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El nino

Zelalem Mekuria, Charles El Hage, Nino P Ficorilli, Elizabeth A Washington, James R Gilkerson, Carol Hartley
Equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV5) is a commonly detected gammaherpesvirus which, along with the closely related EHV2, constitute the only two known Percaviruses that infect horses. Apart from detection in horse populations worldwide and the recent publication of the whole genome, there is little known about the biology and pathogenesis of this virus, with many assumptions made by parallels with EHV2. The long-term survival of gammaherpesviruses within infected hosts involves the establishment and maintenance of latency in selected cell and tissues types, particularly lymphocytes...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Shinji Matsumura, Takeshi Horinouchi
The western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) has a significant effect on droughts, heat waves, and tropical cyclone tracks over East Asia and the northwest Pacific. The WPSH has intensified during the past three decades, but its causes are not yet well understood. Here we show that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is responsible for the long-term changes in the WPSH through the meridional shift of the subtropical jet, based on comprehensive data analysis and model results. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading forcing of WPSH variability over interannual timescales, whereas the PDO accounts for its low-frequency variability, resulting in it being independent of ENSO with regard to WPSH variability...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhaoli Wang, Jun Li, Chengguang Lai, Zhaoyang Zeng, Ruida Zhong, Xiaohong Chen, Xiaowen Zhou, Mingyuan Wang
In recent decades, the occurrence and severity of drought in China has had devastating impact on social and economic development. The increase in drought has been attributed to global warming. We used the high-accuracy self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) to investigate the variation in drought in China between 1961 and 2009 using the Mann-Kendall (MK), continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and the rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) methods. We also analyzed the relationship between the rotated principal component time series (RPCs) and 74 circulation indices...
November 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Lyndsay K Krisher, Jesse Krisher, Mariano Ambuludi, Ana Arichabala, Efrain Beltrán-Ayala, Patricia Navarrete, Tania Ordoñez, Mark E Polhemus, Fernando Quintana, Rosemary Rochford, Mercy Silva, Juan Bazo, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
BACKGROUND: In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents...
November 28, 2016: Malaria Journal
J A Smith, T J Andersen, M Shortt, A M Gaffney, M Truffer, T P Stanton, R Bindschadler, P Dutrieux, A Jenkins, C-D Hillenbrand, W Ehrmann, H F J Corr, N Farley, S Crowhurst, D G Vaughan
The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is one of the largest potential sources of rising sea levels. Over the past 40 years, glaciers flowing into the Amundsen Sea sector of the ice sheet have thinned at an accelerating rate, and several numerical models suggest that unstable and irreversible retreat of the grounding line-which marks the boundary between grounded ice and floating ice shelf-is underway. Understanding this recent retreat requires a detailed knowledge of grounding-line history, but the locations of the grounding line before the advent of satellite monitoring in the 1990s are poorly dated...
November 23, 2016: Nature
J V Ratnam, Swadhin K Behera, H Annamalai, Satyaban B Ratna, M Rajeevan, Toshio Yamagata
During boreal winters, cold waves over India are primarily due to transport of cold air from higher latitudes. However, the processes associated with these cold waves are not yet clearly understood. Here by diagnosing a suite of datasets, we explore the mechanisms leading to the development and maintenance of these cold waves. Two types of cold waves are identified based on observed minimum surface temperature and statistical analysis. The first type (TYPE1), also the dominant one, depicts colder than normal temperatures covering most parts of the country while the second type (TYPE2) is more regional, with significant cold temperatures only noticeable over northwest India...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
James B Elsner, Thomas H Jagger, Tyler Fricker
This paper estimates regional tornado risk from records of past events using statistical models. First, a spatial model is fit to the tornado counts aggregated in counties with terms that control for changes in observational practices over time. Results provide a long-term view of risk that delineates the main tornado corridors in the United States where the expected annual rate exceeds two tornadoes per 10,000 square km. A few counties in the Texas Panhandle and central Kansas have annual rates that exceed four tornadoes per 10,000 square km...
