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Cartilage repair and damage

Takeshi Kimura, Akihiro Yamashita, Keiichi Ozono, Noriyuki Tsumaki
Articular cartilage damage does not spontaneously heal and could ultimately result in a loss of joint function. Damaged cartilage can be repaired with cell/tissue sources that are transplanted, however, autologous chondrocytes are limited in number as a cell source. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a relatively new and abundant cell source and can be made from the patient, but at considerable cost. Because cartilage is immunoprivileged tissue, allogeneic cartilages have been transplanted effectively without matching for human leukocyte antigen (HLA), but are difficult to acquire due to scarcity of donors...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
James Holton, Mohamed Imam, Jonathan Ward, Martyn Snow
There has been great interest in bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) as a cost effective method in delivering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to aid in the repair and regeneration of cartilage defects. Alongside MSCs, BMAC contains a range of growth factors and cytokines to support cell growth following injury. However, there is paucity of information relating to the basic science underlying BMAC and its exact biological role in supporting the growth and regeneration of chondrocytes. The focus of this review is the basic science underlying BMAC in relation to chondral damage and regeneration...
September 19, 2016: Orthopedic Reviews
Meriam Nefla, Dirk Holzinger, Francis Berenbaum, Claire Jacques
Alarmins (also known as danger signals) are endogenous molecules that are released to the extracellular milieu after infection or tissue damage. Extracellular alarmins interact with specific receptors expressed by cells that are engaged in host defence to stimulate signalling pathways that result in initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses, triggering inflammation or tissue repair. Alarmins are considered to be markers of destructive processes that occur in degenerative joint diseases (primarily osteoarthritis (OA)) and chronic inflammatory joint diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and spondylarthropathy)...
October 13, 2016: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Adam O'Reilly, Daniel John Kelly
Developing successful tissue engineering strategies requires an understanding of how cells within an implanted scaffold interacts with the host environment. The objective of this study was to use a computational mechanobiological model to explore how the design of a cell laden scaffold influences the spatial formation of cartilage and bone within an osteochondral defect. Tissue differentiation was predicted using a previously developed model in which cell fate depends on the local oxygen tension and the mechanical environment within a damaged joint...
October 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Bin Zhou, Deheng Chen, Huazi Xu, Xiaolei Zhang
Chondrocyte plays a critical role in endochondral ossification and cartilage repair by maintaining the cartilaginous matrix. Statins have been widely used to lower the cholesterol level in patients with cardiovascular disorders. Previous research has demonstrated potential role of statins in chondrocyte proliferation. This study addresses the proliferation-regulatory effect of lovastatin in rabbit chondrocytes as well as the underlying signaling mechanisms, thereby exploring its potential application in chondrocyte-related disorders, such as cartilage damage and osteoarthritis...
October 3, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Dan Yaniv, Tuvia Hadar, Roe Hod, Roee Lansberg, Ilan Koren, Eitan Yaniv
BACKGROUND: Repair of caudal septal deviation using currently described methods is challenging technically. The aim of this work is to describe a novel and simple technique for the treatment of caudal septal deviations that protects the nasal tip, by fixating of cartilage to the columella. METHODS: All patients with caudal septal deviation operated on between June 2008 to November 2013 in 2 major medical centers were operated using the "fishing line technique." Patient satisfaction was recorded by a standard questionnaire (16-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test [SNOT-16]), before and after surgery...
October 5, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Tyler Novak, Kateri Fites, Xin Xu, Logan Worke, Aaron Ciesielski, Gert Breur, Corey P Neu
Interest in decellularized tissues has steadily gained as potential solutions for degenerative diseases and traumatic events, replacing sites of missing tissue and providing the relevant biochemistry and microstructure for tissue ingrowth and regeneration. Osteoarthritis, a progressive and debilitating disease, is often initiated with the formation of a focal defect in the otherwise smooth surface of articular cartilage. The use of decellularized cartilage tissue, which maintains the structural complexity of the native extracellular matrix, has the potential to provide a clinically relevant solution to focal defects or large tissue damage, possibly even circumventing or complementing current techniques such as microfracture and mosaicplasty...
