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Cartilage repair and damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513840/histomorphology-and-innate-immunity-during-the-progression-of-osteoarthritis-does-synovitis-affect-cartilage-degradation
#1
Huan Wang, Qingguo Wang, Meijuan Yang, Lili Yang, Weili Wang, Haobin Ding, Dong Zhang, Jing Xu, Xuezhang Tang, Haitao Ding, Qingfu Wang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic degenerative disease that affects all joints. At present, the pathological processes and mechanisms of OA are still unclear. Innate immunity, a key player in damage to the structure of the joint and the mechanism by which the host attempts to repair OA, affects all pathological stages of the disease. In the present study, our aim was to assess changes in innate immunity during the pathological processes of OA in articular cartilage (AC) and the synovial membrane (SM), which are the major structures in joints, and to systematically examine the histological changes in AC and SM in mild, moderate and severe cases of OA, in order to further speculate about the manner in which the interactions of AC and SM are facilitated by innate immunity...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492349/a-novel-compressive-stress-based-osteoarthritis-like-chondrocyte-system
#2
In-Chi Young, Sung-Ting Chuang, Amit Gefen, Wei-Ting Kuo, Chun-Ting Yang, Chia-Hsien Hsu, Feng-Huei Lin
Mechanical stress damage and insufficient self-repair can contribute to osteoarthritis (OA) in the affected joint. As the effects of stress on chondrocyte metabolism can regulate cartilage homeostasis, the specific stress-response condition is therefore a key to the generation of an OA disease model. We aimed to produce a specific stress- and cell-based OA model after evaluating the metabolic responses of chondrocytes in response to a series of static and cyclic compression stressors. A static load exceeding 40 psi initiated extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation through a decrease in the sulphated-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, upregulation of catabolic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 encoding gene expression, and downregulation of the ECM-related aggrecan and type II collagen encoding genes within 24 h...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474632/correlation-of-cartilage-metabolic-markers-antioxidants-with-the-severity-of-knee-osteoarthritis
#3
Sonam Choden Bhutia, Mingma Lhamu Sherpa, S K Dewan, T A Singh
Osteoarthritis is characterized by the degeneration of articular cartilage. Cartilage metabolic markers have been explored as possible markers for osteoarthritis, and osteogenic protein -1 (OP-1) has emerged out to play a major role in cartilage repair. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a mediator of cartilage damage in patients with osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to correlate the cartilage metabolic markers and antioxidants with the severity of knee osteoarthritis.
December 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469777/medial-tibial-subchondral-bone-is-the-key-target-for-extracorporeal-shockwave-therapy-in-early-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee
#4
Ching-Jen Wang, Jai-Hong Cheng, Chien-Yiu Huang, Shan-Ling Hsu, Fan-Yen Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is a new non-invasive method to induce tissue regeneration and repair the damaged osteoarthritis (OA) of knee. Previous studies suggested subchondral bone as the key target for OA treatment. However, the relationship of the effect and different locations of subchondral bone is unknown. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the subchondral bone of medial tibia as the target for ESWT in early OA knee treatment and compared with various locations on lateral tibia and femur condyles...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434038/emerging-potential-of-gene-silencing-approaches-targeting-anti-chondrogenic-factors-for-cell-based-cartilage-repair
#5
REVIEW
Andrea Lolli, Letizia Penolazzi, Roberto Narcisi, Gerjo J V M van Osch, Roberta Piva
The field of cartilage repair has exponentially been growing over the past decade. Here, we discuss the possibility to achieve satisfactory regeneration of articular cartilage by means of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) depleted of anti-chondrogenic factors and implanted in the site of injury. Different types of molecules including transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators, secreted proteins, and microRNAs have recently been identified as negative modulators of chondroprogenitor differentiation and chondrocyte function...
April 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420447/ck2-1-a-bone-morphogenetic-protein-receptor-type-ia-mimetic-peptide-repairs-cartilage-in-mice-with-destabilized-medial-meniscus
#6
Hemanth Akkiraju, Padma Pradeepa Srinivasan, Xian Xu, Xinqiao Jia, Catherine B Kirn Safran, Anja Nohe
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee involves degeneration of articular cartilage of the diarthrodial joints. Current treatment options temporarily relieve the joint pain but do not restore the lost cartilage. We recently designed a novel bone morphogenetic protein receptor type I (BMPRI) mimetic peptide, CK2.1, that activates BMPRIa signaling in the absence of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Our previous research demonstrated that CK2.1 induced chondrogenesis in vitro and in vivo; however, it is unknown if CK2...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417444/a-retinaculum-sparing-surgical-approach-preserves-porcine-stifle-joint-cartilage-in-an-experimental-animal-model-of-cartilage-repair
#7
Marcelo B Bonadio, James M Friedman, Mackenzie L Sennett, Robert L Mauck, George R Dodge, Henning Madry
BACKGROUND: This study compares a traditional parapatellar retinaculum-sacrificing arthrotomy to a retinaculum-sparing arthrotomy in a porcine stifle joint as a cartilage repair model. FINDINGS: Surgical exposure of the femoral trochlea of ten Yucatan pigs stifle joint was performed using either a traditional medial parapatellar approach with retinaculum incision and luxation of the patella (n = 5) or a minimally invasive (MIS) approach which spared the patellar retinaculum (n = 5)...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413859/meniscus-articular-cartilage-and-nucleus-pulposus-a-comparative-review-of-cartilage-like-tissues-in-anatomy-development-and-function
#8
REVIEW
Song Chen, Peiliang Fu, Haishan Wu, Ming Pei
The degradation of cartilage in the human body is impacted by aging, disease, genetic predisposition and continued insults resulting from daily activity. The burden of cartilage defects (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, intervertebral disc damage, knee replacement surgeries, etc.) is daunting in light of substantial economic and social stresses. This review strives to broaden the scope of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering approaches used for cartilage repair by comparing and contrasting the anatomical and functional nature of the meniscus, articular cartilage (AC) and nucleus pulposus (NP)...
