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Leukoencephalopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329650/increased-risk-of-opportunistic-infections-among-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-the-united-kingdom
#1
Junko Takeshita, Daniel B Shin, Alexis Ogdie, Joel M Gelfand
Infection is the second leading cause of death among psoriasis patients on phototherapy or systemic medications. The types of infections associated with psoriasis remain poorly understood. The aim of our study was to determine the risk of opportunistic infection (OI) among patients with psoriasis. We conducted a cohort study of patients with (N=199,700) and without (N=954,315) psoriasis in The Health Improvement Network electronic medical record database. Patients receiving phototherapy or systemic therapy were considered to have moderate-to-severe psoriasis (N=12,442)...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328133/an-xq22-1q22-2-nullisomy-in-a-male-patient-with-severe-neurological-impairment
#2
Kentaro Shirai, Yuya Higashi, Keiko Shimojima, Toshiyuki Yamamoto
The proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1) is located on chromosome Xq22.2 and is related to X-linked recessive leukoencephalopathy (Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease: PMD). Compared to PLP1 duplications, which are a major contributor to PMD, chromosomal deletions in this region are rare and only a few PMD patients with small deletions have been reported, suggesting that large deletions of this region would cause embryonic lethality. Previously, we have reported female patients, with chromosomal deletions in this region, who showed severe developmental delays and behavioral abnormalities...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323224/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-treatments
#3
Gaëlle Clavel, Antoine Moulignier, Luca Semerano
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system due to reactivation of the JC virus (JCV). PML is extremely uncommon despite the high prevalence of the virus in the general population. No specific treatment is available, and the prognosis is bleak. The diagnosis is based on brain imaging findings, detection of the JCV genome in cerebrospinal fluid samples and, in some cases, histological studies of the brain lesions. The pathophysiological mechanisms that drive the development of PML are incompletely understood...
March 16, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322482/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-associated-with-fumaric-acid-esters-treatment-in-psoriasis-patients
#4
Deepak M W Balak, Enes Hajdarbegovic, Wichor M Bramer, Martino H A Neumann, H Bing Thio
BACKGROUND: Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) are a systemic treatment for psoriasis considered to have a favorable long-term safety profile without an increased risk for immunosuppression. However, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare, opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system, has been linked anecdotally to FAE treatment. OBJECTIVE: to assess clinical features and outcomes of FAE-associated PML cases. METHODS: Systematic literature search in multiple databases up to February, 25(th) 2016 for reports of PML in psoriasis patients treated with FAEs...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320930/teaching-neuroimages-adult-onset-leukoencephalopathy-with-intracranial-calcifications-and-cysts-labrune-syndrome
#5
Rocío-Nur Villar-Quiles, Natividad Gómez-Ruiz, Manuela Jorquera-Moya, Jorge Matías-Guiu, Jordi A Matias-Guiu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320193/good-outcome-of-brain-stem-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-an-immunosuppressed-renal-transplant-patient-importance-of-early-detection-and-rapid-immune-reconstitution
#6
Roland Sauer, Philipp Gölitz, Johannes Jacobi, Stefan Schwab, Ralf A Linker, De-Hyung Lee
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, opportunistic and often fatal disease of the CNS which may occur under immunosuppression in transplant patients. Brain stem PML is associated with a particularly bad prognosis. Here, we present a case of a renal transplant patient treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and tacrolimus who developed brain stem PML with limb ataxia, dysarthria and dysphagia. Diagnosis was established by typical MRI features and detection of JCV-DNA in the CSF. Immune reconstitution after stopping MMF and tacrolimus led to a complete and sustained remission of symptoms with improvement of the brain stem lesion over a follow-up over 20months...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320141/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-responses-in-cadasil
#7
Ikreet Cheema, Aaron R Switzer, Cheryl R McCreary, Michael D Hill, Richard Frayne, Bradley G Goodyear, Eric E Smith
OBJECTIVES: The magnitude of the blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) response to visual stimulation is reduced in the small vessel disease cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), reflecting impaired vascular reactivity. We determined whether BOLD responses were reduced in another small vessel disease, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: BOLD fMRI data were collected using a visual stimulus (contrast-reversing checkerboard) and motor task (finger-tapping)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319193/stability-and-predictive-value-of-anti-jcv-antibody-index-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-6-year-longitudinal-study
#8
Harald Hegen, Michael Auer, Gabriel Bsteh, Franziska Di Pauli, Tatiana Plavina, Janette Walde, Florian Deisenhammer, Thomas Berger
BACKGROUND: Risk of natalizumab-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is associated with the presence of anti-JC-virus (JCV) antibodies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the longitudinal evolution of anti-JCV antibody index and to determine the predictive value of baseline anti-JCV antibody index for long-term stability of anti-JCV antibody status. METHODS: MS patients from the MS centre of Medical University of Innsbruck, who had serum sampling for a time period of 4-6 years at intervals of 6±3 months, were included in this retrospective, longitudinal study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314885/adverse-effects-of-levamisole-in-cocaine-users-a-review-and-risk-assessment
#9
REVIEW
Tibor Markus Brunt, Jorrit van den Berg, Ed Pennings, Bastiaan Venhuis
The immunomodulatory adjuvant and antihelminth levamisole is increasingly used as an adulterant in cocaine worldwide. An accumulating body of clinical and toxicological literature has appeared since 2010 describing neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukoencephalopathy and vasculitis in cases associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Mostly, neutropenia and agranulocytosis were reported, characterized by a decimation of neutrophils. A large proportion of cases also involved vasculopathy, characterized by pronounced black and purple skin purpura with cutaneous necrosis...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302914/new-insights-into-mechanisms-of-small-vessel-disease-stroke-from-genetics
