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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630900/reconstructed-storm-tracks-reveal-three-centuries-of-changing-moisture-delivery-to-north-america
#1
Erika K Wise, Matthew P Dannenberg
Moisture delivery to western North America is closely linked to variability in the westerly storm tracks of midlatitude cyclones, which are, in turn, modified by larger-scale features such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation system. Instrumental and modeling data suggest that extratropical storm tracks may be intensifying and shifting poleward due to anthropogenic climate change, but it is difficult to separate recent trends from natural variability because of the large amount of decadal and longer variation in storm tracks and their limited instrumental record...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630446/strong-sub-seasonal-wintertime-cooling-over-east-asia-and-northern-europe-associated-with-super-el-ni%C3%A3-o-events
#2
Xin Geng, Wenjun Zhang, Malte F Stuecker, Fei-Fei Jin
East Asia experienced a record-breaking cold event during the 2015/16 boreal winter, with pronounced impacts on livelihood in the region. We find that this large-scale cold spell can be attributed to the concurrent super El Niño event in the tropical Pacific. Our analysis reveals that all super El Niño winters (1982/83, 1997/98, and 2015/16) were accompanied by a rapid sub-seasonal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO) phase reversal from a positive to a negative state during early January, which was largely caused by the interaction of these super El Niño events with the subtropical jet annual cycle...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627201/grado-de-malnutrici%C3%A3-n-y-su-relaci%C3%A3-n-con-los-principales-factores-estructurales-y-alimentarios-de-la-poblaci%C3%A3-n-preescolar-hondure%C3%A3-a-prevalencia-de-la-lactancia-materna-en-los-mismos
#3
Lorena Fernández Palacios, Elsa Barrientos Augustinus, Carolina Raudales Urquía, Carmen Frontela Saseta, Gaspar Ros Berruezo
Introducción: la desnutrición infantil sigue siendo un grave problema de salud pública en Honduras, con una prevalencia nacional según valores de referencia de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) del 29% en niños menores de cinco años. Además, el promedio de desnutrición crónica en la región asciende hasta el 80% en comunidades pobres e indígenas, convirtiendo a Honduras en el segundo país en la región centroamericana con mayor incidencia de desnutrición crónica. Otro de los problemas que presenta la región resulta del abandono precoz de la lactancia materna exclusiva: solo el 29,7% de los menores fue alimentado exclusivamente con leche materna hasta los seis meses...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620915/gas-exchange-recovery-following-natural-drought-is-rapid-unless-limited-by-loss-of-leaf-hydraulic-conductance-evidence-from-an-evergreen-woodland
#4
Robert P Skelton, Timothy J Brodribb, Scott A M McAdam, Patrick J Mitchell
Drought can cause major damage to plant communities, but species damage thresholds and postdrought recovery of forest productivity are not yet predictable. We used an El Niño drought event as a natural experiment to test whether postdrought recovery of gas exchange could be predicted by properties of the water transport system, or if metabolism, primarily high abscisic acid concentration, might delay recovery. We monitored detailed physiological responses, including shoot sapflow, leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential and foliar abscisic acid (ABA), during drought and through the subsequent rehydration period for a sample of eight canopy and understory species...
June 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614430/effects-of-the-application-of-therapeutic-massage-in-children-with-cancer-a-systematic-review
#5
Juan Rodríguez-Mansilla, Blanca González-Sánchez, Silvia Torres-Piles, Jorge Guerrero Martín, María Jiménez-Palomares, Macarena Núñez Bellino
Objective: to learn about the effects of the use of therapeutic massage in children with cancer. Method: systematic review of controlled clinical trials The search was conducted in November 2014 in the following databases: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane and PEDro. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials, published in English or Spanish, analyzing the effects of massage on the different stages and types of childhood cancer (between 1 and 18 years old). Results: of 1007 articles found, 7 met the inclusion criteria...
June 8, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594886/impacts-of-el-ni%C3%A3-o-southern-oscillation-on-the-wheat-market-a-global-dynamic-analysis
#6
Luciano Gutierrez
Although the widespread influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) occurrences on crop yields of the main agricultural commodities is well known, the global socio-economic consequences of ENSO still remain uncertain. Given the global importance of wheat for global consumption by providing 20% of global calories and nourishment, the monitoring and prediction of ENSO-induced variations in the worldwide wheat market are essential for allowing national governments to manage the associated risks and to ensure the supplies of wheat for consumers, including the underprivileged...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592846/formation-mechanism-for-2015-16-super-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#7
Lin Chen, Tim Li, Bin Wang, Lu Wang
The extreme El Niño (EN) events in 1997/98 and 1982/83, referred to as super EN, exerted remarkable global influence. A super EN was anticipated on the way in early 2014 but failed to materialize toward the end of 2014. Whilst the scientific community was still puzzling about the cause of the aborted EN event in 2014, the remnants of the decaying warming in late 2014 unexpectedly reignited since February 2015 and grew into a super EN by the end of 2015. Understanding the onset mechanism of the 2015 EN event and its differences from past super EN events is crucial for improving EN prediction in a changing climate...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591297/organization-of-professional-practices-against-intrafamily-violence-against-children-and-adolescents-in-the-institutional-context
#8
Gabriele Schek, Mara Regina Santos da Silva, Carl Lacharité, Maria Emília Nunes Bueno
Objective: to analyze based on the practitioners' discourse, the way they organize their practices confronting situations of intra-family violence against children and adolescents. Method: qualitative research carried out with 15 professionals who work in social and health services located in the southernmost of Brazil. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, performed at the participants' workplace. We used a theoretical matrix to analyze the data, based on Institutional Ethnography and the technique of discursive textual analysis...
