACKGROUND: The main activity in Siwa Oasis society is the agriculture, it depends on the groundwater. The agricultural drainage water and the unused saline water of naturally flowing springs are poured into four main salty lakes. This leads to an increase in the surface area of the saltwater lakes, marshes and rise in water table levels. AIM: to investigate some environmental engineering interventions to control the expansion of saltwater surface area in Siwa Oasis...
2010: Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
H Xin, R S Gates, A R Green, F M Mitloehner, P A Moore, C M Wathes
As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air quality and emit more ammonia than manure belt (MB) cage houses; 2) manure removal frequency in MB houses greatly affects ammonia emissions; 3) emissions from manure storage are largely affected by storage conditions, including ventilation rate, manure moisture content, air temperature, and stacking profile; 4) more baseline data on air emissions from high-rise and MB houses are being collected in the United States to complement earlier measurements; 5) noncage houses generally have poorer air quality (ammonia and dust levels) than cage houses; 6) noncage houses tend to be colder during cold weather due to a lower stocking density than caged houses, leading to greater feed and fuel energy use; 7) hens in noncage houses are less efficient in resource (feed, energy, and land) utilization, leading to a greater carbon footprint; 8) excessive application of hen manure to cropland can lead to nutrient runoff to water bodies; 9) hen manure on open (free) range may be subject to runoff during rainfall, although quantitative data are lacking; 10) mitigation technologies exist to reduce generation and emission of noxious gases and dust; however, work is needed to evaluate their economic feasibility and optimize design; and 11) dietary modification shows promise for mitigating emissions...
January 2011: Poultry Science
Klaus Fricke, Tobias Bahr, Werner Bidlingmaier, Christian Springer
In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency...
April 2011: Waste Management
Chutarat Saridara, Smruti Ragunath, Yong Pu, Somenath Mitra
The GC monitoring of green house gases is a challenging task because the concentration of organic species such as methane are relatively low (ppm to ppb) and their analysis requires some level of preconcentration. Since methane is highly volatile, it is not easily retained on conventional sorbents. In this paper we present multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as an effective sorbent for a microtrap designed for methane preconcentration. Its performance was compared to other commercially available carbon based sorbents, and it was found to be the most effective sorbent in terms of breakthrough volume and enthalpy of adsorption...
September 10, 2010: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sung T Oh, Jung Rae Kim, Giuliano C Premier, Tae Ho Lee, Changwon Kim, William T Sloan
The need for cost-effective low-energy wastewater treatment has never been greater. Clean water for our expanding and predominantly urban global population will be expensive to deliver, eats into our diminishing carbon-based energy reserves and consequently contributes to green house gases in the atmosphere and climate change. Thus every potential cost and energy cutting measure for wastewater treatment should be explored. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could potentially yield such savings but, to achieve this, requires significant advances in our understanding in a few critical areas and in our designs of the overall systems...
November 2010: Biotechnology Advances
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