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Cartilage repair and damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726587/repair-of-tympanic-membrane-perforations-with-customized-bioprinted-ear-grafts-using-chinchilla-models
#1
Che-Ying Kuo, Emmanuel Wilson, Andrew Fuson, Nidhi Gandhi, Reza Monfaredi, Audrey Jenkins, Maria Romero, Marco Santoro, John P Fisher, Kevin Cleary, Brian Reilly
The goal of this work is to develop an innovative method that combines bioprinting and endoscopic imaging to repair tympanic membrane perforations (TMPs). TMPs are a serious health issue because they can lead to both conductive hearing loss and repeated otitis media. TMPs occur in 3 to 5% of cases after ear tube placement as well as in cases of acute otitis media (the second most common infection in pediatrics), chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, or as a result of barotrauma to the ear. About 55,000 tympanoplasties, the surgery performed to reconstruct TMPs, are performed every year and the commonly used cartilage grafting technique has a success rate between 43% to 100%...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722162/cyanidin-suppresses-autophagic-activity-regulating-chondrocyte-hypertrophic-differentiation
#2
Zhen Cao, Song Huang, Ce Dou, Qiang Xiang, Shiwu Dong
Cartilage is a kind of special connective tissue which does not contain neither blood vessels nor lymphatics and nerves. Therefore, the damage in cartilage is difficult to be repaired spontaneously. Constructing tissue engineered cartilage provides a new technique for cartilage repairing. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess a unique capability of self-renew and can differentiate into pre-chondrocytes which are frequently applied as seed cells in tissue engineering. However, in regenerated cartilage the chondrocytes derived from MSCs can hardly maintain homeostasis and preferentially present hypertrophic like phenotype...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715376/a-rat-tibial-growth-plate-injury-model-to-characterize-repair-mechanisms-and-evaluate-growth-plate-regeneration-strategies
#3
Christopher B Erickson, Nichole Shaw, Nancy Hadley-Miller, Michael S Riederer, Melissa D Krebs, Karin A Payne
A third of all pediatric fractures involve the growth plate and can result in impaired bone growth. The growth plate (or physis) is cartilage tissue found at the end of all long bones in children that is responsible for longitudinal bone growth. Once damaged, cartilage tissue within the growth plate can undergo premature ossification and lead to unwanted bony repair tissue, which forms a "bony bar." In some cases, this bony bar can result in bone growth deformities, such as angular deformities, or it can completely halt longitudinal bone growth...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709984/micrometer-scale-guidance-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-form-structurally-oriented-large-scale-tissue-engineered-cartilage
#4
Chih-Ling Chou, Alexander L Rivera, Valencia Williams, Jean F Welter, Joseph M Mansour, Judith A Drazba, Takao Sakai, Harihara Baskaran
Current clinical methods to treat articular cartilage lesions provide temporary relief of the symptoms but fail to permanently restore the damaged tissue. Tissue engineering, using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with scaffolds and bioactive factors, is viewed as a promising method for repairing cartilage injuries. However, current tissue engineered constructs display inferior mechanical properties compared to native articular cartilage, which could be attributed to the lack of structural organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of these engineered constructs in comparison to the highly oriented structure of articular cartilage ECM...
July 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705238/interleukin-3-enhances-the-migration-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-regulating-expression-of-cxcr4
#5
Amruta Barhanpurkar-Naik, Suhas T Mhaske, Satish T Pote, Kanupriya Singh, Mohan R Wani
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent an important source for cell therapy in regenerative medicine. MSCs have shown promising results for repair of damaged tissues in various degenerative diseases in animal models and also in human clinical trials. However, little is known about the factors that could enhance the migration and tissue-specific engraftment of exogenously infused MSCs for successful regenerative cell therapy. Previously, we have reported that interleukin-3 (IL-3) prevents bone and cartilage damage in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis...
July 14, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703030/cartilage-health-in-knees-treated-with-metal-resurfacing-implants-or-untreated-focal-cartilage-lesions-a-preclinical-study-in-sheep
#6
Nicolas Martinez-Carranza, Kjell Hultenby, Anne Sofie Lagerstedt, Peter Schupbach, Hans E Berg
Background Full-depth cartilage lesions do not heal and the long-term clinical outcome is uncertain. In the symptomatic middle-aged (35-60 years) patient, treatment with metal implants has been proposed. However, the cartilage health surrounding these implants has not been thoroughly studied. Our objective was to evaluate the health of cartilage opposing and adjacent to metal resurfacing implants. Methods The medial femoral condyle was operated in 9 sheep bilaterally. A metallic resurfacing metallic implant was immediately inserted into an artificially created 7...
