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Sujita Kumar Kar, Siddharth Sarkar
Neuro-stimulation techniques have gradually evolved over the decades and have emerged potential therapeutic modalities for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, especially treatment refractory cases. The neuro-stimulation techniques involves modalities like electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and others. This review discusses the role of neuro-stimulation techniques in the treatment of anxiety disorders...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Sekib Sokolovic, Samir Mehmedagic
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this paper was to present the effects of the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on a blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in arterial hypertension patient. DESIGN AND METHOD: The pilot study (SPM-005) was designed to evaluate the eficiancy and safety profile of the neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways using the active implantable device for the vagus nerve stimulation in rheumatoid arthritis patient. We investigated the VNS on the BP and HR in 68 years old female patient with a long-standing arterial hypertension and the lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide in a therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hanne Schevernels, Marlies E van Bochove, Leen De Taeye, Klaas Bombeke, Kristl Vonck, Dirk Van Roost, Veerle De Herdt, Patrick Santens, Robrecht Raedt, C Nico Boehler
In the current study, we explored whether vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in patients with epilepsy, which is believed to increase norepinephrine (NE) levels via activation of the locus coeruleus, would positively affect response inhibition. Moreover, we tried to identify the dynamics of the underlying neural processes by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs) and pupil size. Patients performed a stop-signal task once when stimulation was switched on and once when it was switched off. We found a correlational pattern suggesting that patients who clinically benefit more from VNS treatment also show a larger behavioral advantage, in terms of faster response inhibition, when the vagus nerve is being stimulated...
October 12, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Alberto M Saibene, Elena Zambrelli, Carlotta Pipolo, Alberto Maccari, Giovanni Felisati, Elena Felisati, Francesca Furia, Aglaia Vignoli, Maria Paola Canevini, Enrico Alfonsi
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a useful tool for drug-resistant epilepsy, but it induces known laryngeal side effects, with a significant role on patients' quality of life. VNS patients may show persistent left vocal fold (LVF) palsy at rest and/or recurrent LVF adduction during stimulation. This study aims at electromyographically evaluating laryngeal muscles abnormalities in VNS patients. We compared endoscopic laryngeal evaluation data in six VNS patients with laryngeal muscle electromyography (LMEMG) carried out on the thyroarytenoid, cricothyroid, posterior cricoarytenoid, and cricopharyngeal muscles...
October 13, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Mahadi Shahed, Beth Jelfs, Rosa H M Chan, Ying Li
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can enhance memory and cognitive functions in both rats and humans. Studies have shown that VNS influenced decision-making in epileptic patients. However, the sites of action involved in the cognitive-enhancement are poorly understood. By employing a conscious rat model equipped with vagus nerve cuff electrode, we assess the role of chronic VNS on decision-making in rat gambling task (RGT). Simultaneous multichannel-recordings offer an ideal setup to test the hypothesis that VNS may induce alterations of in both spike-field-coherence and synchronization of theta oscillations across brain areas in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Barış Akdemir, David G Benditt
The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system and plays a critical role in many body functions including for example, speech, swallowing, heart rate and respiratory control, gastric secretion, and intestinal motility. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, with electrical stimulation being the most important. Implantable devices for VNS are approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment-resistant depression. In the case of heart disease applications, implantable VNS has been shown to be beneficial for treating heart failure in both preclinical and clinical studies...
October 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Min-Jee Kim, Mi-Sun Yum, Eun-Hee Kim, Yun-Jeong Lee, Junkyo Lee, Seokho Hong, Su Jeong You, Yong Soon Hwang, Tae-Sung Ko
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in children and adolescents with intractable epilepsy and identify predictive factors for responsiveness to VNS. METHODS: Medical records of pediatric patients who underwent VNS implantation at two Korean tertiary centers were reviewed. At 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 years post-VNS implantation, the frequency of the most disabling seizures in each patient was assessed. Responders were defined as showing an overall 50 % reduction from baseline seizure frequency during follow-up...
October 6, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Simon Wostyn, Willeke Staljanssens, Leen De Taeye, Gregor Strobbe, Stefanie Gadeyne, Dirk Van Roost, Robrecht Raedt, Kristl Vonck, Pieter van Mierlo
The mechanism of action of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is yet to be elucidated. To that end, the effects of VNS on the brain of epileptic patients were studied. Both when VNS was switched "On" and "Off", the brain activity of responders (R, seizure frequency reduction of over 50%) was compared to the brain activity of nonresponders (NR, seizure frequency reduction of less than 50%). Using EEG recordings, a significant increase in P300 amplitude for R and a significant decrease in P300 amplitude for NR were found...
July 11, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
James Winter, Alexandra R Cook, Dawn H Patient, Stevan R Emmett, John Tattersall, Michael J Shattock
Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted cardiac side effects, which could be negated by adjunctive anti-cholinergic therapy. The aims of the present study were to examine the concentration-dependent effects of physostigmine on cardiac responses to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), to test whether adjunctive treatment with hyoscine can reverse these effects and to assess the functional interaction and electrophysiological consequences of a combined pre-treatment...
September 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
David Ojeda, Virginie Le Rolle, Hector M Romero-Ugalde, Clément Gallet, Jean-Luc Bonnet, Christine Henry, Alain Bel, Philippe Mabo, Guy Carrault, Alfredo I Hernández
Although the therapeutic effects of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) have been recognized in pre-clinical and pilot clinical studies, the effect of different stimulation configurations on the cardiovascular response is still an open question, especially in the case of VNS delivered synchronously with cardiac activity. In this paper, we propose a formal mathematical methodology to analyze the acute cardiac response to different VNS configurations, jointly considering the chronotropic, dromotropic and inotropic cardiac effects...
