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Cartilage repair and damage

Kaoru Yamagata, Shingo Nakayamada, Yoshiya Tanaka
Articular cartilage has poor capacity for repair. Once damaged, they degenerate, causing functional impairment of joints. Allogeneic cartilage transplantation has been performed for functional recovery of articular cartilage. However, there is only a limited amount of articular cartilage available for transplantation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be potentially suitable for local implantation. MSCs can differentiate into chondrocytes. Several studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of MSCs in the repair of articular cartilage in animal models of articular cartilage damage and in patients with damaged articular cartilage...
2018: Inflammation and Regeneration
Yujie Ning, Xi Wang, Pan Zhang, Amin Liu, Xin Qi, Meidan Liu, Xiong Guo
Previous studies have identified a close association between diet and the prevalence of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD); however, the mechanisms via which the diet protects against KBD-associated cartilage injury has remained elusive. Recent international research studies have revealed a therapeutic role of dietary exosome micro (mi)RNAs in repairing chondrocyte lesions by regulating genes and proteins associated with cellular apoptosis and extracellular matrix. Vital molecules affecting bio-functions of chondrocytes, including miR-23b and protein kinase cyclic AMP-activated catalytic subunit β, were preliminarily identified to be dysregulated in cells and cartilage tissue of KBD patients...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Björn Friebe, Martin Richter, Susanne Penzlin, Christian Stärke, Siegfried Kropf, Christoph Lohmann, Frank Fischbach, Oliver Speck
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the assessment of low-grade meniscal tears and cartilage damage in ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7 T to routine clinical MRI at 3 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient. Forty-one patients with suspected meniscal damage or mild osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence score, 0-2) received 7 T as well as routine clinical 3 T consecutively...
March 8, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Takuya Tokunaga, Hitoshi Arimura, Hiroshi Mizuta, Yuji Hiraki, Chisa Shukunami
Tendons and ligaments are dense fibrous connective tissues mainly composed of type I collagen, aligned in highly ordered arrays along the axis of the tendon and ligament. The enthesis is defined as the attachment site of a tendon, ligament, joint capsule, or fascia to bone. During morphogenesis, the cell population co-expressing Scleraxis(Scx)and the SRY-box containing gene 9(Sox9)contributes to the formation of fibrocartilaginous entheses. Scx regulates tendon and ligament maturation, while Sox9 is a key regulatory factor for cartilage formation...
2018: Clinical Calcium
Shichao Tong, Jimin Yin, Ji Liu
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is autologous and multifunctional. Platelet concentrate from blood contains highly concentrated platelets and various types of cells, including growth factors. PRP promotes the recovery of cell proliferation and differentiation. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a disease caused by femoral head damage or an insufficient blood supply, which leads to the death of bone cells and abnormal bone marrow composition. The subsequent repair of bone cells may result in changes to the structure of femoral head, femoral head collapse and joint dysfunction...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Juan Carlos Lopez-Baez, Daniel J Simpson, Laura LLeras Forero, Zhiqiang Zeng, Hannah Brunsdon, Angela Salzano, Alessandro Brombin, Cameron Wyatt, Witold Rybski, Leonie F A Huitema, Rodney M Dale, Koichi Kawakami, Christoph Englert, Tamir Chandra, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Nicholas D Hastie, E Elizabeth Patton
Regenerative therapy for degenerative spine disorders requires the identification of cells that can slow down and possibly reverse degenerative processes. Here, we identify an unanticipated wound-specific notochord sheath cell subpopulation that expresses Wilms Tumor (WT) 1b following injury in zebrafish. We show that localized damage leads to Wt1b expression in sheath cells, and that wt1b+ cells migrate into the wound to form a stopper-like structure, likely to maintain structural integrity. Wt1b+ sheath cells are distinct in expressing cartilage and vacuolar genes, and in repressing a Wt1b-p53 transcriptional programme...
