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El nino

Masayuki Kondo, Kazuhito Ichii, Prabir K Patra, Joseph G Canadell, Benjamin Poulter, Stephen Sitch, Leonardo Calle, Yi Y Liu, Albert I J M van Dijk, Tazu Saeki, Nobuko Saigusa, Pierre Friedlingstein, Almut Arneth, Anna Harper, Atul K Jain, Etsushi Kato, Charles Koven, Fang Li, Thomas A M Pugh, Sönke Zaehle, Andy Wiltshire, Frederic Chevallier, Takashi Maki, Takashi Nakamura, Yosuke Niwa, Christian Rödenbeck
An integrated understanding of the biogeochemical consequences of climate extremes and land use changes is needed to constrain land-surface feedbacks to atmospheric CO2 from associated climate change. Past assessments of the global carbon balance have shown particularly high uncertainty in Southeast Asia. Here, we use a combination of model ensembles to show that intensified land use change made Southeast Asia a strong source of CO2 from the 1980s to 1990s, whereas the region was close to carbon neutral in the 2000s due to an enhanced CO2 fertilization effect and absence of moderate-to-strong El Niño events...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Yang Liu, Mingqing Zhang, Xiuqi Fang
By merging reconstructed phenological series from published articles and observations of China Phenology Observation Network (CPON), the first blooming date of Amygdalus davidiana (FBA) in Beijing between 1741 and 2000 is reconstructed. The Butterworth method is used to remove the multi-year variations for generating the phenological series of annual variations in the first blooming date of A. davidiana. The extreme delay years in the phenological series are identified using the percentage threshold method...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Nur Adilla Che Samsuddin, Md Firoz Khan, Khairul Nizam Abdul Maulud, Ahmad Hazuwan Hamid, Fahia Tarannum Munna, Muhammad Aizat Ab Rahim, Mohd Talib Latif, Md Akhtaruzzaman
Southeast Asian haze is a semi-natural phenomenon that chokes the region each year during the dry monsoon season. Smoke-haze episodes caused by the vegetation and peat fires in Indonesia severely affected large parts of Malaysia during the 2015 El Niño phenomenon. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that influenced the concentrations of aerosol and trace gases during the 2015 haze and non-haze period on a semi-urban site in the southern part of Malaysian peninsula that facing Sumatra (Muar, Site A), and on an urban site near to Kuala Lumpur, influenced by the city centre (Cheras, Site B)...
March 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dana K Briscoe, Sabrina Fossette, Kylie L Scales, Elliott L Hazen, Steven J Bograd, Sara M Maxwell, Elizabeth A McHuron, Patrick W Robinson, Carey Kuhn, Daniel P Costa, Larry B Crowder, Rebecca L Lewison
Characterizing habitat suitability for a marine predator requires an understanding of the environmental heterogeneity and variability over the range in which a population moves during a particular life cycle. Female California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) are central-place foragers and are particularly constrained while provisioning their young. During this time, habitat selection is a function of prey availability and proximity to the rookery, which has important implications for reproductive and population success...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Mario Bretfeld, Brent E Ewers, Jefferson S Hall
Tropical forests are increasingly being subjected to hotter, drier conditions as a result of global climate change. The effects of drought on forests along successional gradients remain poorly understood. We took advantage of the 2015-2016 El Niño event to test for differences in drought response along a successional gradient by measuring the sap flow in 76 trees, representing 42 different species, in 8-, 25- and 80-yr-old secondary forests in the 15-km2 'Agua Salud Project' study area, located in central Panama...
March 5, 2018: New Phytologist
Matteo Detto, S Joseph Wright, Osvaldo Calderón, Helene C Muller-Landau
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the largest source of interannual climate variability in much of the tropics. We hypothesize that tropical plants exhibit interannual variation in reproduction and resource acquisition strategies driven by ENSO that mirrors their seasonal responses. We analyze the relationship of leaf and seed fall to climate variation over 30 years in a seasonally dry tropical forest in Panama where El Niño brings warm, dry, and sunny conditions. Elevated leaf fall precedes the onset of El Niño, and elevated seed production follows, paralleling associations with dry seasons...
