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Hematopoietic stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231508/regulating-dynamic-signaling-between-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-niche-cells-via-a-hydrogel-matrix
#1
Bhushan P Mahadik, Narayanan A K Bharadwaj, Randy H Ewoldt, Brendan A C Harley
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) reside in unique bone marrow niches and are influenced by signals from surrounding cells, the extracellular matrix (ECM), ECM-bound or diffusible biomolecules. Here we describe the use of a three-dimensional hydrogel to alter the balance of HSC-generated autocrine feedback and paracrine signals generated by co-cultured niche-associated cells. We report shifts in HSC proliferation rate and fate specification in the presence of lineage positive (Lin(+)) niche cells. Hydrogels promoting autocrine feedback enhanced expansion of early hematopoietic progenitors while paracrine signals from Lin(+) cells increased myeloid differentiation...
February 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231483/a-novel-redox-regulator-mntnbuoe-2-pyp-5-enhances-normal-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-function
#2
Y Zhao, D W Carroll, Y You, L Chaiswing, R Wen, I Batinic-Haberle, S Bondada, Y Liang, D K St Clair
The signaling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for the maintenance of normal cellular function. However, whether and how ROS regulate stem cells are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that, in transgenic mice expressing the human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene, a scavenger of ROS in mitochondria, the number and function of mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) under physiological conditions are enhanced. Importantly, giving MnTnBuOE-2-PyP(5+)(MnP), a redox- active MnSOD mimetic, to mouse primary bone marrow cells or to C57B/L6 mice significantly enhances the number of HSPCs...
February 10, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230821/circulating-hematopoietic-progenitor-cells-in-patients-affected-by-chornobyl-accident
#3
N M Bilko, I S Dyagil, I Z Russu, D I Bilko
: High radiation sensitivity of stem cells and their ability to accumulate sublethal radiation damage provides the basis for investigation of hematopoietic progenitors using in vivo culture methodology. Unique samples of peripheral blood and bone marrow were derived from the patients affected by Chornobyl accident during liquidation campaign. AIM: To investigate functional activity of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells from peripheral blood and bone marrow of cleanup workers in early and remote periods after the accident at Chornobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP)...
December 2016: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229803/supersaturated-calcium-phosphate-rinse-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-mucositis-in-patients-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#4
Nisha Bhatt, Rahul Naithani, S K Gupta
OBJECTIVES: Mucositis is a common morbidity in patients undergoing bone marrow transplant. Various agents have been used to prevent and treat it with variable success. Here, we assessed the efficacy of supersaturated calcium phosphate rinses in prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the records of 80 patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant and received supersaturated calcium phosphate rinses for preVention of mucositis from April 2012 to January 2016...
February 23, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229282/clinical-studies-in-hematologic-microtransplantation
#5
REVIEW
Kevin A David, Dennis Cooper, Roger Strair
The anti-tumor effects of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation depend upon engraftment of donor cells followed by a graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. However, pre-clinical and clinical studies have established that under certain circumstances, anti-tumor responses can occur despite the absence of high levels of durable donor cell engraftment. Tumor response with little or no donor engraftment has been termed "microtransplantation." It has been hard to define conditions leading to tumor responses without donor cell persistence in humans because the degree of engraftment depends very heavily upon many patient-specific factors, including immune status and degree of prior therapy...
February 22, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228753/reduction-of-relapse-after-unrelated-donor-stem-cell-transplantation-by-kir-based-graft-selection
#6
REVIEW
Silke Heidenreich, Nicolaus Kröger
Besides donor T cells, natural killer (NK) cells are considered to have a major role in preventing relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). After T-cell-depleted haploidentical HSCT, a strong NK alloreactivity has been described. These effects have been attributed to killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). Abundant reports suggest a major role of KIR not only on outcome after haploidentical HSCT but also in the unrelated donor setting. In this review, we give a brief overview of the mechanism of NK cell activation, nomenclature of KIR haplotypes, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) groups, and distinct models for prediction of NK cell alloreactivity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226419/evaluation-of-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#7
Tonya L Scardina, Elena Kang Martinez, Neelam Balasubramanian, Mary Fox-Geiman, Scott E Smith, Jorge P Parada
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the impact of hematologic malignancies and/or conditioning regimens on the risk of developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Secondary objectives were to determine if traditional CDI risk factors applied to patients undergoing HSCT and to determine the presence of CDI markers of severity of illness among this patient population. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective, case-control study...
