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El nino

Lina Song, Yuanlong Li, Jianing Wang, Fan Wang, Shijian Hu, Chuanyu Liu, Xinyuan Diao, Cong Guan
Meridional ocean current in the northwestern Pacific was documented by seven subsurface moorings deployed at 142°E during August 2014-October 2015. A sandwich structure of the tropical meridional overturning circulation (TMOC) was revealed between 0-6°N that consists of a surface northward flow (0-80 m), a thermocline southward flow (80-260 m; 22.6-26.5 σ θ ), and a subthermocline northward flow (260-500 m; 26.5-26.9 σ θ ). Based on mooring data, along with satellite and reanalysis data, prominent seasonal-to-interannual variations were observed in all three layers, and the equatorial zonal winds were found to be a dominant cause of the variations...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lauren O'Connell, Song Gao, Donald McCorquodale, Jay Fleisher, Jose V Lopez
Background: Similar to natural rivers, manmade inlets connect inland runoff to the ocean. Port Everglades Inlet (PEI) is a busy cargo and cruise ship port in South Florida, which can act as a source of pollution to surrounding beaches and offshore coral reefs. Understanding the composition and fluctuations of bacterioplankton communities ("microbiomes") in major port inlets is important due to potential impacts on surrounding environments. We hypothesize seasonal microbial fluctuations, which were profiled by high throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and analysis...
2018: PeerJ
Hyewon Kim, Hugh W Ducklow, Doris Abele, Eduardo M Ruiz Barlett, Anita G J Buma, Michael P Meredith, Patrick D Rozema, Oscar M Schofield, Hugh J Venables, Irene R Schloss
The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a climatically sensitive region where periods of strong warming have caused significant changes in the marine ecosystem and food-web processes. Tight coupling between phytoplankton and higher trophic levels implies that the coastal WAP is a bottom-up controlled system, where changes in phytoplankton dynamics may largely impact other food-web components. Here, we analysed the inter-decadal time series of year-round chlorophyll- a (Chl) collected from three stations along the coastal WAP: Carlini Station at Potter Cove (PC) on King George Island, Palmer Station on Anvers Island and Rothera Station on Adelaide Island...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
C Moffat, M Meredith
The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a highly productive marine ecosystem where extended periods of change have been observed in the form of glacier retreat, reduction of sea-ice cover and shifts in marine populations, among others. The physical environment on the shelf is known to be strongly influenced by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current flowing along the shelf slope and carrying warm, nutrient-rich water, by cold waters flooding into the northern Bransfield Strait from the Weddell Sea, by an extensive network of glaciers and ice shelves, and by strong seasonal to inter-annual variability in sea-ice formation and air-sea interactions, with significant modulation by climate modes like El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
I Loaiza, M De Troch, G De Boeck
Scallops and their potential predators were collected in Sechura Bay and in front of the Illescas Reserved Zone (north Peru), during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 2016, and analyzed for the metals chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). This study showed that ~20% of the molluscs exceeded the maximum residual levels (MRLs) for human consumption in inorganic As, while ~30% of the crustaceans did. For Cd, around 10% and 40% of the molluscs and the crustaceans were above the MRLs, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jessie Nallely Zurita-Cruz, Miguel Ángel Villasís-Keever, Leticia Damasio-Santana, Leticia Manuel-Apolinar, Rosalba Ferrusca-Ceja, Elisa Nishimura-Meguro, Aleida de J Rivera-Hernández, Eulalia Garrido-Magaña
Introducción: En la hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita (HSC), la obesidad, la hiperinsulinemia y los niveles de leptina se encuentran incrementados. Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia de los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico (FRC) en niños y adolescentes con HSC y explorar la relación con los niveles de leptina. Método: Estudio transversal de 40 pacientes a quienes se realizó somatometría y evaluación de glucosa, insulina, triglicéridos, 17-hidroxiprogesterona, leptina, colesterol HDL y LDL en ayuno...
2018: Gaceta Médica de México
Victor Alexandre Hardt Ferreira Dos Santos, Marciel José Ferreira, João Victor Figueiredo Cardoso Rodrigues, Maquelle Neves Garcia, João Vitor Barbosa Ceron, Bruce Walker Nelson, Scott Reid Saleska
Sustained drought and concomitant high temperature may reduce photosynthesis and cause tree mortality. Possible causes of reduced photosynthesis include stomatal closure and biochemical inhibition, but their relative roles are unknown in Amazon trees during strong drought events. We assessed the effects of the recent (2015) strong El Niño drought on leaf-level photosynthesis of Central Amazon trees via these two mechanisms. Through four seasons of 2015, we measured leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll concentration and nutrient content in leaves of 57 upper canopy and understory trees of a lowland terra firme forest on well-drained infertile oxisol...
