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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096384/holocene-enso-related-cyclic-storms-recorded-by-magnetic-minerals-in-speleothems-of-central-china
#1
Zongmin Zhu, Joshua M Feinberg, Shucheng Xie, Mark D Bourne, Chunju Huang, Chaoyong Hu, Hai Cheng
Extreme hydrologic events such as storms and floods have the potential to severely impact modern human society. However, the frequency of storms and their underlying mechanisms are limited by a paucity of suitable proxies, especially in inland areas. Here we present a record of speleothem magnetic minerals to reconstruct paleoprecipitation, including storms, in the eastern Asian monsoon area over the last 8.6 ky. The geophysical parameter IRMsoft-flux represents the flux of soil-derived magnetic minerals preserved in stalagmite HS4, which we correlate with rainfall amount and intensity...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094328/does-a-strong-el-ni%C3%A3-o-imply-a-higher-predictability-of-extreme-drought
#2
Shanshan Wang, Xing Yuan, Yaohui Li
The devastating North China drought in the summer of 2015 was roughly captured by a dynamical seasonal climate forecast model with a good prediction of the 2015/16 big El Niño. This raises a question of whether strong El Niños imply higher predictability of extreme droughts. Here we show that a strong El Niño does not necessarily result in an extreme drought, but it depends on whether the El Niño evolves synergistically with Eurasian spring snow cover reduction to trigger a positive summer Eurasian teleconnection (EU) pattern that favors anomalous northerly and air sinking over North China...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088548/soil-carbon-dioxide-emissions-from-a-rubber-plantation-on-tropical-peat
#3
Nur Wakhid, Takashi Hirano, Yosuke Okimoto, Siti Nurzakiah, Dedi Nursyamsi
Land-use change in tropical peatland potentially results in a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions owing to drainage, which lowers groundwater level (GWL) and consequently enhances oxidative peat decomposition. However, field information on carbon balance is lacking for rubber plantations, which are expanding into Indonesia's peatlands. To assess soil CO2 emissions from an eight-year-old rubber plantation established on peat after compaction, soil CO2 efflux was measured monthly using a closed chamber system from December 2014 to December 2015, in which a strong El Niño event occurred, and consequently GWL lowered deeply...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069959/climatic-regulation-of-the-neurotoxin-domoic-acid
#4
S Morgaine McKibben, William Peterson, A Michelle Wood, Vera L Trainer, Matthew Hunter, Angelicque E White
Domoic acid is a potent neurotoxin produced by certain marine microalgae that can accumulate in the foodweb, posing a health threat to human seafood consumers and wildlife in coastal regions worldwide. Evidence of climatic regulation of domoic acid in shellfish over the past 20 y in the Northern California Current regime is shown. The timing of elevated domoic acid is strongly related to warm phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Oceanic Niño Index, an indicator of El Niño events. Ocean conditions in the northeast Pacific that are associated with warm phases of these indices, including changes in prevailing currents and advection of anomalously warm water masses onto the continental shelf, are hypothesized to contribute to increases in this toxin...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067954/elemental-variability-in-the-coralline-alga-lithophyllum-yemenense-as-an-archive-of-past-climate-in-the-gulf-of-aden-nw-indian-ocean
#5
Annalisa Caragnano, Daniela Basso, David Storz, Dorrit E Jacob, Federica Ragazzola, Francesca Benzoni, Eric Dutrieux
This study presents the first algal thallus (skeleton) archive of Asian monsoon strength and Red Sea influence in the Gulf of Aden. Mg/Ca, Li/Ca, Ba/Ca were measured on Lithophyllum yemenense from Balhaf (Gulf of Aden) using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and Mg/Ca ratio oscillation was used to reconstruct the chronology (34 years). Oscillations of element rates corresponding to the algal growth between 1974 and 2008 were compared with recorded climate and oceanographic variability...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040271/effects-of-climate-change-on-the-occurrence-and-distribution-of-livestock-diseases
#6
B Bett, P Kiunga, J Gachohi, C Sindato, D Mbotha, T Robinson, J Lindahl, D Grace
The planet's mean air and ocean temperatures have been rising over the last century because of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These changes have substantial effects on the epidemiology of infectious diseases. We describe direct and indirect processes linking climate change and infectious diseases in livestock with reference to specific case studies. Some of the studies are used to show a positive association between temperature and expansion of the geographical ranges of arthropod vectors (e.g. Culicoides imicola, which transmits bluetongue virus) while others are used to illustrate an opposite trend (e...