2016: PloS One
Wan-Ru Huang, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Ming-Cheng Yen, Neng-Huei Lin, Parichart Promchote
During March and April, widespread burning occurs across farmlands in Indochina in preparation for planting at the monsoon onset. The resultant aerosols impact the air quality downwind. In this study, we investigate the climatic aspect of the interannual variation of springtime biomass burning in Indochina and its correlation with air quality at Mt. Lulin in Taiwan using long-term (2005-2015) satellite and global reanalysis data. Based on empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, we find that the biomass burning activities vary with two geographical regions: northern Indochina (the primary EOF mode) and southern Indochina (the secondary EOF mode)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Kira M Hoffman, Daniel G Gavin, Brian M Starzomski
While wildland fire is globally most common at the savannah-grassland ecotone, there is little evidence of fire in coastal temperate rainforests. We reconstructed fire activity with a ca 700-year fire history derived from fire scars and stand establishment from 30 sites in a very wet (up to 4000 mm annual precipitation) temperate rainforest in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Drought and warmer temperatures in the year prior were positively associated with fire events though there was little coherence of climate indices on the years of fires...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
P Crippa, S Castruccio, S Archer-Nicholls, G B Lebron, M Kuwata, A Thota, S Sumin, E Butt, C Wiedinmyer, D V Spracklen
Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants. Here we investigate the impact on air quality and population exposure of wildfires in Equatorial Asia during Fall 2015, which were the largest over the past two decades...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
Prasad Liyanage, Hasitha Tissera, Maquins Sewe, Mikkel Quam, Ananda Amarasinghe, Paba Palihawadana, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Valérie R Louis, Yesim Tozan, Joacim Rocklöv
Dengue is the major public health burden in Sri Lanka. Kalutara is one of the highly affected districts. Understanding the drivers of dengue is vital in controlling and preventing the disease spread. This study focuses on quantifying the influence of weather variability on dengue incidence over 10 Medical Officer of Health (MOH) divisions of Kalutara district. Weekly weather variables and data on dengue notifications, measured at 10 MOH divisions in Kalutara from 2009 to 2013, were retrieved and analysed. Distributed lag non-linear model and hierarchical-analysis was used to estimate division specific and overall relationships between weather and dengue...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marco Y T Leung, Wen Zhou
In this study, the direct and indirect atmospheric responses over the Asian-Pacific-American region to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are documented. Since ENSO is likely to induce the northward displacement of the East Asian trough (NDEAT), some of the influence of ENSO on the Asian-Pacific-American region is possibly indirect and acts by inducing NDEAT. To separate corresponding influences of ENSO and NDEAT, partial regression is utilized. It is noted that temperature variations in the East Asian-Western Pacific region are controlled mainly by NDEAT...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
T Sewell, R E Stephens, D Dominey-Howes, E Bruce, S Perkins-Kirkpatrick
Australia regularly experiences disasters triggered by natural hazards and New South Wales (NSW) the most populous State is no exception. To date, no publically available spatial and temporal analyses of disaster declarations triggered by hazards (specifically, bushfires, floods and storms) in NSW have been undertaken and no studies have explored the relationship between disaster occurrence and socio-economic disadvantage. We source, collate and analyse data about bushfire, flood and storm disaster declarations between 2004 and 2014...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Joan Ballester, Desislava Petrova, Simona Bordoni, Ben Cash, Markel García-Díez, Xavier Rodó
Despite extensive ongoing efforts on improving the long-term prediction of El Niño-Southern Oscillation, the predictability in state-of-the-art operational schemes remains limited by factors such as the spring barrier and the influence of atmospheric winds. Recent research suggests that the 2014/15 El Niño (EN) event was stalled as a result of an unusually strong basin-wide easterly wind burst in June, which led to the discharge of a large fraction of the subsurface ocean heat. Here we use observational records and numerical experiments to explore the sensitivity of EN to the magnitude of the heat buildup occurring in the ocean subsurface 21 months in advance...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Emily Becker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Scientific American
Eduardo Bracho-Blanchet, Mónica Langarica-Bulos, Roberto Dávila-Pérez, Emilio Fernández-Portilla, Cristian Zalles-Vidal, Jaime Nieto-Zermeño
Objetivo: Mostrar la eficacia de la FI para prolongar el tiempo libre de oclusión intestinal quirúrgica en niños con abdomen hostil secundario a bridas posquirúrgicas. Método: Análisis retrospectivo de FI por abdomen hostil de 2000 a 2011 y su seguimiento a largo plazo. Comparamos el tiempo libre de oclusión quirúrgica antes y después de la FI. Resultados: Se incluyeron 20 FI en 19 pacientes. Predominaron las causas congénitas, la mediana de edad en la cirugía fue de 6 meses, todos tenían cirugías previas con mediana de tres, y dos de ellas fueron por oclusión intestinal previa...
October 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Álvaro Montenegro, Richard T Callaghan, Scott M Fitzpatrick
The prehistoric colonization of islands in Remote Oceania that began ∼3400 B.P. represents what was arguably the most expansive and ambitious maritime dispersal of humans across any of the world's seas or oceans. Though archaeological evidence has provided a relatively clear picture of when many of the major island groups were colonized, there is still considerable debate as to where these settlers originated from and their strategies/trajectories used to reach habitable land that other datasets (genetic, linguistic) are also still trying to resolve...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
David N Fisman, Ashleigh R Tuite, Kevin A Brown
Although the global climate is changing at an unprecedented rate, links between weather and infectious disease have received little attention in high income countries. The "El Niño Southern Oscillation" (ENSO) occurs irregularly and is associated with changing temperature and precipitation patterns. We studied the impact of ENSO on infectious diseases in four census regions in the United States. We evaluated infectious diseases requiring hospitalization using the US National Hospital Discharge Survey (1970-2010) and five disease groupings that may undergo epidemiological shifts with changing climate: (i) vector-borne diseases, (ii) pneumonia and influenza, (iii) enteric disease, (iv) zoonotic bacterial disease, and (v) fungal disease...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chasity Henson, Patrick Market, Anthony Lupo, Patrick Guinan
An analysis of crop yields for the state of Missouri was completed to determine if an interannual or multidecadal variability existed as a result of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Corn and soybean yields were recorded in kilograms per hectare for each of the six climate regions of Missouri. An analysis using the Mokhov "method of cycles" demonstrated interannual, interdecadal, and multidecadal variations in crop yields. Cross-spectral analysis was used to determine which region was most impacted by ENSO and PDO influenced seasonal (April-September) temperature and precipitation...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Zhihai Zheng, Zeng-Zhen Hu, Michelle L'Heureux
The most predictable components of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolution in real-time multi-model predictions are identified by applying an empirical orthogonal function analysis of the model data that maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (MSN EOF). The normalized Niño3.4 index is analyzed for nine 3-month overlapping seasons. In this sense, the first most predictable component (MSN EOF1) is the decaying phase of ENSO during the Northern Hemisphere spring, followed by persistence through autumn and winter...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
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