2016: PloS One
Poul Jennum, Anne Sabers, Jakob Christensen, Rikke Ibsen, Jakob Kjellberg
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the health costs and social outcomes in terms of education, employment and income level after insertion of a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This is a case-control study using Danish health care and socioeconomic register data. The analysis of the effect involved a comparison of the health care costs, occupation and income status of VNS-treated epilepsy patients with those of a control group of epilepsy patients who had a VNS implanted during the 12 months before the index date (pre-period) and during the two years after the index date (post-period)...
September 13, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Jérémy Raffin, Jean-Claude Barthelemy, Philippe Terrat, Marie-Christine Diana, Emilie Achour, Paul Calmels, Mathieu Oriol, Thierry Busso, Lallia Hammadi, Claude Montuy-Coquard, Rémi Bouvier, Rémi Poillerat, Frédéric Roche, David Hupin
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that physical activity reduces the physiological effects of ageing. Among them, is the decrease of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, which is associated with the increase of cardiovascular events and morbidities. It has been shown that high intensity cycle training can enhance the ANS activity by 30% in people with the age of 70. However, such trainings were done by old athletes, used to train at intensities that could not be tolerated by sedentary old people, such as nursing home residents...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
D Martínez-Vargas, A Valdés-Cruz, V M Magdaleno-Madrigal, R Fernández-Mas, S Almazán-Alvarado
BACKGROUND: The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) plays a determinant role in the antiepileptic effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). One mechanism underlying the efficacy of VNS is the induction of cortical changes, detected by electroencephalogram (EEG), which can be mediated by the NTS through its projections to the cerebral nuclei responsible for modulating cortical activity. The effect of the electrical stimulation of the nucleus of the solitary tract (ENTS) on EEG activity and sleep states in freely moving animals is unknown...
August 26, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Sekib Sokolovic, Samir Mehmedagic
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this paper was to present the effects of the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on a blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in arterial hypertension patient. DESIGN AND METHOD: The pilot study (SPM-005) was designed to evaluate the eficiancy and safety profile of the neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways using the active implantable device for the vagus nerve stimulation in rheumatoid arthritis patient. We investigated the VNS on the BP and HR in 68 years old female patient with a long-standing arterial hypertension and the lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide in a therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Larissa Berloffa Belardin, Paula Toni Del Giudice, Mariana Camargo, Paula Intasqui, Mariana Pereira Antoniassi, Ricardo Pimenta Bertolla, Agnaldo Pereira Cedenho
PURPOSE: To verify if the presence of varicocele (grades II and III) with and without seminal alterations, using the 5(th) centile cutoff values in table A1.1 of the World Health Organization (WHO, 2010) manual, alters the seminal plasma levels of proteins DNASE1 (deoxyribonuclease-1) and IGFBP7 (Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7), which are related to apoptosis regulation and cell proliferation, respectively, demonstrating that these proteins are important for correct spermatogenesis...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Aria Fallah, Alexander G Weil, Shelly Wang, Evan Lewis, Christine B Baca, Gary W Mathern
BACKGROUND: The management of drug-resistant epilepsy in children with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is challenging because of the multitude of treatment options, wide range of associated costs, and uncertainty of seizure outcomes. The most cost-effective approach for children whose epilepsy has failed to improve with first-line medical therapy is uncertain. METHODS: A review of MEDLINE from 1990 to 2015 was conducted. A cost-utility analysis, from a third-party payer perspective, was performed for children with drug-resistant epilepsy that had failed to improve with 2 antiseizure drugs (ASDs) and that was amenable to resective epilepsy surgery, across a time-horizon of 5years...
October 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Siamak Salavatian, Eric Beaumont, Jean-Philippe Longpré, John Andrew Armour, Alain Vinet, Vincent Jacquemet, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal nerve stimulation (MNS) reproducibly evokes atrial fibrillation (AF) by excessive and heterogeneous activation of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons. This study evaluated whether pre-emptive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) impacts MNS-induced evoked changes in IC neural network activity to thereby alter susceptibility to AF. METHODS: IC neuronal activity in the right atrial ganglionated plexus was directly recorded in anesthetized canines (n=8) using a linear microelectrode array concomitant with right atrial electrical activity in response to: 1) epicardial touch or great vessel occlusion vs (2) stellate or vagal stimulation...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
(no author information available yet)
Nicky Mansell, one of the Young Vet Network representatives on BVA Council, considers the similar issues facing VNs and young vets.
September 3, 2016: Veterinary Record
Regenia B Phillips Campbell, Michelle M Duffourc, Robert V Schoborg, Yanji Xu, Xinyi Liu, Bruce H KenKnight, Eric Beaumont
Altered gut microbial diversity has been associated with several chronic disease states, including heart failure. Stimulation of the vagus nerve, which innervates the heart and abdominal organs, is proving to be an effective therapeutic in heart failure. We hypothesized that cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) could alter fecal flora and prevent aberrations observed in fecal samples from heart failure animals. To determine if microbial abundances were altered by pressure overload (PO) leading to heart failure and VNS therapy, a VNS pulse generator was implanted with a stimulus lead on either the left or right vagus nerve prior to creation of PO by aortic constriction...
August 25, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Mirnela Byku, Douglas L Mann
Sympathovagal imbalance contributes to progressive worsening of HF (HF) and is associated with untoward clinical outcomes. Based on compelling pre-clinical studies which supported the role of autonomic modulation in HF models, a series of clinical studies were initiated using spinal cord stimulation (SCS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and baroreceptor activation therapy (BAT) in patients with HF with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). While the phase II studies with BAT remain encouraging, the larger clinical studies with SCS and VNS have yielded disappointing results...
April 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
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