December 14, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035469/tree-ring-based-reconstruction-of-streamflow-for-the-zaqu-river-in-the-lancang-river-source-region-china-over-the-past-419%C3%A2-years
#7
Dingmu Xiao, Xuemei Shao, Ningsheng Qin, Xiaomei Huang
Tree-ring width standard chronologies were created from juniperus przewalskii Kom data collected in the Lancang River Headwaters region. Statistical analysis results showed high correlation (r = 0.69) between the composite tree-ring chronology and instrumental streamflow records at the Xiangda Hydrological Station during the annual September-August interval. Streamflow of the Zaqu River in the Lancang river source region was reconstructed for the past 419 years. The model was stable and revealed 14 extremely dry years and 6 extremely wet years...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032870/factores-perinatales-y-su-influencia-en-la-obesidad-infantil-estudio-de-casos-y-controles
#8
S Solano Nortes, T Lacruz Gascón, M Blanco Hurtado, T Moreno Ortega, B Real, M Graell Berna, A R Sepúlveda García
Fundamento. La etiología de la obesidad infantil es compleja y se encuentra implicada la interacción de factores genéticos y ambientales. Las complicaciones obstétricas se han asociado al desarrollo de trastornos mentales y médicos, incluida la obesidad. El objetivo de esta investigación es estudiar la asociación entre las complicaciones durante el embarazo y el parto y el desarrollo de obesidad infantil.Participantes y método. Se presentan los datos de un estudio de casos y controles compuesto por 60 madres de niños con obesidad comparado con 92 madres de niños controles con normopeso y con edades comprendidas entre los 8 y 12 años...
December 30, 2016: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028966/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-gsk-3%C3%AE-and-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nfkb-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
Cristian Fabian Layton Tovar, Hugo Mendieta Zerón, Maria Del Socorro Camarillo Romero, Yanko V Fabila Sánchez, Isidoro Tejocote Romero
BACKGROUND: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is the most common hematologic malignancy in early childhood. In children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the activity of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β) has been associated with changes in the transcriptional activity and expression of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB) in the mononuclear cells of bone marrow. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the possible role of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3β) and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB) as prognostic variables in pediatric patients with ALL...
November 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028593/quantification-of-dimethylsulfoniopropionate-dmsp-in-acropora-spp-of-reef-building-coral-using-mass-spectrometry-with-deuterated-internal-standard
#10
Hilton B Swan, Elisabeth S M Deschaseaux, Graham B Jones, Bradley D Eyre
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in scleractinian coral is usually analysed indirectly as dimethylsulfide (DMS) using gas chromatography (GC) with a sulfur-specific detector. We developed a headspace GC method for mass spectral analysis of DMSP in branching coral where hexa-deuterated DMSP (d 6 -DMSP) was added to samples and standards to optimise the analytical precision and quantitative accuracy. Using this indirect HS-GC-MS method, we show that common coral sample handling techniques did not alter DMSP concentrations in Acropora aspera and that endogenous DMS was insignificant compared to the store of DMSP in A...
December 27, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000481/conducta-alimentaria-en-ni%C3%A3-os
#11
Karina Oyarce Merino, Macarena Valladares Vega, Roberto Elizondo-Vega, Ana María Obregón
Introducción: cambios socioculturales como el incremento en el sedentarismo y el consumo de alimentos ricos en grasas y azúcares, sumado a características genéticas, han producido un aumento en las cifras de obesidad a nivel mundial. La evaluación temprana en niños, mediante el establecimiento de perfi les genéticos asociados a obesidad y a la regulación metabólica y hedónica de la alimentación, complementado con estudios de la conducta alimentaria, nos permitiría predecir la predisposición a la obesidad en etapas adultas...
November 29, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000469/tablas-de-referencia-para-aspectos-antropom%C3%A3-tricos-y-de-condici%C3%A3-n-f%C3%A3-sica-en-estudiantes-varones-chilenos-de-10-a-14-a%C3%A3-os
#12
Claudio Hernández Mosqueira, Dagoberto Hernández Vasquez, Alexis Caniuqueo Vargas, Humberto Castillo Quezada, Sandro Fernandes Da Silva, Gustavo Pavez-Adasme, Cristian Martínez Salazar, Jaime Cárcamo-Oyarzún, José Fernandes Filho
Introducción: Chile en las últimas décadas ha experimentado un cambio en su perfil epidemiológico nutricional, pasando de una situación caracterizada por una elevada prevalencia de desnutrición y enfermedades infecciosas/parasitarias a otro completamente distinto, en donde las enfermedades crónicas y degenerativas presentan una elevada prevalencia.Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio es elaborar tablas de referencia de aspectos antropométricos y de condición física en estudiantes varones de 10 a 14 años de la ciudad de Chillán...