September 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Hp Li, Sf Sun, Bt Fan, P Shen, Js Zheng, Sy Zhang
We evaluated the effects of chitosan membrane, a highly absorbable and viscous material, in the prevention of intra-articular adhesions after anchoring of the disc in the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) of six adult goats (12 joints). To simulate anterior displacement of the disc and TMJ trauma, we cut off the retrodiscal attachment and damaged the surface of the condylar bone, then randomly divided the goats into two groups: the control group (n=2) and the experimental group (n=4). In the experimental group we covered the condylar surfaces on both sides of the animals with chitosan membranes...
September 20, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Wei Seong Toh, Mats Brittberg, Jack Farr, Casper Bindzus Foldager, Andreas H Gomoll, James Hoi Po Hui, James B Richardson, Sally Roberts, Myron Spector
- It is well accepted that age is an important contributing factor to poor cartilage repair following injury, and to the development of osteoarthritis. Cellular senescence, the loss of the ability of cells to divide, has been noted as the major factor contributing to age-related changes in cartilage homeostasis, function, and response to injury. The underlying mechanisms of cellular senescence, while not fully understood, have been associated with telomere erosion, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation...
September 23, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
Katariina A H Myller, Mikael J Turunen, Juuso T J Honkanen, Sami P Väänänen, Jarkko T Iivarinen, Jari Salo, Jukka S Jurvelin, Juha Töyräs
In post-traumatic osteoarthritis, both articular cartilage and subchondral bone undergo characteristic pathological changes. This study investigates potential of delayed cone beam computed tomography arthrography (dCBCTa) to simultaneously detect variations in cartilage and subchondral bone. The knees of patients (n = 17) with suspected joint injuries were imaged using a clinical CBCT scanner at 5 and 45 min after the intra-articular injection of anionic contrast agent (Hexabrix™) with hydroxyapatite phantoms around the knee...
September 19, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Tomoyuki Oda, Tadahiro Sakai, Hideki Hiraiwa, Takashi Hamada, Yohei Ono, Motoshige Nakashima, Shinya Ishizuka, Tetsuya Matsukawa, Satoshi Yamashita, Saho Tsuchiya, Naoki Ishiguro
The natural healing capacity of damaged articular cartilage is poor, rendering joint surface injuries a prime target for regenerative medicine. While autologous chondrocyte or mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) implantation can be applied to repair cartilage defects in young patients, no appropriate long-lasting treatment alternative is available for elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Multipotent progenitor cells are reported to present in adult human articular cartilage, with a preponderance in OA cartilage...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Eunhyun Choi, Jiyun Lee, Seahyoung Lee, Byeong-Wook Song, Hyang-Hee Seo, Min-Ji Cha, Soyeon Lim, Chulho Lee, Suk-Won Song, Gyoonhee Han, Ki-Chul Hwang
The restoration of damaged articular cartilage is a long-pursued goal in regenerative medicine. Chondrocyte-specific differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be an effective means of repairing damaged cartilage. We identified small molecule 6 with sulfonamide as an agent that promotes specific chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived MSCs (hASCs). Unlike other chondrogenic differentiation media composed of various defined components, simply adding compound 6 into culture medium was sufficient to induce chondrogenesis in this study...
October 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Jens Goronzy, Lea Franken, Albrecht Hartmann, Falk Thielemann, Anne Postler, Tobias Paulus, Klaus-Peter Günther
BACKGROUND: Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a reliable procedure to correct the deficient acetabular coverage in hips with developmental dysplasia. It is unclear how the presence of additional femoral cam-type deformity might influence the clinical and radiographic treatment results of PAO. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Are there differences in clinical scores (WOMAC, EQ-5D) and examination findings (impingement sign) or radiographic measures of acetabular orientation and head sphericity after PAO for isolated acetabular dysplasia when compared with the combined pathology of dysplasia and additional femoral cam deformity? (2) Are these clinical and radiographic findings after combined surgical therapy for additional cam deformity influenced by different pathology-adjusted surgical techniques? METHODS: From July 2005 to December 2010, 86 patients (106 hips) underwent PAO for hip dysplasia...