July 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697530/modern-cartilage-imaging-of-the-ankle
#7
Marc André Weber, Felix Wünnemann, Pia M Jungmann, Benita Kuni, Christoph Rehnitz
Background Talar osteochondral lesions are an important risk factor for the development of talar osteoarthritis. Furthermore, osteochondral lesions might explain persistent ankle pain. Early diagnosis of accompanying chondral defects is important to establish the optimal therapy strategy and thereby delaying or preventing the onset of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this review is to explain modern cartilage imaging with emphasis of MR imaging as well as the discussion of more sophisticated imaging studies like CT-arthrography or functional MR imaging...
July 11, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696789/arthroscopic-knot-removal-for-failed-superior-labrum-anterior-posterior-repair-secondary-to-knot-induced-pain
#8
Jung Gwan Park, Nam Su Cho, Jung Youn Kim, Jong Hoon Song, Se Jung Hong, Yong Girl Rhee
BACKGROUND: Studies on failed superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) repair are increasing. However, the number of reports on treatment options for failed SLAP repair remains quite low, and the clinical results vary between different study groups. PURPOSE: To describe the clinical presentation of failed SLAP repair due to knot-induced pain and evaluate the efficacy of arthroscopic knot removal. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687335/a-genome-wide-transcriptomic-analysis-of-articular-cartilage-during-normal-maturation-in-pigs
#9
Naga Suresh Adapala, Harry K W Kim
OBJECTIVE: The articular cartilage undergoes dramatic changes in structure and composition during post-natal maturation, but the associated transcriptional changes are not well characterized. Compared to a mature stage, the immature articular cartilage shows developmental features such as increased thickness, presence of blood vessels, and the presence of a deep layer of growth cartilage which undergoes endochondral ossification. These features decrease during normal development. Following maturation, the articular cartilage is known to undergo few minor modifications...
July 4, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672913/amniotic-membrane-derived-stem-cells-help-repair-osteochondral-defect-in-a-weight-bearing-area-in-rabbits
#10
Zhijin Zhang, Linru Zeng, Jun Yang, Lin Guo, Qiao Hou, Fangbing Zhu
Our study evaluated the use of amniotic membrane-derived stem cells for repairing osteochondral defects in a weight-bearing area in rabbits. Twenty-four 3-month-old male or female New Zealand white rabbits were selected. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups of eight, according to the treatment received for an experimentally inflicted femoral medial malleolus lesion, group I received a human acellular amniotic membrane seeded with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAAM-BMSCs) implant; group II received a simple HAAM implant and the control group received no experimental lesion or treatment...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654049/chondrogenic-pellet-formation-from-cord-blood-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#11
Yoojun Nam, Yeri Alice Rim, Ji Hyeon Ju
Human articular cartilage lacks the ability to repair itself. Cartilage degeneration is thus treated not by curative but by conservative treatments. Currently, efforts are being made to regenerate damaged cartilage with ex vivo expanded chondrocytes or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). However, the restricted viability and instability of these cells limit their application in cartilage reconstruction. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have received scientific attention as a new alternative for regenerative applications...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629234/healing-of-osteochondral-defects-via-endochondral-ossification-in-an-ovine-model
#12
Helen Lydon, Alan Getgood, Frances M D Henson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the mechanism of healing of osteochondral defects of the distal femur in the sheep, a commonly used translational model. Information on the healing mechanism be useful to inform the design of tissue engineering devices for joint surface defect repair. DESIGN: A retrospective study was conducted examining 7-mm diameter osteochondral defects made in the distal medial femoral condyle of 40 adult female sheep, comprising control animals from 3 separate structures...
June 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623328/platelet-rich-plasma-induces-post-natal-maturation-of-immature-articular-cartilage-and-correlates-with-loxl1-activation
#13
Yadan Zhang, Ben J Morgan, Rachel Smith, Christopher R Fellows, Catherine Thornton, Martyn Snow, Lewis W Francis, Ilyas M Khan
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is used to stimulate the repair of acute and chronic cartilage damage even though there is no definitive evidence of how this is achieved. Chondrocytes in injured and diseased situations frequently re-express phenotypic biomarkers of immature cartilage so tissue maturation is a potential pathway for restoration of normal structure and function. We used an in vitro model of growth factor-induced maturation to perform a comparative study in order to determine whether PRP can also induce this specific form of remodeling that is characterised by increased cellular proliferation and tissue stiffness...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612705/treatment-of-acetabular-chondral-lesions-with-microfracture-technique
#14
Claudio Mella, Alvaro Nuñez, Ignacio Villalón
INTRODUCTION: Acetabular cartilage lesions are frequently found during hip arthroscopy. In the hip joint they mostly occur secondary to a mechanical overload resulting from a pre-existing deformity as hip dysplasia or femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Lesions identified during arthroscopy can vary greatly from the earliest stages to the most advanced (full-thickness lesions). These lesions occur in the acetabulum in the early stages of joint damage. Microfractures are indicated in full-thickness chondral defects...