February 22, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226414/methylene-blue-for-the-treatment-of-intractable-pain-associated-with-oral-mucositis
#8
Carlos J Roldan, Kent Nouri, Thomas Chai, Billy Huh
Oral mucositis is a common and often debilitating complication among cancer patients receiving radiation therapy to the head and neck or chemotherapy agents, or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pain and decreased oral function associated with oral mucositis may persist long after the conclusion of therapy. Although most patients respond to conservative management, a subset of patients develop intractable pain with severe consequences. For some, the use of total parenteral nutrition with insertion of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tubes is the only alternative...
February 22, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226327/measurements-of-catheter-venous-and-capillary-cyclosporine-a-blood-are-comparable-and-useful-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#9
Oscar González-Llano, Consuelo Mancías-Guerra, Carmen Magdalena Gamboa-Alonso, Andrés Gómez-De León, José Carlos Jaime-Pérez, César Homero Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Olga Cantú-Rodríguez, Laura Villarreal-Martínez, Ricardo García-Sepulveda, Miguel Angel Herrera-Rojas, David Gómez-Almaguer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225650/nicaraven-a-potential-radioprotective-agent-has-very-limited-effects-on-the-survival-of-cancer-cells-and-the-growth-of-established-tumors
#10
Chen Yan, Lan Luo, Yoshishige Urata, Shinji Goto, Chang-Ying Guo, Tao-Sheng Li
Radiotherapy is one of the major treatment modalities for the management of various cancers, however, it is limited by the severe side effects and complications experienced by some patients. Nicaraven, a chemically synthesized hydroxyl radical-specific scavenger, has been shown to protect normal tissues from radiation-induced injury. We investigated the role of nicaraven in cancer cells and tumor growth. While nicaraven did not significantly change the colony-forming abilities and DNA damage levels in several cancer cell lines after irradiation, it significantly protected mouse bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells from radiation injury...
February 22, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224968/hematopoiesis-with-obesity-and-exercise-role-of-the-bone-marrow-niche
#11
Russell Emmons, Grace M Niemiro, Michael De Lisio
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), the most primitive cells of the hematopoietic system responsible for maintaining all mature blood cells, display the hallmark characteristics of self-renewal and multi-potent differentiation into mature cell lineages. HSPC activity is directed by the bone marrow niche, a complex environment composed of heterogeneous cell populations that regulate HSPC function through the secretion of a wide array of cytokines and growth factors. Diet induced obesity results in a dramatic remodeling of the bone marrow niche, skewing HSPC function resulting in a compromised immune system...
2017: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224776/clinical-usefulness-of-monitoring-cytomegalovirus-specific-immunity-by-quantiferon-cmv-in-pediatric-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients
#12
Sae Mi Lee, Yae Jean Kim, Keon Hee Yoo, Ki Woong Sung, Hong Hoe Koo, Eun Suk Kang
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a well-established cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). CD8⁺ T-cells are important for controlling CMV infection. We conducted a prospective pilot study to investigate the clinical utility of measuring the CMV-specific T-cell immune response using the QuantiFERON-CMV assay (QF-CMV) in pediatric allo-HSCT recipients. Overall, 16 of 25 (64%) patients developed CMV infection. QF-CMV was evaluated in these 16 patients during the early and late phases of the first CMV infection post allo-HSCT...
May 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224765/dysregulation-of-telomere-lengths-and-telomerase-activity-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#13
Hee Sue Park, Jungeun Choi, Cha Ja See, Jung Ah Kim, Si Nae Park, Kyongok Im, Sung Min Kim, Dong Soon Lee, Sang Mee Hwang
BACKGROUND: Telomere shortening is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of myeloid malignancies, but telomere lengths (TL) during interphase and metaphase in hematopoietic malignancies have not been analyzed. We aimed to assess the TLs of interphase and metaphase cells of MDS and telomerase activity (TA) and to find out prognostic significances of TL and TA. METHODS: The prognostic significance of TA by quantitative PCR and TL by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (QFISH) of interphase nuclei and metaphase chromosome arms of bone marrow cells from patients with MDS were evaluated...