April 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413465/protective-effects-of-baicalin-on-rabbit-articular-chondrocytes-in-vitro
#9
Xianyuan Huang, Huayu Wu, Liqin Wang, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao
Drug therapy is one of the typical treatments for post-injury inflammation of cartilage. Traditional Chinese herbs have potential as treatments, as their long history of clinical application has demonstrated they are effective and induce minimal side effects. Baicalin is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used to treat inflammation, fever, ulcers and cancer for hundreds of years. Previous studies have demonstrated that baicalin may decrease levels of interleukin-1β and suppress the expression of type-I collagen, thus attenuating cartilage degeneration...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379175/enumeration-and-localization-of-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells-and-macrophages-in-synovium-from-normal-individuals-and-patients-with-pre-osteoarthritis-or-clinically-diagnosed-osteoarthritis
#10
Kate O'Brien, Pankaj Tailor, Catherine Leonard, Lisa M DiFrancesco, David A Hart, John R Matyas, Cyril B Frank, Roman J Krawetz
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disorder characterized by chondrocyte apoptosis and degeneration of articular cartilage resulting in loss of mobility and pain. Inflammation plays a key role in the development and progression of OA both on the side of apoptosis and repair, while its exact role in pathogenesis has yet to be fully elucidated. Few studies have examined the cellular composition (inflammatory cells and/or progenitor cells) in the synovium of patients with pre-OA (asymptomatic with cartilage damage)...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367081/changes-of-articular-cartilage-and-subchondral-bone-after-extracorporeal-shockwave-therapy-in-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee
#11
Ching-Jen Wang, Jai-Hong Cheng, Wen-Yi Chou, Shan-Ling Hsu, Jen-Hung Chen, Chien-Yiu Huang
We assessed the pathological changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone on different locations of the knee after extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in early osteoarthritis (OA). Rat knees under OA model by anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) and medial meniscectomy (MM) to induce OA changes. Among ESWT groups, ESWT were applied to medial (M) femur (F) and tibia (T) condyles was better than medial tibia condyle, medial femur condyle as well as medial and lateral (L) tibia condyles in gross osteoarthritic areas (p<0...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356779/potential-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-human-meniscal-repair-current-insights
#12
REVIEW
Jaewoo Pak, Jung Hun Lee, Kwang Seung Park, Jeong Ho Jeon, Sang Hee Lee
The menisci of the human knee play an important role in maintaining normal functions to provide stability and nutrition to the articular cartilage, and to absorb shock. Once injured, these important structures have very limited natural healing potential. Unfortunately, the traditional arthroscopic meniscectomy performed on these damaged menisci may predispose the joint toward early development of osteoarthritis. Although a very limited number of studies are available, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated as an alternative therapeutic modality to repair human knee meniscal tears...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325151/adipose-tissue-derived-pericytes-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#13
Jin Xin Zhang, Chun Yan Du, Wei Min Guo, Pan Li, Shu Yun Liu, Zhi Guo Yuan, Jian Hua Yang, Xun Sun, He Yong Yin, Quan Yi Guo, Chen Fu Zhou
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising alternative source for cartilage tissue engineering. However, MSC culture is labor-intensive, so these cells cannot be applied immediately to regenerate cartilage for clinical purposes. Risks during the ex vivo expansion of MSCs, such as infection and immunogenicity, can be a bottleneck in their use in clinical tissue engineering. As a novel stem cell source, pericytes are generally considered to be the origin of MSCs. Pericytes do not have to undergo time-consuming ex vivo expansion because they are uncultured cells...
March 21, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318324/subchondral-bone-response-to-injected-adipose-derived-stromal-cells-for-treating-osteoarthritis-using-an-experimental-rabbit-model
#14
A Parrilli, G Giavaresi, A Ferrari, F Salamanna, G Desando, B Grigolo, L Martini, M Fini
Although articular cartilage is the target of osteoarthritis (OA), its deterioration is not always clearly associated with patient symptoms. Because a functional interaction between cartilage and bone is crucial, the pathophysiology of OA and its treatment strategy must focus also on subchondral bone. We investigated whether adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) injected into a joint at two different concentrations could prevent subchondral bone damage after the onset of mild OA in a rabbit model. We measured both volumetric and densitometric aspects of bone remodeling...
