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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737879/-visceral-leishmaniasis-pediatric-case-report
#1
Andrés Gomila H, Carolina Vanzo, Analía Garnero, Luisina Peruzzo, Mónica Badalotti
La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad causada por parásitos obligados intracelulares pertenecientes al género Leishmania y que reconoce tres formas clínicas principales: cutánea, visceral y mucocutánea. Es una patología del grupo de las "enfermedades desatendidas". Es la única enfermedad tropical transmitida a través de vectores que se ha mantenido endémica por décadas en el sur de Europa. La leishmaniasis visceral representa la forma más grave. Se caracteriza por fiebre, pérdida de peso, anemia y hepatoesplenomegalia...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729610/mean-bias-in-seasonal-forecast-model-and-enso-prediction-error
#2
Seon Tae Kim, Hye-In Jeong, Fei-Fei Jin
This study uses retrospective forecasts made using an APEC Climate Center seasonal forecast model to investigate the cause of errors in predicting the amplitude of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven sea surface temperature variability. When utilizing Bjerknes coupled stability (BJ) index analysis, enhanced errors in ENSO amplitude with forecast lead times are found to be well represented by those in the growth rate estimated by the BJ index. ENSO amplitude forecast errors are most strongly associated with the errors in both the thermocline slope response and surface wind response to forcing over the tropical Pacific, leading to errors in thermocline feedback...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724896/unprecedented-drought-over-tropical-south-america-in-2016-significantly-under-predicted-by-tropical-sst
#3
Amir Erfanian, Guiling Wang, Lori Fomenko
Tropical and sub-tropical South America are highly susceptible to extreme droughts. Recent events include two droughts (2005 and 2010) exceeding the 100-year return value in the Amazon and recurrent extreme droughts in the Nordeste region, with profound eco-hydrological and socioeconomic impacts. In 2015-2016, both regions were hit by another drought. Here, we show that the severity of the 2015-2016 drought ("2016 drought" hereafter) is unprecedented based on multiple precipitation products (since 1900), satellite-derived data on terrestrial water storage (since 2002) and two vegetation indices (since 2004)...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720811/some-coral-diseases-track-climate-oscillations-in-the-caribbean
#4
C J Randall, R van Woesik
Disease outbreaks continue to reduce coral populations worldwide. Understanding coral diseases and their relationships with environmental drivers is necessary to forecast disease outbreaks, and to predict future changes in coral populations. Yet, the temporal dynamics of coral diseases are rarely reported. Here we evaluate trends and periodicities in the records of three common coral diseases (white-band disease, yellow-band disease, and dark-spot syndrome) that were surveyed between 1997 and 2014 at 2082 sites throughout the Caribbean...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717231/a-connection-from-stratospheric-ozone-to-el-ni%C3%A3-o-southern-oscillation
#5
Desmond Manatsa, Geoffrey Mukwada
We use reanalysis and observational data to link the lower stratospheric ozone regulation of the ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) component of solar energy to ENSO modulation. Results indicate that during ENSO extremes, the Walker Circulation (WC) and Brewer Dobson Circulation are related to lower stratospheric ozone alterations east of the date line over the Pacific. These in turn are linked to upper tropospheric anomalous dipole temperature patterns on either side of the equator. The ensuing changes in geopotential height values do not only drive equatorial zonal wind anomalies in the upper troposphere that are reversed at the equatorial surface, but also impact on the intensity of the South Pacific High circulation...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713348/engineering-strategies-to-decode-and-enhance-the-genomes-of-coral-symbionts
#6
Rachel A Levin, Christian R Voolstra, Shobhit Agrawal, Peter D Steinberg, David J Suggett, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Elevated sea surface temperatures from a severe and prolonged El Niño event (2014-2016) fueled by climate change have resulted in mass coral bleaching (loss of dinoflagellate photosymbionts, Symbiodinium spp., from coral tissues) and subsequent coral mortality, devastating reefs worldwide. Genetic variation within and between Symbiodinium species strongly influences the bleaching tolerance of corals, thus recent papers have called for genetic engineering of Symbiodinium to elucidate the genetic basis of bleaching-relevant Symbiodinium traits...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712116/multi-century-tree-ring-precipitation-record-reveals-increasing-frequency-of-extreme-dry-events-in-the-upper-blue-nile-river-catchment
#7
Mulugeta Mokria, Aster Gebrekirstos, Abrham Abiyu, Meine Van Noordwijk, Achim Bräuning
Climate-related environmental and humanitarian crisis are important challenges in the Great Horn of Africa (GHA). In the absence of long-term past climate records in the region, tree-rings are valuable climate proxies, reflecting past climate variations and complementing climate records prior to the instrumental era. We established annually resolved multi-century tree-ring chronology from Juniperus procera trees in northern Ethiopia; the longest series yet for the GHA. The chronology correlates significantly with wet-season (r = 0...