#10
REVIEW
Rhea Tan, Matthew Traylor, Loes Rutten-Jacobs, Hugh Markus
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common cause of lacunar strokes, vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and vascular dementia. SVD is thought to result in reduced cerebral blood flow, impaired cerebral autoregulation and increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying SVD are incompletely understood. Recent studies in monogenic forms of SVD, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and 'sporadic' SVD have shed light on possible disease mechanisms in SVD...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300862/reversible-posterior-leukoencephalopathy-syndrome-rpls-in-a-psoriasis-patient-treated-with-ustekinumab
#11
Lauren Dickson, Alan Menter
The use of monoclonal antibodies against interleukin (IL)-12 and -23, such as ustekinumab, has considerably reduced the disease burden in many patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a neurologic disorder that has been documented with increased frequency with the use of systemic and biologic agents. We report a case of a 58-year-old man with psoriasis who presented with confusion and memory difficulties after being on treatment with ustekinumab for over six years...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298845/labrune-syndrome-a-unique-leukoencephalopathy
#12
Leena Pahuja, Elisheba Patras, Sachin Sureshbabu, Nittin Parkhe, Laxmi Khanna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293466/cadasil-ultrastructural-insights-into-the-morphology-of-granular-osmiophilic-material
#13
Teresa Lorenzi, Michele Ragno, Francesca Paolinelli, Clara Castellucci, Marina Scarpelli, Manrico Morroni
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary systemic vascular disorder. Granular osmiophilic material (GOM) is its ultrastructural marker. We reviewed tissue biopsies from CADASIL patients to establish whether ultrastructural observations help clarify the pathogenic mechanism of CADASIL. Given the resemblance of the GOM deposits to the immunoglobulin deposits seen in glomerulonephritis and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), their morphologies were investigated and compared...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285295/repeated-episodes-of-leukoencephalopathy-after-high-dose-methotrexate-in-a-child-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#14
Teng-Fu Tsao, Yu-Hua Chao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284332/confirmed-case-of-levamisole-associated-multifocal-inflammatory-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-cocaine-user
#15
Jeffrey R Vitt, Ethan G Brown, Daniel S Chow, S Andrew Josephson
Levamisole is a common adulterant in cocaine and has previously been associated with a variety of serious complications including multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy (MIL). There have been several reports of MIL in patients taking cocaine and, though suspected, the presence of levamisole was not confirmed. We present a case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with stupor and spastic quadraparesis found to have urine positive for cocaine and levamisole. An MRI brain revealed innumerable FLAIR hyperintensities with restricted diffusion and incomplete ring-enhancement...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282574/long-term-effectiveness-and-safety-of-natalizumab-in-a-portuguese-population
#16
I Correia, S Batista, O Galego, I B Marques, J Jesus-Ribeiro, A I Martins, C Nunes, M C Macário, L Cunha, L Sousa
OBJECTIVES: Natalizumab long-term effectiveness data in real-world relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is needed. Our objective is to report the long-term effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in a cohort of RRMS patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of natalizumab treatment for two years or longer in RRMS. Annualized relapse rate, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), brain magnetic resonance imaging T2 lesion volume, JC virus antibody status, previous treatments and adverse events were analysed...
March 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281108/recognizing-cadasil-a-secondary-cause-of-migraine-with-aura
#17
REVIEW
John Glenn Burkett, Carrie Dougherty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is an important disease to consider in the differential diagnosis of migraine with aura. This review examines current literature regarding migraine in CADASIL, as well as diagnostic and treatment modalities. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that smoking is a modifiable risk factor for progression of CADASIL (Chabriat et al. in Stroke 47:4-11, 2015)...
April 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279447/posterior-reversible-leukoencephalopathy-syndrome-pres-associated-with-severe-eclampsia-clinical-and-biochemical-features
#18
Carlos R Camara-Lemarroy, Nicolás Escobedo-Zúñiga, Estefania Villarreal-Garza, Erick García-Valadez, Fernando Góngora-Rivera, Héctor J Villarreal-Velázquez
OBJECTIVES: Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) and eclampsia share clinical characteristics and patients may present with a combination of these two entities. Our aim was to study the proportion of patients with eclampsia having evidence of PRES in their brain imaging. METHODS: Retrospective study of pregnant patients diagnosed as having eclampsia that underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during their hospitalization. MRI diagnosis of PRES was assessed by 2 investigators blinded to group...
January 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278713/lenalidomide-associated-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#19
Francesco Brigo, Elisabetta Pagani, Frediano Tezzon, Elisa Masi, Raffaele Nardone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276855/the-safety-of-vedolizumab-for-the-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Gregor Novak, Pieter Hindryckx, Reena Khanna, Vipul Jairath, Brian G Feagan
Vedolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody to the α4β7-integrin that blocks lymphocyte trafficking to the gut and is approved for treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC). The gut-selective mechanism of action has the potential to improve vedolizumab's safety profile compared to other approved biologic drugs. Areas covered: We review the mechanism of action, efficacy and safety of vedolizumab treatment for UC. The positioning of vedolizumab in management algorithms is also discussed...
March 5, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
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