November 29, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994145/global-risk-model-for-vector-borne-transmission-of-zika-virus-reveals-the-role-of-el-ni%C3%A3-o-2015
#13
Cyril Caminade, Joanne Turner, Soeren Metelmann, Jenny C Hesson, Marcus S C Blagrove, Tom Solomon, Andrew P Morse, Matthew Baylis
Zika, a mosquito-borne viral disease that emerged in South America in 2015, was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the WHO in February of 2016. We developed a climate-driven R0 mathematical model for the transmission risk of Zika virus (ZIKV) that explicitly includes two key mosquito vector species: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus The model was parameterized and calibrated using the most up to date information from the available literature. It was then driven by observed gridded temperature and rainfall datasets for the period 1950-2015...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992108/local-temperature-and-el-ni%C3%A3-o-southern-oscillation-influence-migration-phenology-of-east-asian-migratory-waterbirds-wintering-in-poyang-china
#14
Fei Xu, Guanhua Liu, Yali Si
Temperature is a critical factor influencing avian phenology, due to its direct impact on food and water availability. Most previous studies have focused on the timing of spring migration and arrival of birds at breeding grounds along the European and American flyways; little is known about migration ecology at the wintering sites along the Asian flyways. This study investigates how local temperature variation and EI Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the arrival and departure timing of nine waterbird species breeding in Mongolia or Siberia and overwintering in Poyang, China from 2002 to 2013, using linear regression models...
December 19, 2016: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992027/music-listening-for-anxiety-relief-in-children-in-the-preoperative-period-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Mariana André Honorato Franzoi, Cristina Bretas Goulart, Elizabete Oliveira Lara, Gisele Martins
Objective: to investigate the effects of music listening, for 15 minutes, on the preoperative anxiety levels in children undergoing elective surgery in comparison with conventional pediatric surgical care. Method: randomized controlled clinical trial pilot study with 52 children in the preoperative period, aged 3 to 12 years, undergoing elective surgery and randomly allocated in the experimental group (n = 26) and control group (n = 26). Anxiety was assessed in both groups by the application of the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale and measurement of the physiological variables, upon arrival and 15 minutes after the first measurement...
December 19, 2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973538/abundance-and-distribution-patterns-of-thunnus-albacares-in-isla-del-coco-national-park-through-predictive-habitat-suitability-models
#16
Cristina Gonzáles-Andrés, Priscila F M Lopes, Jorge Cortés, José Luis Sánchez-Lizaso, Maria Grazia Pennino
Information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically and commercially important species is essential for their management and protection. This is especially important as climate change, pollution, and overfishing change the structure and functioning of pelagic ecosystems. In this study, we used Bayesian hierarchical spatial-temporal models to map the Essential Fish Habitats of the Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the waters around Isla del Coco National Park, Pacific Costa Rica, based on independent underwater observations from 1993 to 2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965394/perspectives-on-the-role-of-mobility-behavior-and-time-scales-in-the-spread-of-diseases
#17
Carlos Castillo-Chavez, Derdei Bichara, Benjamin R Morin
The dynamics, control, and evolution of communicable and vector-borne diseases are intimately connected to the joint dynamics of epidemiological, behavioral, and mobility processes that operate across multiple spatial, temporal, and organizational scales. The identification of a theoretical explanatory framework that accounts for the pattern regularity exhibited by a large number of host-parasite systems, including those sustained by host-vector epidemiological dynamics, is but one of the challenges facing the coevolving fields of computational, evolutionary, and theoretical epidemiology...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943309/monoterpene-thermometer-of-tropical-forest-atmosphere-response-to-climate-warming
#18
Kolby J Jardine, Angela B Jardine, Jennifer A Holm, Danica L Lombardozzi, Robinson I Negron-Juarez, Scot T Martin, Harry R Beller, Bruno O Gimenez, Niro Higuchi, Jeffrey Q Chambers
Tropical forests absorb large amounts of atmospheric CO2 through photosynthesis but elevated temperatures suppress this absorption and promote monoterpene emissions. Using (13) CO2 labeling, here we show that monoterpene emissions from tropical leaves derive from recent photosynthesis and demonstrate distinct temperature optima for five groups (Groups 1-5), potentially corresponding to different enzymatic temperature-dependent reaction mechanisms within β-ocimene synthases. As diurnal and seasonal leaf temperatures increased during the Amazonian 2015 El Niño event, leaf and landscape monoterpene emissions showed strong linear enrichments of β-ocimenes (+4...
December 11, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940821/corals-tie-stronger-el-ni%C3%A3-os-to-climate-change
#19
Christopher Pala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917936/robust-contribution-of-decadal-anomalies-to-the-frequency-of-central-pacific-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#20
Arnold Sullivan, Jing-Jia Luo, Anthony C Hirst, Daohua Bi, Wenju Cai, Jinhai He
During year-to-year El Niño events in recent decades, major sea surface warming has occurred frequently in the central Pacific. This is distinct from the eastern Pacific warming pattern during canonical El Niño events. Accordingly, the central-Pacific El Niño exerts distinct impacts on ecosystems, climate and hurricanes worldwide. The increased frequency of the new type of El Niño presents a challenge not only for the understanding of El Niño dynamics and its change but also for the prediction of El Niño and its global impacts at present and future climate...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
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