September 2, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Corinne R Henak, Keir A Ross, Edward D Bonnevie, Lisa A Fortier, Itai Cohen, John G Kennedy, Lawrence J Bonassar
Talar osteochondral lesions (OCL) frequently occur following injury. Surgical interventions such as femoral condyle allogeneic or autogenic osteochondral transplant (AOT) are often used to treat large talar OCL. Although AOT aims to achieve OCL repair by replacing damaged cartilage with mechanically matched cartilage, the spatially inhomogeneous material behavior of the talar dome and femoral donor sites have not been evaluated or compared. The objective of this study was to characterize the depth-dependent shear properties and friction behavior of human talar and donor-site femoral cartilage...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
S A Yasonov, A V Lopatin, A Yu Kugushev
AIMS: To establish which rhinoplasty method for primary repairing of unilateral cleft lip (UCL) is better. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Two patient groups with cleft lip were compared. Each group was operated on either by McComb's technique as closed rhinoplasty method or by Vissarionov-Kosin technique as an open method. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: First group included 29 patients and the second consisted of 31. All patients were operated on by single surgeon over 10 years...
January 2016: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
Nan Yang, Qing-Jun Meng
Temporally coordinated resorption and synthesis is the key to maintaining healthy bones. Articular cartilage is a highly specialized connective tissue within the joints that lines the surface of a long bone. Emerging evidence has suggested a critical role of the circadian system in controlling cartilage and bone biology. Articular cartilage is sparsely populated with chondrocytes, surrounded by abundant extracellular matrices that are synthesized and maintained solely by chondrocytes. Once damaged, the articular cartilage tissue has poor capacity for endogenous repair, leaving the joints prone to osteoarthritis, an age-related painful condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Paola Occhetta, Chiara Stüdle, Andrea Barbero, Ivan Martin
The limited self-healing capacity of cartilage in adult individuals, and its tendency to deteriorate once structurally damaged, makes the search for therapeutic strategies following cartilage-related traumas relevant and urgent. To date, autologous cell-based therapies represent the most advanced treatments, but their clinical success is still hampered by the long-term tendency to form fibrous as opposed to hyaline cartilage tissue. Would the efficiency and robustness of therapies be enhanced if cartilage regeneration approaches were based on the attempt to recapitulate processes occurring during cartilage development ("developmental engineering")? And from this perspective, shouldn't cartilage repair strategies be inspired by development, but adapted to be effective in a context (an injured joint in an adult individual) that is different from the embryo ("developmental re-engineering")? Here, starting from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) as an adult cell source possibly resembling features of the embryonic mesenchyme, we propose a developmental re-engineering roadmap based on the following three steps: (i) learn from embryonic cartilage development which are the key pathways involved in MSC differentiation towards stable cartilage, (ii) simplify the complex developmental events by approximation to essential molecular pathways, possibly by using in vitro high-throughput models and, finally, (iii) implement the outcomes at the site of the injury by establishing an appropriate interface between the delivered signals and the recipient environment (e...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
Eline E van Haaften, Keita Ito, Corrinus C van Donkelaar
The regenerative potential of articular cartilage (AC) defects is limited and depends on defect size, biomechanical conditions, and age. Early events after overloading might be predictive for cartilage degeneration in the long term. Therefore, the present aim is to investigate the temporal response of cartilage to overloading at cell, matrix, and tissue level during the first period after mechanical overloading. In the present study, the effect of high loading (∼8 MPa) at a high rate (∼14 MPa/s) at day 0 during a 9 day period on collagen damage, gene expression, cell death, and biochemical composition in AC was investigated...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Christoph Erggelet, P Vavken
The evidence for the effectiveness of the microfracture procedure is largely derived from case series and few randomized trials. Clinical outcomes improve with microfracture for the most part, but in some studies these effects are not sustained. The quality of cartilage repair following microfracture is variable and inconsistent due to unknown reasons. Younger patients have better clinical outcomes and quality of cartilage repair than older patients. When lesion location was shown to affect microfracture outcome, patients with lesions of the femoral condyle have the best clinical improvements and quality of cartilage repair compared with patients who had lesions in other areas...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
T Otaševič, P Vališ, M Rouchal, J Novák, M Repko, A Šprláková, M Krbec
UNLABELLED: PUPOSE OF THE STUDY The treatment of osteochondral lesions of weight-bearing joints remains a serious therapeutic challenge, largely due to the minimal ability of articular hyaline cartilage to regenerate. The authors present the long-term clinical and MRI results of treating deep chondral and osteochondral defects of the ankle joint by the method of implantation of autologous chondrocytes in the form of a solid chondrograft. MATERIAL AND METHODS The method of solid chondrograft implantation in the ankle joint was used in our Department from the year 2003...
2016: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
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