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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145446/large-scale-climatic-effects-on-traditional-hawaiian-fishpond-aquaculture
#1
Daniel McCoy, Margaret A McManus, Keliʻiahonui Kotubetey, Angela Hiʻilei Kawelo, Charles Young, Brandon D'Andrea, Kathleen C Ruttenberg, Rosanna ʻAnolani Alegado
Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142265/publisher-correction-tropical-explosive-volcanic-eruptions-can-trigger-el-ni%C3%A3-o-by-cooling-tropical-africa
#2
Myriam Khodri, Takeshi Izumo, Jérôme Vialard, Serge Janicot, Christophe Cassou, Matthieu Lengaigne, Juliette Mignot, Guillaume Gastineau, Eric Guilyardi, Nicolas Lebas, Alan Robock, Michael J McPhaden
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this article.
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142229/impact-of-deforestation-and-climate-on-the-amazon-basin-s-above-ground-biomass-during-1993-2012
#3
Jean-François Exbrayat, Yi Y Liu, Mathew Williams
Since the 1960s, large-scale deforestation in the Amazon Basin has contributed to rising global CO2 concentrations and to climate change. Recent advances in satellite observations enable estimates of gross losses of above-ground biomass (AGB) stocks due to deforestation. However, because of simultaneous regrowth, the net contribution of deforestation emissions to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations is poorly quantified. Climate change may also reduce the potential for forest regeneration in previously disturbed regions...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136532/spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-rainfall-and-drought-characteristics-across-the-pearl-river-basin
#4
Shulin Deng, Tan Chen, Ni Yang, Lean Qu, Manchun Li, Dong Chen
Understanding rainfall trends as well as drought characteristics plays a key role in watershed development and management. In this study, the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall and drought based on temperature and precipitation data observed in 48 meteorological stations from 1959 to 2012 across the Pearl River Basin in China were analyzed. The possible influence of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and El Nino Modoki (ENSO_M) events on seasonal drought based on the Standardized Precipitation-evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) were also investigated...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134754/a-decrease-in-the-abundance-and-strategic-sophistication-of-cleaner-fish-after-environmental-perturbations
#5
Zegni Triki, Sharon Wismer, Elena Levorato, Redouan Bshary
Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide and under foreseeable threat due to climate change, resulting in significant changes in reef communities. It is unknown, however, how such community changes impact interspecific interactions. Recent extreme weather events affecting the Great Barrier Reef, that is, consecutive cyclones and the 2016 El Niño event, allowed us to explore potential consequences in the mutualistic interactions involving cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaner"). After the perturbations, cleaner densities were reduced by 80%, disproportionally compared to the variety of reef fish clients from which cleaners remove ectoparasites...
November 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132717/effects-of-the-enso-on-rainfall-erosivity-in-the-fujian-province-of-southeast-china
#6
Shifa Chen, Xuan Zha
Rainfall erosivity is one important factor that controls soil erosion. The interannual variability of rainfall erosivity in southeast China connected to the ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation). Rainfall erosivity across southeast China was assessed using daily rainfall data from 60 meteorological stations during the period from 1980 to 2013. We determined that models of erosivity based on daily rainfall can accurately predict annual rainfall erosivity. This paper presents a study of the effects of Niño3.4 SST (Sea Surface Temperatures) anomalies, the SOI (Southern Oscillation Index) and the MEI (Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index) on rainfall erosivity in the southeast of China...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126632/an-estimate-of-the-percentage-of-non-predatory-dead-variability-in-coastal-zooplankton-of-the-southern-humboldt-current-system
#7
M C Krautz, E Hernández-Miranda, R Veas, P Bocaz, P Riquelme, R A Quiñones
Non-predatory dead variability in zooplankton remains poorly quantified worldwide. Here, we make the first estimation of the percentage of dead organisms in coastal zooplankton communities in the Humboldt Current System (HCS) under in situ conditions. The study was conducted in four coastal sites of the southern HCS (between 36 and 37°S) over a period of one year. Percentages of dead organisms were based on the classification as live or dead of 158,220 holoplankton and 17,591 meroplankton individuals using neutral red staining technique...
October 28, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106968/effects-of-el-ni%C3%A3-o-and-la-ni%C3%A3-a-southern-oscillation-events-on-the-adrenocortical-responses-to-stress-in-birds-of-the-galapagos-islands
#8
John C Wingfield, Michaela Hau, P Dee Boersma, L Michael Romero, Nigella Hillgarth, Marilyn Ramenofsky, Peter Wrege, Robert Scheibling, J Patrick Kelley, Brian Walker, Martin Wikelski
El Niño Southern Oscillation events (ENSO) and the subsequent opposite weather patterns in the following months and years (La Niña) have major climatic impacts, especially on oceanic habitats, affecting breeding success of both land and sea birds. We assessed corticosterone concentrations from blood samples during standardized protocols of capture, handling and restraint to simulate acute stress from 12 species of Galapagos Island birds during the ENSO year of 1998 and a La Niña year of 1999. Plasma levels of corticosterone were measured in samples collected at capture (to represent non-stressed baseline) and subsequently up to one hour post-capture to give maximum corticosterone following acute stress, and total amount of corticosterone that the individual was exposed to during the test period (integrated corticosterone)...