July 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708605/modal-analysis-of-annual-runoff-volume-and-sediment-load-in-the-yangtze-river-lake-system-for-the-period-1956-2013
#8
Huai Chen, Lijun Zhu, Jianzhong Wang, Hongxia Fan, Zhihuan Wang
This study focuses on detecting trends in annual runoff volume and sediment load in the Yangtze river-lake system. Times series of annual runoff volume and sediment load at 19 hydrological gauging stations for the period 1956-2013 were collected. Based on the Mann-Kendall test at the 1% significance level, annual sediment loads in the Yangtze River, the Dongting Lake and the Poyang Lake were detected with significantly descending trends. The power spectrum estimation indicated predominant oscillations with periods of 8 and 20 years are embedded in the runoff volume series, probably related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (2-7 years) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (20-30 years)...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699997/accuracy-of-a-pediatric-early-warning-score-in-the-recognition-of-clinical-deterioration
#9
Juliana de Oliveira Freitas Miranda, Climene Laura de Camargo, Carlito Lopes Nascimento, Daniel Sales Portela, Alan Monaghan
Objective: to evaluate the accuracy of the version of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score translated and adapted for the Brazilian context, in the recognition of clinical deterioration. Method: a diagnostic test study to measure the accuracy of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context, in relation to a reference standard. The sample consisted of 271 children, aged 0 to 10 years, blindly evaluated by a nurse and a physician, specialists in pediatrics, with interval of 5 to 10 minutes between the evaluations, for the application of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context and of the reference standard...
July 10, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694477/realism-of-modelled-indian-summer-monsoon-correlation-with-the-tropical-indo-pacific-affects-projected-monsoon-changes
#10
Ziguang Li, Xiaopei Lin, Wenju Cai
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) tend to exert an offsetting impact on Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR), with an El Niño event tending to lower, whereas a positive IOD tending to increase ISMR. Simulation of these relationships in Phase Five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project has not been fully assessed, nor is their impact on the response of ISMR to greenhouse warming. Here we show that the majority of models simulate an unrealistic present-day IOD-ISMR correlation due to an overly strong control by ENSO...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685758/greening-of-the-sahara-suppressed-enso-activity-during-the-mid-holocene
#11
Francesco S R Pausata, Qiong Zhang, Francesco Muschitiello, Zhengyao Lu, Léon Chafik, Eva M Niedermeyer, J Curt Stager, Kim M Cobb, Zhengyu Liu
The evolution of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) during the Holocene remains uncertain. In particular, a host of new paleoclimate records suggest that ENSO internal variability or other external forcings may have dwarfed the fairly modest ENSO response to precessional insolation changes simulated in climate models. Here, using fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulations, we show that accounting for a vegetated and less dusty Sahara during the mid-Holocene relative to preindustrial climate can reduce ENSO variability by 25%, more than twice the decrease obtained using orbital forcing alone...
July 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681837/el-ni%C3%A3-o-like-teleconnection-increases-california-precipitation-in-response-to-warming
#12
Robert J Allen, Rainer Luptowitz
Future California (CA) precipitation projections, including those from the most recent Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), remain uncertain. This uncertainty is related to several factors, including relatively large internal climate variability, model shortcomings, and because CA lies within a transition zone, where mid-latitude regions are expected to become wetter and subtropical regions drier. Here, we use a multitude of models to show CA may receive more precipitation in the future under a business-as-usual scenario...
July 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678907/the-effect-of-a-self-constructed-material-on-children-s-physical-activity-during-recess
#13
Antonio Méndez-Giménez, José-Antonio Cecchini, Javier Fernández-Río
OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether an intervention supported by free play with a self-constructed material increases the level of physical activity of students during recess. METHODS: The participants were 166 children of third to sixth grade, between nine and 12 years old (average = 10.64; SS = 1.13). An experimental project was conducted with pre-test and post-test measurement, and a control group. Experimental group participants built cardboard paddles (third and fourth) and flying rings (fifth and sixth), a material they used freely for one week during recess...
June 26, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674917/fire-distribution-in-peninsular-malaysia-sumatra-and-borneo-in-2015-with-special-emphasis-on-peatland-fires
#14
Jukka Miettinen, Chenghua Shi, Soo Chin Liew
In this paper, we analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of vegetation fires in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo in the severe El Niño year of 2015, concentrating on the distribution of fires between mineral soils and peatland areas, and between land cover types in peatland areas. The results reveal that 53% of all Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire detections were recorded in peatlands that cover only 12% of the study area. However, fire occurrence in the peatland areas was highly dependent on land cover type...