February 6, 2018: ELife
Yu Zhang, Shuyun Liu, Weimin Guo, Mingjie Wang, Chunxiang Hao, Shuang Gao, Xueliang Zhang, Xu Li, Mingxue Chen, Xiaoguang Jing, Zehao Wang, Jiang Peng, Shibi Lu, Quanyi Guo
OBJECTIVE: As a novel and promising seed cell, human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells(hWJMSCs) are widely applied in tissue engineering. However, whether hWJMSCs can better repair and regenerate the articular cartilage in big animals than microfracture(MF, a predominant clinical treatment strategy for damaged cartilage) is unclear. Evaluation of the validity, and safety of hWJMSCs in a caprine model with a full-thickness femoral condyle articular cartilage defect, compared with MF is required...
January 29, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Sander Brinkhof, Razmara Nizak, Vitaliy Khlebnikov, Jeanine J Prompers, Dennis W J Klomp, Daniel B F Saris
OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to implement a fast 3D glycosaminoglycan Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (gagCEST) sequence at 7 T, test stability and reproducibility in cartilage in the knee in healthy volunteers, and evaluate clinical applicability in cartilage repair patients. METHODS: Experiments were carried out on a 7-T scanner using a volume transmit coil and a 32-channel receiver wrap-around knee coil. The 3D gagCEST measurement had an acquisition time of 7 min...
January 30, 2018: European Radiology
Shilei Wang, Yan Bao, Yinjie Guan, Chunqiu Zhang, Haiying Liu, Xu Yang, Lilan Gao, Tongtong Guo, Qian Chen
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to repair cartilage damage when cartilage undergoes trauma or degeneration. Cartilage tissue engineering is an ideal treatment method to repair cartilage defects, but at present, there are still some uncertainties to be researched in cartilage tissue engineering including the mechanical properties of the repaired region. METHODS: In this study, using an agarose gel as artificial cartilage implanted into the cartilage defect and gluing the agarose gel to cartilage by using the medical bio-adhesive, the full-thickness and half-thickness defects models of articular cartilage in vitro repaired by tissue engineering were constructed...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Andrew J Bryan, Kirsten Poehling-Monaghan, Aaron J Krych, Bruce A Levy, Robert T Trousdale, Rafael J Sierra
The purpose of this study was to compare a group of dysplastic hips treated successfully with hip arthroscopy with a group of dysplastic hips treated unsuccessfully with hip arthroscopy to determine (1) preoperative patient characteristics and radiographic parameters and (2) intraoperative findings and treatment associated with outcome. The authors retrospectively reviewed a prospective database of 20 adult patients (17 female, 3 male) with hip dysplasia who underwent primary hip arthroscopy between January 2009 and February 2013...
January 25, 2018: Orthopedics
Philippa Bowland, Eileen Ingham, John Fisher, Louise M Jennings
Robust preclinical test methods involving tribological simulations are required to investigate and understand the tribological function of osteochondral repair interventions in natural knee tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of osteochondral allograft implantation on the local tribology (friction, surface damage, wear and deformation) of the tissues in the natural knee joint using a simple geometry, reciprocating pin-on-plate friction simulator. In addition, the study aimed to assess the ability of osteochondral grafts to restore a low surface damage, deformation and wear articulation when compared to the native state...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Xuejian Liu, Haoye Meng, Quanyi Guo, Baichuan Sun, Kaihong Zhang, Wen Yu, Shichen Liu, Yu Wang, Xiaoguang Jing, Zengzeng Zhang, Jiang Peng, Jianhua Yang
There are many factors to consider in the field of tissue engineering. For articular cartilage repair, this includes seed cells, scaffolds and chondrotrophic hormones. This review primarily focuses on the seed cells and scaffolds. Extracellular matrix proteins provide a natural scaffold for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. The structure and composition of tissue-derived scaffolds and native tissue are almost identical. As such, tissue-derived scaffolds hold great promise for biomedical applications...
January 24, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Sahar Sobhy Abd Elhalem, Nawal Zakaria Haggag, Nashwa Ahmed El-Shinnawy
Interleukin-9 (IL-9) has been shown to be upregulated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The exact role of IL-9 has not yet been effectively studied. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown a promising immunomodulatory role towards repairing cartilage and restoring joint function. One of the key problems influencing the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell therapy is the poor cell survival following transplantation. This is attributed to oxidative and inflammatory stresses at the injured sites. Hesperidin (Hsd), a flavanone present in citrus fruits, has been studied as potential therapeutic agents that have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities...