2017: SICOT-J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612704/cartilage-status-in-fai-patients-results-from-the-danish-hip-arthroscopy-registry-dhar
#15
Bent Lund, Torsten Grønbech Nielsen, Martin Lind
INTRODUCTION: The femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) morphology is associated with specific cartilage lesions, which are suspected to be early stages of the osteoarthritic development, which can be the end result of FAI. The cartilage status of FAI afflicted hip joints at the time of arthroscopic management is not fully elucidated. This study from the Danish Hip Arthroscopy Registry (DHAR) will try to show data on the cartilage status from a large cohort. Data from a national registry potentially represent large amounts of population-based epidemiological information from multiple centres and surgeons...
2017: SICOT-J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605000/hip-arthroscopy-in-patients-less-than-25-years-of-age-in-the-treatment-of-labral-tears-aetiology-and-clinical-outcomes
#16
Gillian Bayley, Stephane Poitras, Gillian Parker, Paul E Beaulé
BACKGROUND: Hip arthroscopy has evolved into a well-established and rapidly growing field of orthopedic surgery for the management of labral tears. The purpose of this study was to review clinical outcomes of patients less than 25 years of age undergoing hip arthroscopy for treatment of a labral tear. METHODS: From 2005 to 2013, 82 hips in 76 patients with mean age of 20.4 (16-25 range) underwent hip arthroscopy for treatment of labral-chondral damage. The Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS) were recorded at latest follow-up...
June 7, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602577/fabrication-of-porous-scaffolds-with-decellularized-cartilage-matrix-for-tissue-engineering-application
#17
Bita Nasiri, Shohreh Mashayekhan
Due to the avascular nature of articular cartilage, damaged tissue has little capacity for spontaneous healing. Three-dimensional scaffolds have potential for use in tissue engineering approach for cartilage repair. In this study, bovine cartilage tissue was decellularized and chemically crosslinked hybrid chitosan/extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds were fabricated with different ECM weight ratios by simple freeze drying method. Various properties of chitosan/ECM scaffolds such as microstructure, mechanical strength, swelling ratio, and biodegradability rate were investigated to confirm improved structural and biological characteristics of chitosan scaffolds in the presence of ECM...
June 8, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597211/characterization-and-use-of-equine-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-equine-cartilage-engineering-study-of-their-hyaline-cartilage-forming-potential-when-cultured-under-hypoxia-within-a-biomaterial-in-the-presence-of-bmp-2-and-tgf-%C3%A3-1
#18
Thomas Branly, Lélia Bertoni, Romain Contentin, Rodolphe Rakic, Tangni Gomez-Leduc, Mélanie Desancé, Magalie Hervieu, Florence Legendre, Sandrine Jacquet, Fabrice Audigié, Jean-Marie Denoix, Magali Demoor, Philippe Galéra
Articular cartilage presents a poor capacity for self-repair. Its structure-function are frequently disrupted or damaged upon physical trauma or osteoarthritis in humans. Similar musculoskeletal disorders also affect horses and are the leading cause of poor performance or early retirement of sport- and racehorses. To develop a therapeutic solution for horses, we tested the autologous chondrocyte implantation technique developed on human bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on horse BM-MSCs. This technique involves BM-MSC chondrogenesis using a combinatory approach based on the association of 3D-culture in collagen sponges, under hypoxia in the presence of chondrogenic factors (BMP-2 + TGF-β1) and siRNA to knockdown collagen I and HtrA1...
June 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597065/cellular-and-molecular-pathways-of-structural-damage-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
REVIEW
Ulrike Harre, Georg Schett
Structural damage of cartilage and bone tissue is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The resulting joint destruction constitutes one of the major disease consequences for patients and creates a significant burden for the society. The main cells executing bone and cartilage degradation are osteoclasts and fibroblast-like synoviocytes, respectively. The function of both cell types is heavily influenced by the immune system. In the last decades, research has identified several mediators of structural damage, ranging from infiltrating immune cells and inflammatory cytokines to autoantibodies...
June 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595567/cartilage-tissue-regeneration-the-roles-of-cells-stimulating-factors-and-scaffolds
#20
Kui Huang, Qing Li, Yong Li, Zhihao Yao, Daowen Luo, Pengcheng Rao, Jingang Xiao
Cartilage tissue engineering is an emerging technique for the regeneration of cartilage tissue damaged as a result of trauma or disease. As the propensity for healing and regenerative capabilities of articular cartilage are limited, its repair remains one of the most challenging issues of musculoskeletal medicine. Clinical treatments intended to promote the success and complete repair of partial- and full-thickness articular cartilage defects are still unpredictable. However, one of the most exciting theories is that treatment of damaged articular cartilage can be realized with cartilage tissue engineering...
June 7, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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