October 26, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101362/marine-heatwave-causes-unprecedented-regional-mass-bleaching-of-thermally-resistant-corals-in-northwestern-australia
#9
Morane Le Nohaïc, Claire L Ross, Christopher E Cornwall, Steeve Comeau, Ryan Lowe, Malcolm T McCulloch, Verena Schoepf
In 2015/16, a marine heatwave associated with a record El Niño led to the third global mass bleaching event documented to date. This event impacted coral reefs around the world, including in Western Australia (WA), although WA reefs had largely escaped bleaching during previous strong El Niño years. Coral health surveys were conducted during the austral summer of 2016 in four bioregions along the WA coast (~17 degrees of latitude), ranging from tropical to temperate locations. Here we report the first El Niño-related regional-scale mass bleaching event in WA...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084355/variation-in-the-resilience-of-cloud-forest-vascular-epiphytes-to-severe-drought
#10
Sybil G Gotsch, Todd E Dawson, Danel Draguljić
Epiphytes are common in tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) and play many important ecological roles, but the degree to which these unique plants will be affected by changes in climate is unknown. We investigated the drought responses of three vascular epiphyte communities bracketing the cloud base during a severe, El Niño-impacted dry season. Epiphytes were instrumented with sap flow probes in each site. Leaf water potential and pressure-volume curve parameters were also measured before and during the drought...
October 30, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081572/climate-driven-endemic-cholera-is-modulated-by-human-mobility-in-a-megacity
#11
Javier Perez-Saez, Aaron A King, Andrea Rinaldo, Mohammad Yunus, Abu S G Faruque, Mercedes Pascual
Although a differential sensitivity of cholera dynamics to climate variability has been reported in the spatially heterogeneous megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh, the specific patterns of spread of the resulting risk within the city remain unclear. We build on an established probabilistic spatial model to investigate the importance and role of human mobility in modulating spatial cholera transmission. Mobility fluxes were inferred using a straightforward and generalizable methodology that relies on mapping population density based on a high resolution urban footprint product, and a parameter-free human mobility model...
October 2017: Advances in Water Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069401/large-scale-climate-effects-meet-an-amazonian-butterfly-which-population-parameters-respond-to-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#12
Maja Kajin, Carla M Penz, Phil J DeVries
One of the most tangible outcomes of climate change is change in the frequency of El Niño/La Niña events. They have a large impact on rainfall in the Western hemisphere, but their impact on tropical fauna is largely unknown. A decade long capture-mark-recapture study of the widespread Ecuadorian butterfly Nessaea hewitsoni (Felder & Felder) from an intact forest allowed us to analyze patterns of monthly and seasonal population dynamics before, during, and after an El Niño event. El Niño events did not affect long-term population size, but a 5-month delayed El Niño led to temporary emigration of females, with their subsequent return...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057322/temporal-variation-in-pelagic-food-chain-length-in-response-to-environmental-change
#13
Rocio I Ruiz-Cooley, Tim Gerrodette, Paul C Fiedler, Susan J Chivers, Kerri Danil, Lisa T Ballance
Climate variability alters nitrogen cycling, primary productivity, and dissolved oxygen concentration in marine ecosystems. We examined the role of this variability (as measured by six variables) on food chain length (FCL) in the California Current (CC) by reconstructing a time series of amino acid-specific δ(15)N values derived from common dolphins, an apex pelagic predator, and using two FCL proxies. Strong declines in FCL were observed after the 1997-1999 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. Bayesian models revealed longer FCLs under intermediate conditions for surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration, multivariate ENSO index, and total plankton volume but not for hypoxic depth and nitrate concentration...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051612/the-orbiting-carbon-observatory-oco-2-tracks-2-3-peta-gram-increase-in-carbon-release-to-the-atmosphere-during-the-2014-2016-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#14
Prabir K Patra, David Crisp, Johannes W Kaiser, Debra Wunch, Tazu Saeki, Kazuhito Ichii, Takashi Sekiya, Paul O Wennberg, Dietrich G Feist, David F Pollard, David W T Griffith, Voltaire A Velazco, M De Maziere, Mahesh K Sha, Coleen Roehl, Abhishek Chatterjee, Kentaro Ishijima
The powerful El Niño event of 2015-2016 - the third most intense since the 1950s - has exerted a large impact on the Earth's natural climate system. The column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction (XCO2) observations from satellites and ground-based networks are analyzed together with in situ observations for the period of September 2014 to October 2016. From the differences between satellite (OCO-2) observations and simulations using an atmospheric chemistry-transport model, we estimate that, relative to the mean annual fluxes for 2014, the most recent El Niño has contributed to an excess CO2 emission from the Earth's surface (land + ocean) to the atmosphere in the range of 2...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044761/thermal-refugia-against-coral-bleaching-throughout-the-northern-red-sea
#15
Eslam O Osman, David J Smith, Maren Ziegler, Benjamin Kürten, Constanze Conrad, Khaled M El-Haddad, Christian R Voolstra, David J Suggett
Tropical reefs have been impacted by thermal anomalies caused by global warming that induced coral bleaching and mortality events globally. However, there have only been very few recordings of bleaching within the Red Sea despite covering a latitudinal range of 15° and consequently it has been considered a region that is less sensitive to thermal anomalies. We therefore examined historical patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) and associated anomalies (1982-2012) and compared warming trends with a unique compilation of corresponding coral bleaching records from throughout the region...