May 3, 2018: Global Change Biology
Shangfeng Chen, Wen Chen, Bin Yu
Previous studies indicated that the spring Arctic Oscillation (AO) exerts significant influences on the subsequent winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This analysis suggests that the spring AO-ENSO linkage is highly modulated by its preceding November AO. When November and the subsequent spring AO indices are in phase, the spring AO has a pronounced influence on ENSO. However, when the November and spring AO indices are out of phase, the spring AO-ENSO connection disappears. Modulation of the November AO on the spring AO-ENSO connection is mainly through the constructive and destructive superposition of the November and spring AO associated sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical central-eastern Pacific in spring and summer, as well as the SST anomalies developed further in the tropical Pacific via the positive air-sea feedback...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jocelyn Champagnon, Jean-Dominique Lebreton, Hugh Drummond, David J Anderson
Understanding and modeling population change is urgently needed to predict effects of climate change on biodiversity. High trophic-level organisms are influenced by fluctuations of prey quality and abundance, which themselves may depend on climate oscillations. Modeling effects of such fluctuations is challenging because prey populations may vary with multiple climate oscillations occurring at different time scales. The analysis of a 28-yr time series of capture-recapture data of a tropical seabird, the Nazca Booby (Sula granti), in the Galápagos, Ecuador, allowed us to test for demographic effects of two major ocean oscillations occurring at distinct time-scales: the inter-annual El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and inter-decadal oscillations...
May 2018: Ecology
R O Anyah, E Forootan, J L Awange, M Khaki
Africa, a continent endowed with huge water resources that sustain its agricultural activities is increasingly coming under threat from impacts of climate extremes (droughts and floods), which puts the very precious water resource into jeopardy. Understanding the relationship between climate variability and water storage over the continent, therefore, is paramount in order to inform future water management strategies. This study employs Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data and the higher order (fourth order cumulant) statistical independent component analysis (ICA) method to study the relationship between terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes and five global climate-teleconnection indices; El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) over Africa for the period 2003-2014...
April 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Luigi Mariani, Gabriele Cola, David Maghradze, Osvaldo Failla, Franco Zavatti
The objective of this work is to investigate the Holocenic climate cycles that may have influenced the domestication of grapevine in the Subcaucasian area and its subsequent spread in Eurasia. The analysis covered the longitudinal belt ranging from the Iberian Peninsula to Japan, seen as the preferential pathway for the Holocenic spread of grapevine and many other crops in Eurasia. Spectral analysis was considered as the criterion of investigation and the Holocenic cycles were analyzed considering different geochemical and biological proxies, of which seven are directly referred to vine...
April 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Gustavo Antonio Piazza, Rémi Dupas, Chantal Gascuel-Odoux, Catherine Grimaldi, Adilson Pinheiro, Vander Kaufmann
Despite global efforts to monitor water quality in catchments worldwide, tropical and subtropical zones still lack data to study the influence of human activities and climate variations on solute dynamics. In this study, we monitored ten solutes every two weeks for six years (2010-2015) in three nested catchments (2 to30 km2 ), which contained heterogeneous landscapes composed of forests and agricultural land, and one small neighboring forested catchment (0.4 km2 ). Data analysis revealed that i) rainfall, discharge and solute concentrations displayed no clear seasonal patterns, unlike many catchments of the temperate zone; ii) solute concentrations in the agricultural area were higher than those in the forested area, but both areas displayed similar temporal patterns due to a common hydroclimatic driver; iii) all four catchments displayed a chemostatic export regime for most of the solutes, similar to catchments of the temperate zone; and iv) a positive correlation was observed between anion concentrations and ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) index...