July 3, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674008/network-analysis-reveals-strongly-localized-impacts-of-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#15
Jingfang Fan, Jun Meng, Yosef Ashkenazy, Shlomo Havlin, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber
Climatic conditions influence the culture and economy of societies and the performance of economies. Specifically, El Niño as an extreme climate event is known to have notable effects on health, agriculture, industry, and conflict. Here, we construct directed and weighted climate networks based on near-surface air temperature to investigate the global impacts of El Niño and La Niña. We find that regions that are characterized by higher positive/negative network "in"-weighted links are exhibiting stronger correlations with the El Niño basin and are warmer/cooler during El Niño/La Niña periods...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655896/on-the-shortening-of-the-lead-time-of-ocean-warm-water-volume-to-enso-sst-since-2000
#16
Zeng-Zhen Hu, Arun Kumar, Jieshun Zhu, Bohua Huang, Yu-Heng Tseng, Xiaochun Wang
The possible factors associated with the shortening of lead time between ocean warm water volume (WWV) variability along the equatorial Pacific and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability after 2000 are documented. It is shown that the shortening of lead time is due to frequency increases of both WWV and ENSO. During 1979-99 the dominant frequencies were 1.5-3.5 years for both the Niño3.4 and WWV indices. In contrast, during 2000-16, both indices had a relatively flatter spectrum and were closer to a white noise process with a relative maximum at 1...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643801/january-2016-extensive-summer-melt-in-west-antarctica-favoured-by-strong-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#17
Julien P Nicolas, Andrew M Vogelmann, Ryan C Scott, Aaron B Wilson, Maria P Cadeddu, David H Bromwich, Johannes Verlinde, Dan Lubin, Lynn M Russell, Colin Jenkinson, Heath H Powers, Maciej Ryczek, Gregory Stone, Jonathan D Wille
Over the past two decades the primary driver of mass loss from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) has been warm ocean water underneath coastal ice shelves, not a warmer atmosphere. Yet, surface melt occurs sporadically over low-lying areas of the WAIS and is not fully understood. Here we report on an episode of extensive and prolonged surface melting observed in the Ross Sea sector of the WAIS in January 2016. A comprehensive cloud and radiation experiment at the WAIS ice divide, downwind of the melt region, provided detailed insight into the physical processes at play during the event...
June 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637849/breaking-out-of-the-comfort-zone-el-ni%C3%A3-o-southern-oscillation-as-a-driver-of-trophic-flows-in-a-benthic-consumer-of-the-humboldt-current-ecosystem
#18
José M Riascos, Marco A Solís, Aldo S Pacheco, Manuel Ballesteros
The trophic flow of a species is considered a characteristic trait reflecting its trophic position and function in the ecosystem and its interaction with the environment. However, climate patterns are changing and we ignore how patterns of trophic flow are being affected. In the Humboldt Current ecosystem, arguably one of the most productive marine systems, El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the main source of interannual and longer-term variability. To assess the effect of this variability on trophic flow we built a 16-year series of mass-specific somatic production rate (P/B) of the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus), a species belonging to a former tropical fauna that thrived in this cold ecosystem...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630900/reconstructed-storm-tracks-reveal-three-centuries-of-changing-moisture-delivery-to-north-america
#19
Erika K Wise, Matthew P Dannenberg
Moisture delivery to western North America is closely linked to variability in the westerly storm tracks of midlatitude cyclones, which are, in turn, modified by larger-scale features such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation system. Instrumental and modeling data suggest that extratropical storm tracks may be intensifying and shifting poleward due to anthropogenic climate change, but it is difficult to separate recent trends from natural variability because of the large amount of decadal and longer variation in storm tracks and their limited instrumental record...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630446/strong-sub-seasonal-wintertime-cooling-over-east-asia-and-northern-europe-associated-with-super-el-ni%C3%A3-o-events
#20
Xin Geng, Wenjun Zhang, Malte F Stuecker, Fei-Fei Jin
East Asia experienced a record-breaking cold event during the 2015/16 boreal winter, with pronounced impacts on livelihood in the region. We find that this large-scale cold spell can be attributed to the concurrent super El Niño event in the tropical Pacific. Our analysis reveals that all super El Niño winters (1982/83, 1997/98, and 2015/16) were accompanied by a rapid sub-seasonal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO) phase reversal from a positive to a negative state during early January, which was largely caused by the interaction of these super El Niño events with the subtropical jet annual cycle...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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