October 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036207/little-ice-age-climatic-erraticism-as-an-analogue-for-future-enhanced-hydroclimatic-variability-across-the-american-southwest
#16
Julie Loisel, Glen M MacDonald, Marcus J Thomson
The American Southwest has experienced a series of severe droughts interspersed with strong wet episodes over the past decades, prompting questions about future climate patterns and potential intensification of weather disruptions under warming conditions. Here we show that interannual hydroclimatic variability in this region has displayed a significant level of non-stationarity over the past millennium. Our tree ring-based analysis of past drought indicates that the Little Ice Age (LIA) experienced high interannual hydroclimatic variability, similar to projections for the 21st century...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026014/influence-of-el-ni%C3%A3-o-on-atmospheric-co2-over-the-tropical-pacific-ocean-findings-from-nasa-s-oco-2-mission
#17
A Chatterjee, M M Gierach, A J Sutton, R A Feely, D Crisp, A Eldering, M R Gunson, C W O'Dell, B B Stephens, D S Schimel
Spaceborne observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 are used to characterize the response of tropical atmospheric CO2 concentrations to the strong El Niño event of 2015-2016. Although correlations between the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation are well known, the magnitude of the correlation and the timing of the responses of oceanic and terrestrial carbon cycle remain poorly constrained in space and time. We used space-based CO2 observations to confirm that the tropical Pacific Ocean does play an early and important role in modulating the changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations during El Niño events-a phenomenon inferred but not previously observed because of insufficient high-density, broad-scale CO2 observations over the tropics...
October 13, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026012/the-orbiting-carbon-observatory-2-early-science-investigations-of-regional-carbon-dioxide-fluxes
#18
A Eldering, P O Wennberg, D Crisp, D S Schimel, M R Gunson, A Chatterjee, J Liu, F M Schwandner, Y Sun, C W O'Dell, C Frankenberg, T Taylor, B Fisher, G B Osterman, D Wunch, J Hakkarainen, J Tamminen, B Weir
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) mission was motivated by the need to diagnose how the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is altering the productivity of the biosphere and the uptake of CO2 by the oceans. Launched on 2 July 2014, OCO-2 provides retrievals of the column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction ([Formula: see text]) as well as the fluorescence from chlorophyll in terrestrial plants. The seasonal pattern of uptake by the terrestrial biosphere is recorded in fluorescence and the drawdown of [Formula: see text] during summer...
October 13, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026011/contrasting-carbon-cycle-responses-of-the-tropical-continents-to-the-2015-2016-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#19
Junjie Liu, Kevin W Bowman, David S Schimel, Nicolas C Parazoo, Zhe Jiang, Meemong Lee, A Anthony Bloom, Debra Wunch, Christian Frankenberg, Ying Sun, Christopher W O'Dell, Kevin R Gurney, Dimitris Menemenlis, Michelle Gierach, David Crisp, Annmarie Eldering
The 2015-2016 El Niño led to historically high temperatures and low precipitation over the tropics, while the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) was the largest on record. Here we quantify the response of tropical net biosphere exchange, gross primary production, biomass burning, and respiration to these climate anomalies by assimilating column CO2, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, and carbon monoxide observations from multiple satellites. Relative to the 2011 La Niña, the pantropical biosphere released 2...
October 13, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018307/management-of-citrus-canker-in-argentina-a-success-story
#20
REVIEW
B I Canteros, A M Gochez, R C Moschini
Citrus canker is an important bacterial disease of citrus in several regions of the world. Strains of Xanthomonas citri type-A (Xc-A) group are the primary pathogen where citrus canker occurs. After Xc-A entered the Northeast of Argentina in 1974, the disease spread rapidly from 1977 to 1980 and then slowed down and remained moving at slow pace until 1990 when it became endemic. Citrus canker was detected in Northwest Argentina in 2002. This paper presents the main steps in the fight of the disease and the management strategies that have been used to control citrus canker at this time...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
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