May 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224299/clinical-impact-of-sarcopenia-and-relevance-of-nutritional-intake-in-patients-before-and-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
Shouichi Tanaka, Osamu Imataki, Atsuo Kitaoka, Shuji Fujioka, Etsuyo Hanabusa, Yumiko Ohbayashi, Makiko Uemura, Nobuo Arima, Tetsuji Yamamoto
PURPOSE: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the effect of rehabilitation on minimizing sarcopenia during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) therapy. METHODS: We developed a protocol to test for retention of physical function during HSCT. Muscle strength, muscle circumference, and muscle function before and after HSCT were measured. Consecutive patients with hematological malignancies who underwent HSCT treatment were recruited in this research...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224273/over-expression-of-mir-196b-5p-is-significantly-associated-with-the-progression-of-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#15
Jing Wen, Ying Huang, Hongying Li, Xupai Zhang, Peng Cheng, Donghong Deng, Zhigang Peng, Jun Luo, Weihua Zhao, Yongrong Lai, Zhenfang Liu
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal stem cell disorder characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with a high risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). miRNAs function as tumor suppressors and oncogenes in various cancers and regulate the differentiation potential of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). It has been suggested that miRNAs may play an important role in progression of MDS. We analyzed bone marrow samples collected from MDS patients according to different risk stratification indicated by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS)...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223820/flt3-inhibitors-clinical-potential-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#16
REVIEW
Marie-Anne Hospital, Alexa S Green, Thiago T Maciel, Ivan C Moura, Anskar Y Leung, Didier Bouscary, Jerome Tamburini
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematopoietic malignancy that is cured in as few as 15%-40% of cases. Tremendous improvements in AML prognostication arose from a comprehensive analysis of leukemia cell genomes. Among normal karyotype AML cases, mutations in the FLT3 gene are the ones most commonly detected as having a deleterious prognostic impact. FLT3 is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor, and alterations of the FLT3 gene such as internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD) deregulate FLT3 downstream signaling pathways in favor of increased cell proliferation and survival...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223256/role-of-the-leukocyte-response-in-normal-and-immunocompromised-host-after-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
Edwin Vargas, Senu Apewokin, Rajat Madan
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections in the United States. Clinically, C. difficile-associated disease can present as asymptomatic colonization, self-limited diarrheal illness or severe colitis (that may result in death). This variability in disease course and outcomes suggests that host factors play an important role as key determinants of disease severity. Currently, there are several scoring indices to estimate severity of C. difficile-associated disease. Leukocytosis and renal failure are considered to be the most important predictors of C...
February 18, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222648/autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-as-frontline-strategy-for-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-a-single-centre-experience
#18
Xiao Han, Wei Zhang, Daobin Zhou, Jing Ruan, Minghui Duan, Tienan Zhu, Jian Li, Huacong Cai, Xinxin Cao, Mingqi Ouyang
Objective To determine the efficacy and prognosis of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as frontline treatment for peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). Methods Clinical data from 46 PTCL patients who achieved complete (CR) or partial remission (PR) after ASCT from October 1996 to July 2014 were analysed retrospectively. Results Median patient age was 32 (range: 15-68) years. Disease types included PTCL, unspecified type, in 23 patients, anaplastic large cell lymphoma in eight, angioimmunoblastic lymphoma in eight, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma in five, and hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma and enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma in one each...
February 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221102/rhodococcus-infection-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-1
#19
Pascalis Vergidis, Ella J Ariza-Heredia, Anoma Nellore, Camille N Kotton, Daniel R Kaul, Michele I Morris, Theodoros Kelesidis, Harshal Shah, Seo Young Park, M Hong Nguyen, Raymund R Razonable
We conducted a case-control study of 18 US transplant recipients with Rhodococcus infection and 36 matched controls. The predominant types of infection were pneumonia and bacteremia. Diabetes mellitus and recent opportunistic infection were independently associated with disease. Outcomes were generally favorable except for 1 relapse and 1 death.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220349/clofarabine-based-chemotherapy-as-a-bridge-to-transplant-in-the-setting-of-refractory-or-relapsed-acute-myeloid-leukemia-after-at-least-one-previous-unsuccessful-salvage-treatment-containing-fludarabine-a-single-institution-experience
#20
Alfredo Molteni, Marta Riva, Emanuele Ravano, Laura Marbello, Valentina Mancini, Giovanni Grillo, Elisa Zucchetti, Rosa Greco, Roberto Cairoli
For refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia patients, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment option, but the disease must be in remission before this can be attempted. "Salvage" therapy regimens containing high-dose cytarabine plus fludarabine or cladribine with or without anthracyclines or plus mitoxantrone and etoposide fail in 30-50% of cases. We report the outcome of 14 patients treated with a clofarabine-based treatment administered after at least one failed fludarabine-based "salvage" attempt in a "real life" (outside a clinical trial) context...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
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