January 23, 2018: Autoimmunity
Kevin C Wang, Brian R Waterman, Eric J Cotter, Rachel M Frank, Brian J Cole
Isolated, full-thickness articular cartilage lesions of the glenohumeral joint can cause pain, mechanical symptoms, and impaired function. Reports on operative management of these injuries with arthroscopic techniques, such as marrow stimulation, have shown improvement in patient symptoms. In cases where the subchondral bone is involved, osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation has shown positive results for contained, focal cartilage defects. The technique for OCA transplantation to treat Hill-Sachs lesions has been reported in detail, and there are multiple case series reporting on the outcomes of OCA used for this purpose...
August 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
João Espregueira-Mendes, Renato Andrade, M J S Fredrick Michael, André Sarmento, Nuno Sevivas, Rui Rocha, Ricardo Bastos Filho
Patellar tendon ruptures can lead to significant functional deficiency of the extensor mechanism of the knee. These injuries, because of their inherent nature and associated complications, may require a complex treatment and remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Current surgical techniques present significant complications, including patellar fracture, damage to patellar articular cartilage, and abnormal patella height. This note describes a surgical technique to provide an additional reinforcement to the patellar tendon repair with a semitendinous autograft, without the necessity to perform any transosseous tunnels at the patella bone...
December 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
Mariana R Carvalho, Rui Luís Reis, Joaquim Miguel Oliveira
The development of tissue-engineering (TE) solutions for osteochondral (OC) regeneration has been slowed by technical hurdles related to the recapitulation of their complex and hierarchical architecture. OC defects refer to damage of both the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone. To repair an OC tissue defect, the complexity of the bone and cartilage must be considered. To help achieve this, microfluidics is converging with TE approaches to provide new treatment possibilities. Microfluidics uses precise micrometer-to-millimeter-scale fluid flows to achieve high-resolution and spatial and/or temporal control of the cell microenvironment, providing powerful tools for cell culturing...
January 11, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Daniel A Foyt, Michael D A Norman, Tracy T L Yu, Eileen Gentleman
Regenerative medicine aims to tackle a panoply of challenges from repairing focal damage to articular cartilage to preventing pathological tissue remodeling after myocardial infarction. Hydrogels are water-swollen networks formed from synthetic or naturally derived polymers and are emerging as important tools to address these challenges. Recent advances in hydrogel chemistries are enabling researchers to create hydrogels that can act as 3D ex vivo tissue models, allowing them to explore fundamental questions in cell biology by replicating tissues' dynamic and nonlinear physical properties...
January 9, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Nathalie A Reisbig, Hayam A Hussein, Erin Pinnell, Alicia L Bertone
OBJECTIVE To create a bioactive synovium scaffold by infusing decellularized synovial-derived extracellular matrix (synECM) with synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells (synMSCs). SAMPLE Synovium from the femoropatellar and medial femorotibial joints of equine cadavers. PROCEDURES The synMSCs were cultured in monolayer and not treated or cotransduced to enhance expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. The synECM was decellularized with 0.1% peracetic acid and then seeded with synMSCs (0...
January 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
David E Hartigan, Itay Perets, Leslie C Yuen, Benjamin G Domb
The aim of this article is to examine the results of arthroscopic management of patients with labral pathology who have preoperative magnetic resonance images (MRIs) demonstrating subchondral cysts. This institution's database was searched for patients who underwent hip arthroscopy and had subchondral cysts on MRI and >2-year follow-up. Exclusion criteria included previous hip surgery, Tönnis grade >1, inflammatory arthritis, Perthes, slipped capital femoral epiphysis or abductor repair. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores including visual analog scale, modified Harris hip score (mHHS), non-arthritic hip score and hip outcome score sports-specific subscale (HOS-SSS) were gathered preoperatively, at 3 months, and annually thereafter...
December 2017: Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery
Shun Lyu, Bin Ji, Wenwu Gao, Xianqi Chen, Xiaotao Xie, Junjie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common orthopedics disease and its pathological changes at early stage are the damage and loss of articular cartilage. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription contains multiple components and has the unique advantages of the diversity of targets.We compared the traditional Chinese medical formulae (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decotion, APLD, or Duhuo Jisheng) with a western medicine (glucosamine sulfate, GS) to treat the rat arthritis models, and tracked the outcomes...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
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