March 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Carol V Tadros, Jagoda Crawford, Pauline C Treble, Andy Baker, David D Cohen, Armand J Atanacio, Stuart Hankin, Regina Roach
Characterisation of atmospheric aerosols is of major importance for: climate, the hydrological cycle, human health and policymaking, biogeochemical and palaeo-climatological studies. In this study, the chemical composition and source apportionment of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5μm) at Yarrangobilly, in the Snowy Mountains, SE Australia are examined and quantified. A new aerosol monitoring network was deployed in June 2013 and aerosol samples collected during the period July 2013 to July 2017 were analysed for 22 trace elements and black carbon by ion beam analysis techniques...
February 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Myriam Khodri, Takeshi Izumo, Jérôme Vialard, Serge Janicot, Christophe Cassou, Matthieu Lengaigne, Juliette Mignot, Guillaume Gastineau, Eric Guilyardi, Nicolas Lebas, Alan Robock, Michael J McPhaden
The original version of this Article omitted a reference to previous work in 'Mann, M.E., Cane, M.A., Zebiak, S.E., Clement, A., Volcanic and Solar Forcing of the Tropical Pacific Over the Past 1000 Years, J. Climate 18, 447-456 (2005)'. This has been added as reference 62 at the end of the fourth sentence of the fourth paragraph of the Introduction: 'Early studies using simple coupled ocean-atmosphere models26 proposed that following volcano-induced surface cooling, upwelling in the eastern equatorial Pacific acting on a reduced vertical temperature contrast between the ocean surface and interior leads to anomalous warming in this region, thereby favouring El Niño development the following year12, 27, 62 ...
February 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Marta Aguado Lobo, Elena Sierra Gonzalo, José Jiménez-Reyes
Eosinophilic annular erythema (EAE) is an uncommon eosinophilic dermatosis. Clinically it is characterized by recurrent episodes of annular or figurative plaques. The histopathological study shows a perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the superficial and deep dermis, composed of lymphocytes and eosinophils. It was originally described in children. We report an adult woman who presented with recurrent erythematous annular plaques on the trunk and extremities. A biopsy showed a mainly perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous eosinophils in the dermis...
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Lisbeth Amarilis Hurtado, José E Calzada, Chystrie A Rigg, Milagros Castillo, Luis Fernando Chaves
BACKGROUND: Malaria has historically been entrenched in indigenous populations of the República de Panamá. This scenario occurs despite the fact that successful methods for malaria elimination were developed during the creation of the Panamá Canal. Today, most malaria cases in the República de Panamá affect the Gunas, an indigenous group, which mainly live in autonomous regions of eastern Panamá. Over recent decades several malaria outbreaks have affected the Gunas, and one hypothesis is that such outbreaks could have been exacerbated by climate change, especially by anomalous weather patterns driven by the EL Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)...
February 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
Bruna Clara De Simone, Gloria Mazzone, Nino Russo, Emilia Sicilia, Marirosa Toscano
How the tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and its zinc (II) complex (ZnTPP) photophysical properties (adsorption energies, singlet-triplet energy gap and spin orbit coupling contributions) can change due to the presence of an increasing number of heavy atoms in their molecular structures has been investigated by means of density functional theory and its time dependent formulation. Results show as the increase of the atomic mass of the substituted halogen strongly enhances the spin-orbit coupling values allowing a more efficient singlet-triplet intersystem crossing...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Changfeng Sun, Yu Liu, Huiming Song, Qiufang Cai, Qiang Li, Lu Wang, Ruochen Mei, Congxi Fang
Sunshine is as essential as temperature and precipitation for tree growth, but sunshine duration reconstructions based on tree rings have not yet been conducted in China. In this study, we presented a 497-year sunshine duration reconstruction for the southeastern Tibetan Plateau using a width chronology of Abies forrestii from the central Hengduan Mountains. The reconstruction accounted for 53.5% of the variance in the observed sunshine during the period of 1961-2013 based on a stable and reliable linear regression...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Malte F Stuecker
Numerous studies demonstrated that the Pacific Meridional Mode (PMM) can excite Central Pacific (CP) El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and that the PMM is mostly a stochastic phenomenon associated with mid-latitude atmospheric variability and wind-evaporation-SST feedback. Here we show that CP sea surface temperature (SST) variability exhibits high instantaneous correlations both on interannual (ENSO-related) and decadal (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)-related) timescales with the PMM. By prescribing an idealized interannual equatorial CP ENSO SST forcing in a partially-coupled atmosphere/slab ocean model we are able to generate a realistic instantaneous PMM response consistent with the observed statistical ENSO/PMM relationship...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bradley S Law, Mark Chidel, Peter R Law
Long-term data are needed to explore the interaction of weather extremes with habitat alteration; in particular, can 'refugia' buffer population dynamics against climate change and are they robust to disturbances such as timber harvesting. Because forest bats are good indicators of ecosystem health, we used 14 years (1999-2012) of mark-recapture data from a suite of small tree-hollow roosting bats to estimate survival, abundance and body condition in harvested and unharvested forest and over extreme El Niño and La Niña weather events in southeastern Australia...