June 5, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585927/extreme-temperatures-in-southeast-asia-caused-by-el-ni%C3%A3-o-and-worsened-by-global-warming
#9
Kaustubh Thirumalai, Pedro N DiNezio, Yuko Okumura, Clara Deser
In April 2016, southeast Asia experienced surface air temperatures (SATs) that surpassed national records, exacerbated energy consumption, disrupted agriculture and caused severe human discomfort. Here we show using observations and an ensemble of global warming simulations the combined impact of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and long-term warming on regional SAT extremes. We find a robust relationship between ENSO and southeast Asian SATs wherein virtually all April extremes occur during El Niño years...
June 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585237/role-of-tree-size-in-moist-tropical-forest-carbon-cycling-and-water-deficit-responses
#10
Victoria Meakem, Alan J Tepley, Erika B Gonzalez-Akre, Valentine Herrmann, Helene C Muller-Landau, S Joseph Wright, Stephen P Hubbell, Richard Condit, Kristina J Anderson-Teixeira
Drought disproportionately affects larger trees in tropical forests, but implications for forest composition and carbon (C) cycling in relation to dry season intensity remain poorly understood. In order to characterize how C cycling is shaped by tree size and drought adaptations and how these patterns relate to spatial and temporal variation in water deficit, we analyze data from three forest dynamics plots spanning a moisture gradient in Panama that have experienced El Niño droughts. At all sites, aboveground C cycle contributions peaked below 50-cm stem diameter, with stems ≥ 50 cm accounting for on average 59% of live aboveground biomass, 45% of woody productivity and 49% of woody mortality...
June 6, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584173/spatial-seasonal-and-climatic-predictive-models-of-rift-valley-fever-disease-across-africa
#11
David W Redding, Sonia Tiedt, Gianni Lo Iacono, Bernard Bett, Kate E Jones
Understanding the emergence and subsequent spread of human infectious diseases is a critical global challenge, especially for high-impact zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. Global climate and land-use change are likely to alter host and vector distributions, but understanding the impact of these changes on the burden of infectious diseases is difficult. Here, we use a Bayesian spatial model to investigate environmental drivers of one of the most important diseases in Africa, Rift Valley fever (RVF). The model uses a hierarchical approach to determine how environmental drivers vary both spatially and seasonally, and incorporates the effects of key climatic oscillations, to produce a continental risk map of RVF in livestock (as a proxy for human RVF risk)...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575035/effects-of-local-and-regional-climatic-fluctuations-on-dengue-outbreaks-in-southern-taiwan
#12
Ting-Wu Chuang, Luis Fernando Chaves, Po-Jiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Southern Taiwan has been a hotspot for dengue fever transmission since 1998. During 2014 and 2015, Taiwan experienced unprecedented dengue outbreaks and the causes are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the influence of regional and local climate conditions on the incidence of dengue fever in Taiwan, as well as to develop a climate-based model for future forecasting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Historical time-series data on dengue outbreaks in southern Taiwan from 1998 to 2015 were investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555638/recent-enhancement-of-central-pacific-el-ni%C3%A3-o-variability-relative-to-last-eight-centuries
#13
Yu Liu, Kim M Cobb, Huiming Song, Qiang Li, Ching-Yao Li, Takeshi Nakatsuka, Zhisheng An, Weijian Zhou, Qiufang Cai, Jinbao Li, Steven W Leavitt, Changfeng Sun, Ruochen Mei, Chuan-Chou Shen, Ming-Hsun Chan, Junyan Sun, Libin Yan, Ying Lei, Yongyong Ma, Xuxiang Li, Deliang Chen, Hans W Linderholm
The far-reaching impacts of central Pacific El Niño events on global climate differ appreciably from those associated with eastern Pacific El Niño events. Central Pacific El Niño events may become more frequent in coming decades as atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations rise, but the instrumental record of central Pacific sea-surface temperatures is too short to detect potential trends. Here we present an annually resolved reconstruction of NIÑO4 sea-surface temperature, located in the central equatorial Pacific, based on oxygen isotopic time series from Taiwan tree cellulose that span from 1190 AD to 2007 AD...