2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302318/regional-differences-of-tibial-and-femoral-cartilage-in-the-chondrocyte-gene-expression-immunhistochemistry-and-composite-in-different-stages-of-osteoarthritis
#15
A Lahm, D Dabravolski, H Spank, H Merk, J Esser, R Kasch
The function of articular cartilage as an avascular tissue is mainly served by collagen type II and proteoglycan molecules. Within this matrix homeostasis between production and breakdown of the matrix is exceptionally sensitive. The current study was conducted to identify regional differences in specific alterations in cartilage composition during the osteoarthritic process of the human knee joint. Therefor the changes in the expression of the key molecules of the extracellular matrix were measured in dependence of the anatomical side (femoral vs tibial) and associated with immunohistochemistry and quantitative measurement...
April 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300491/dynamic-regulation-of-twist1-expression-during-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Mairéad A Cleary, Roberto Narcisi, Anna Albiero, Florien Jenner, Laurie M G de Kroon, Wendy J L M Koevoet, Pieter A J Brama, Gerjo J V M van Osch
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are clinically promising to repair damaged articular cartilage. This study investigated TWIST1, an important transcriptional regulator in mesenchymal lineages, in BMSC chondrogenesis. We hypothesized that downregulation of TWIST1 expression is required for in vitro chondrogenic differentiation. Indeed, significant downregulation of TWIST1 was observed in murine skeletal progenitor cells during limb development (N = 3 embryos), and during chondrogenic differentiation of culture-expanded human articular chondrocytes (N = 3 donors) and isolated adult human BMSCs (N = 7 donors), consistent with an inhibitory effect of TWIST1 expression on chondrogenic differentiation...
May 15, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296552/enhanced-socs3-in-osteoarthiritis-may-limit-both-proliferation-and-inflammation
#17
T Gui, B S He, Q Gan, C Yang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that is characterized by localized inflammatory and secondary proliferative changes. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is elevated during OA development. We investigated the effects of this protein on human chondrocyte survival in OA and the inflammatory response together with the mechanisms of these effects. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knock down the expression of SOCS3 in interleukin(IL)-1β-induced primary human osteoarthritic chondrocytes...
2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286227/ultrastructural-material-and-crystallographic-description-of-endophytic-masses-a-possible-damage-response-in-shark-and-ray-tessellated-calcified-cartilage
#18
Ronald Seidel, Michael Blumer, Paul Zaslansky, David Knötel, Daniel R Huber, James C Weaver, Peter Fratzl, Sidney Omelon, Luca Bertinetti, Mason N Dean
The cartilaginous endoskeletons of elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) are reinforced superficially by minute, mineralized tiles, called tesserae. Unlike the bony skeletons of other vertebrates, elasmobranch skeletons have limited healing capability and their tissues' mechanisms for avoiding damage or managing it when it does occur are largely unknown. Here we describe an aberrant type of mineralized elasmobranch skeletal tissue called endophytic masses (EPMs), which grow into the uncalcified cartilage of the skeleton, but exhibit a strikingly different morphology compared to tesserae and other elasmobranch calcified tissues...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285569/gelatin-scaffolds-containing-partially-sulfated-cellulose-promote-mesenchymal-stem-cell-chondrogenesis
#19
Gloria Portocarrero Huang, Roseline Menezes, Richard Vincent, Willis Hammond, Louis Rizio, George Collins, Treena Livingston Arinzeh
Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal after damage from injury or degenerative disease. Tissue engineering constructs that more closely mimic the native cartilage microenvironment can be utilized to promote repair. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a major component of the cartilage extracellular matrix, have the ability to sequester growth factors due to their level and spatial distribution of sulfate groups. This study evaluated the use of a GAG mimetic, cellulose sulfate, as a scaffolding material for cartilage tissue engineering...
March 12, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280285/hyaluronic-acid-and-phospholipid-interactions-useful-for-repaired-articular-cartilage-surfaces-a-mini-review-toward-tribological-surgical-adjuvants
#20
REVIEW
Stanislaw Jung, Aneta Petelska, Piotr Beldowski, Wayne K Augé, Tahlia Casey, Dominik Walczak, Krzysztof Lemke, Adam Gadomski
This mini review is focused on the emerging nexus between the medical device and pharmaceutical industries toward the treatment of damaged articular cartilage. The physical rationale of hyaluronic acid and phospholipid preparations as tribological surgical adjuvants for repaired articular cartilage surfaces is explored, with directions for possible new research which have arisen due to the therapeutic advance of the physiochemical scalpel. Because synovial joint lubrication regimes become dysfunctional at articular cartilage lesion sites as a result of the regional absence of the surface active phospholipid layer and its inability to reform without surgical repair, hyaluronic acid and phospholipid intra-articular injections have yielded inconsistent efficacy outcomes and only short-term therapeutic benefits mostly due to non-tribological effects...
2017: Colloid and Polymer Science
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