2018: PloS One
Shaun K Wilson, Martial Depcyznski, Rebecca Fisher, Thomas H Holmes, Mae M Noble, Ben T Radford, Michael Rule, George Shedrawi, Paul Tinkler, Christopher J Fulton
Fluctuations in marine populations often relate to the supply of recruits by oceanic currents. Variation in these currents is typically driven by large-scale changes in climate, in particular ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation). The dependence on large-scale climatic changes may, however, be modified by early life history traits of marine taxa. Based on eight years of annual surveys, along 150 km of coastline, we examined how ENSO influenced abundance of juvenile fish, coral spat, and canopy-forming macroalgae...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
C Bueno, E Brugnoli, L Bergamino, P Muniz, F García-Rodríguez, R Figueira
This study is aimed to identify the different sources of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) within Montevideo coastal zone (MCZ). To this end δ13C, δ15N and C/N ratio were analysed in surface sediments and a sediment core. Sediment core analysis showed that until ~1950CE SOM was mainly marine, observing a shift towards lower δ13C in recent sediments, evidencing an estuarine composition. This trend was associated to the climatic variability, which exerted a major influence on the SOM composition, leading to an increased input of terrigenous material and associated anthropogenic contaminants...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Caroline Chanussot-Deprez, María Elisa Vega-Memije, Luis Flores-Suárez, Celia Ríos-Romero, Javier Cabiedes-Contreras, Edgardo Reyes, Lucia Rangel-Gamboa
Objetivo: Las vasculitis cutáneas (VC), primarias o como manifestación de enfermedades sistémicas, constituyen un reto diagnóstico. Determinar las causas de VC. Métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes con diagnóstico de CV, a los cuales se les realizó valoración clínica, biopsia cutánea y exámenes de laboratorio. En la mayoría de los casos se realizó inmunofluorescencia directa. Los casos se clasificaron con los criterios del American College of Rheumatology (ACR) y la Chapel Hill Consensus Conference (CHCC)...
2018: Gaceta Médica de México
Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Inés M Parejo-Cabezas, Narcís Gusi, Pedro R Olivares
Objetivo: Comparar la percepción de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) de padres y médico con respecto al paciente en población infantil sometida a una intervención quirúrgica menor, y analizar la progresión de la CVRS tras un mes de someterse a la intervención. Método: Participaron 36 pacientes sometidos a intervenciones quirúrgicas menores. Se les administró el cuestionario EQ-5D-Y, y su versión proxy correspondiente a los padres y al médico...
2018: Gaceta Médica de México
Joyce J L Ong, Adam N Rountrey, Bryan A Black, Hoang Minh Nguyen, Peter G Coulson, Stephen J Newman, Corey B Wakefield, Jessica J Meeuwig, Mark G Meekan
Entrainment of growth patterns of multiple species to single climatic drivers can lower ecosystem resilience and increase the risk of species extinction during stressful climatic events. However, predictions of the effects of climate change on the productivity and dynamics of marine fishes are hampered by a lack of historical data on growth patterns. We use otolith biochronologies to show that the strength of a boundary current, modulated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, accounted for almost half of the shared variance in annual growth patterns of five of six species of tropical and temperate marine fishes across 23° of latitude (3000 km) in Western Australia...
February 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
Sergio Ancona, J Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, Cristina Rodríguez, Hugh Drummond
In wild long-lived animals, analysis of impacts of stressful natal conditions on adult performance has rarely embraced the entire age span, and the possibility that costs are expressed late in life has seldom been examined. Using 26 years of data from 8541 fledglings and 1310 adults of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii), a marine bird that can live up to 23 years, we tested whether experiencing the warm waters and food scarcity associated with El Niño in the natal year reduces recruitment or survival over the adult lifetime...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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