May 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550298/opposite-polarities-of-enso-drive-distinct-patterns-of-coral-bleaching-potentials-in-the-southeast-indian-ocean
#14
Ningning Zhang, Ming Feng, Harry H Hendon, Alistair J Hobday, Jens Zinke
Episodic anomalously warm sea surface temperature (SST) extremes, or marine heatwaves (MHWs), amplify ocean warming effects and may lead to severe impacts on marine ecosystems. MHW-induced coral bleaching events have been observed frequently in recent decades in the southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), a region traditionally regarded to have resilience to global warming. In this study, we assess the contribution of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to MHWs across the mostly understudied reefs in the SEIO. We find that in extended summer months, the MHWs at tropical and subtropical reefs (divided at ~20°S) are driven by opposite ENSO polarities: MHWs are more likely to occur at the tropical reefs during eastern Pacific El Niño, driven by enhanced solar radiation and weaker Australian Monsoon, some likely alleviated by positive Indian Ocean Dipole events, and at the subtropical reefs during central Pacific La Niña, mainly caused by increased horizontal heat transport, and in some cases reinforced by local air-sea interactions...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542161/land-use-history-and-population-dynamics-of-free-standing-figs-in-a-maturing-forest
#15
Larissa Albrecht, Robert F Stallard, Elisabeth K V Kalko
Figs (Ficus sp.) are often considered as keystone resources which strongly influence tropical forest ecosystems. We used long-term tree-census data to track the population dynamics of two abundant free-standing fig species, Ficus insipida and F. yoponensis, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), a 15.6-km2 island in Lake Gatún, Panama. Vegetation cover on BCI consists of a mosaic of old growth (>400 years) and maturing (about 90-150 year old) secondary rainforest. Locations and conditions of fig trees have been mapped and monitored on BCI for more than 35 years (1973-2011), with a focus on the Lutz Catchment area (25 ha)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541288/skilful-prediction-of-sahel-summer-rainfall-on-inter-annual-and-multi-year-timescales
#16
K L Sheen, D M Smith, N J Dunstone, R Eade, D P Rowell, M Vellinga
Summer rainfall in the Sahel region of Africa exhibits one of the largest signals of climatic variability and with a population reliant on agricultural productivity, the Sahel is particularly vulnerable to major droughts such as occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. Rainfall levels have subsequently recovered, but future projections remain uncertain. Here we show that Sahel rainfall is skilfully predicted on inter-annual and multi-year (that is, >5 years) timescales and use these predictions to better understand the driving mechanisms...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536461/inter-basin-sources-for-two-year-predictability-of-the-multi-year-la-ni%C3%A3-a-event-in-2010-2012
#17
Jing-Jia Luo, Guoqiang Liu, Harry Hendon, Oscar Alves, Toshio Yamagata
Multi-year La Niña events often induce persistent cool and wet climate over global lands, altering and in some case mitigating regional climate warming impacts. The latest event lingered from mid-2010 to early 2012 and brought about intensive precipitation over many land regions of the world, particularly Australia. This resulted in a significant drop in global mean sea level despite the background upwards trend. This La Niña event is surprisingly predicted out to two years ahead in a few coupled models, even though the predictability of El Niño-Southern Oscillation during 2002-2014 has declined owing to weakened ocean-atmosphere interactions...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496184/el-ni%C3%A3-o-increases-the-risk-of-lower-mississippi-river-flooding
#18
Samuel E Munoz, Sylvia G Dee
Mississippi River floods rank among the costliest climate-related disasters in the world. Improving flood predictability, preparedness, and response at seasonal to decadal time-scales requires an understanding of the climatic controls that govern flood occurrence. Linking flood occurrence to persistent modes of climate variability like the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has proven challenging, due in part to the limited number of high-magnitude floods available for study in the instrumental record. To augment the relatively short instrumental record, we use output from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) Last Millennium Ensemble (LME) to investigate the dynamical controls on discharge extremes of the lower Mississippi River...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490782/mangrove-dieback-during-fluctuating-sea-levels
#19
Catherine E Lovelock, Ilka C Feller, Ruth Reef, Sharyn Hickey, Marilyn C Ball
Recent evidence indicates that climate change and intensification of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has increased variation in sea level. Although widespread impacts on intertidal ecosystems are anticipated to arise from the sea level seesaw associated with climate change, none have yet been demonstrated. Intertidal ecosystems, including mangrove forests are among those ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to sea level rise, but they may also be vulnerable to sea level variability and extreme low sea level events...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490780/intrabasin-variability-of-east-pacific-tropical-cyclones-during-enso-regulated-by-central-american-gap-winds
#20
Dan Fu, Ping Chang, Christina M Patricola
Hurricane Patricia in 2015 was the strongest Pacific hurricane to make landfall in Mexico. Although Patricia fortuitously spared major cities, it reminded us of the threat tropical cyclones (TCs) pose in the eastern North Pacific (ENP) and the importance of improving our understanding and prediction of ENP TCs. Patricia's intensity and the active 2015 ENP hurricane season have been partially attributed to the strong El Niño in 2015, however there is still a lack of fundamental understanding of the relationship between El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and ENP TCs...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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