April 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Harry Oyas, Lindsey Holmstrom, Naomi P Kemunto, Matthew Muturi, Athman Mwatondo, Eric Osoro, Austine Bitek, Bernard Bett, Jane W Githinji, Samuel M Thumbi, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Peninah M Munyua, M Kariuki Njenga
BACKGROUND: In mid-2015, the United States' Pandemic Prediction and Forecasting Science and Technical Working Group of the National Science and Technology Council, Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention Systems, and Kenya Meteorological Department issued an alert predicting a high possibility of El-Niño rainfall and Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemic in Eastern Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In response to the alert, the Kenya Directorate of Veterinary Services (KDVS) carried out an enhanced syndromic surveillance system between November 2015 and February 2016, targeting 22 RVF high-risk counties in the country as identified previously through risk mapping...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tianjiao Ma, Wen Chen, Debashis Nath, Hans-F Graf, Lin Wang, Jingliang Huangfu
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a key feature for seasonal weather and climate prediction in the extra-tropics since related sea surface temperature anomalies induce precipitation anomalies that generate poleward propagating Rossby waves and teleconnections. The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is driven by processes originating over the Asian continent and, to a lesser degree, by ENSO-related tropical convection. EAWM also strongly affects convection and precipitation patterns over the western tropical Pacific by cold air outbreaks reaching equatorial latitudes...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yina Marcela Guaca-González, Gladys Fernanda Flórez-Restrepo, José Ignacio Moncayo-Ortíz, Jorge Santacruz-Ibarra, Adalucy Álvarez-Aldana
Introducción. Staphylococcus aureus coloniza mucosas y piel, y causa graves infecciones en el hombre y los animales. Es importante establecer el estatus de portadoras de cepas enterotoxigénicas de este microorganismo en manipuladoras de alimentos, con el fin de prevenir intoxicaciones alimentarias.Objetivo. Establecer las correlaciones entre los genes de enterotoxinas clásicas, el gen tsst-1, la producción de toxinas en cultivo y la resistencia antimicrobiana en aislamientos de S. aureus provenientes de manipuladoras de alimentos que cuidan niños en sus comunidades...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
J M Lough, K D Anderson, T P Hughes
Tropical corals live close to their upper thermal limit making them vulnerable to unusually warm summer sea temperatures. The resulting thermal stress can lead to breakdown of the coral-algal symbiosis, essential for the functioning of reefs, and cause coral bleaching. Mass coral bleaching is a modern phenomenon associated with increases in reef temperatures due to recent global warming. Widespread bleaching has typically occurred during El Niño events. We examine the historical level of stress for 100 coral reef locations with robust bleaching histories...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yi-Peng Guo, Zhe-Min Tan
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can significantly affect the rapid intensification of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific (WNP). However, ENSO events have various durations, which can lead to different atmospheric and oceanic conditions. Here we show that during short duration El Niño events, the WNP tropical cyclone rapid-intensification mean occurrence position migrates westward by ~8.0° longitude, which is caused by reduced vertical wind shear, increased mid-tropospheric humidity, and enhanced tropical cyclone heat potential over the westernmost WNP...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
P J Nair, A Chakraborty, H Varikoden, P A Francis, J Kuttippurath
India is home for more than a billion people and its economy is largely based on agrarian society. Therefore, rainfall received not only decides its livelihood, but also influences its water security and economy. This situation warrants continuous surveillance and analysis of Indian rainfall. These kinds of studies would also help forecasters to better tune their models for accurate weather prediction. Here, we introduce a new method for estimating variability and trends in rainfall over different climate regions of India...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wenju Cai, Guojian Wang, Bolan Gan, Lixin Wu, Agus Santoso, Xiaopei Lin, Zhaohui Chen, Fan Jia, Toshio Yamagata
Extreme positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) affects weather, agriculture, ecosystems, and public health worldwide, particularly when exacerbated by an extreme El Niño. The Paris Agreement aims to limit warming below 2 °C and ideally below 1.5 °C in global mean temperature (GMT), but how extreme pIOD will respond to this target is unclear. Here we show that the frequency increases linearly as the warming proceeds, and doubles at 1.5 °C warming from the pre-industrial level (statistically significant above the 90% confidence level), underscored by a strong intermodel agreement with 11 out of 13 models producing an increase...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Jess K Zimmerman, J Aaron Hogan, Christopher J Nytch, John E Bithorn
Interannual changes in global climate and weather disturbances may influence reproduction in tropical forests. Phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are known to produce interannual variation in reproduction, as do severe storms such as hurricanes. Using stationary trap-based phenology data collected fortnightly from 1993 to 2014 from a hurricane-affected (1989 Hugo, 1998 Georges) subtropical wet forest in northeastern Puerto Rico, we conducted a time series analysis of flowering and seed production...
April 6, 2018: Ecology
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