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Jacob Taylor, William S Anderson, Jason Brandt, Zoltan Mari, Gregory M Pontone
Although Parkinson disease (PD) is defined clinically by its motor symptoms, it is increasingly recognized that much of the disability and worsened quality of life experienced by patients with PD is attributable to psychiatric symptoms. The authors describe a model of multidisciplinary care that enables these symptoms to be effectively managed. They describe neuropsychiatric complications of PD itself and pharmacologic and neurostimulation treatments for parkinsonian motor symptoms and discuss the management of these complications...
September 3, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
F Thomas, V Moulier, A Valéro-Cabré, D Januel
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are among the most characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia and have been linked to likely disturbances of structural and functional connectivity within frontal, temporal, parietal and subcortical networks involved in language and auditory functions. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown that alterations in the functional connectivity activity of the default-mode network (DMN) may also subtend hallucinations. Noninvasive neurostimulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have the ability to modulate activity of targeted cortical sites and their associated networks, showing a high potential for modulating altered connectivity subtending schizophrenia...
October 11, 2016: Revue Neurologique
Helena Knotkova, Michael A Nitsche, Volker Tronnier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Neural Plasticity
David M Schultz, Aaron K Calodney, Alon Y Mogilner, Todd W Weaver, Michelle D Wells, E Katherine Stromberg, Mollie P Roediger, Peter E Konrad, John T Sasaki
OBJECTIVES: The Implantable Systems Performance Registry (ISPR) was created to monitor the product performance of Medtronic Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) and implanted intrathecal drug infusion systems available in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected on 2605 patients from 44 centers from various geographic regions across the United States implanting and following patients with SCS systems between June 25, 2004 and January 31, 2014. Actuarial life table methods are used to estimate device performance over time...
October 12, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
I Hoeritzauer, V Phé, J N Panicker
The term functional urologic disorders covers a wide range of conditions related broadly to altered function rather than structure of the lower urinary tract, mainly of impaired urine voiding or storage. Confusingly, for a neurologic readership, these disorders of function may often be due to a urologic, gynecologic, or neurologic cause. However, there is a subset of functional urologic disorders where the cause remains uncertain and, in this chapter, we describe the clinical features of these disorders in turn: psychogenic urinary retention; Fowler's syndrome; paruresis (shy-bladder syndrome); dysfunctional voiding; idiopathic overactive bladder, and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Janne Gierthmühlen, Ralf Baron
Diagnosing neuropathic pain and distinguishing it from nociceptive pain can be challenging, but is essential because both forms of pain require different treatment strategies. The diagnosis of neuropathic pain is primarily based on clinical findings. Therefore, a careful, focused history and an examination of the signs characteristic of neuropathic pain are crucial. Imaging techniques and electrophysiological examinations, as well as punch skin biopsy can support the clinical diagnosis. Ideally, treatment should be individualized using a mechanism-based approach...
October 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Brian M Ilfeld, Stuart A Grant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Kevin D'Ostilio, Delphine Magis
Chronic primary headaches are widespread disorders which cause significant quality of life and socioprofessional impairment. Available pharmacological treatments have often a limited efficacy and/or can generate unbearable side effects. Electrical nerve stimulation is a well-known non-destructive method of pain modulation which has been recently applied to headache management. In this review, we summarise recent advances in invasive and non-invasive neurostimulation techniques targeting pericranial structures for the treatment of chronic primary headaches, chiefly migraine and cluster headache: occipital nerve, supraorbital nerve, vagus nerve, and sphenopalatine ganglion stimulations...
November 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Brian M Ilfeld, Rodney A Gabriel, Michael F Saulino, John Chae, P Hunter Peckham, Stuart A Grant, Christopher A Gilmore, Michael C Donohue, Matthew G deBock, Amorn Wongsarnpigoon, Joseph W Boggs
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous neurostimulation of the peripheral nervous system involves the insertion of a wire "lead" through an introducing needle to target a nerve/plexus or a motor point within a muscle. Electrical current may then be passed from an external generator through the skin via the lead for various therapeutic goals, including providing analgesia. With extended use of percutaneous leads sometimes greater than a month, infection is a concern. It was hypothesized that the infection rate of leads with a coiled design is lower than for leads with a noncoiled cylindrical design...
September 27, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Shaessa L Wright, Sara Cuccurullo, Brian D Greenwald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Rodney J Anderson, Kate E Hoy, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Paul B Fitzgerald
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a relatively recent addition to the neurostimulation armamentarium for treating individuals suffering from treatment refractory depression and has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials. One of the proposed mechanisms of action underlying the therapeutic effects of rTMS for depression involves the modulation of depression-associated dysfunctional activity in distributed brain networks involving frontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions, via changes to aberrant functional and structural connectivity...
August 31, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Stefano Mandija, Petar I Petrov, Sebastian F W Neggers, Peter R Luijten, Cornelis A T van den Berg
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an emerging technique that allows non-invasive neurostimulation. However, the correct validation of electromagnetic models of typical TMS coils and the correct assessment of the incident TMS field (BTMS ) produced by standard TMS stimulators are still lacking. Such a validation can be performed by mapping BTMS produced by a realistic TMS setup. In this study, we show that MRI can provide precise quantification of the magnetic field produced by a realistic TMS coil and a clinically used TMS stimulator in the region in which neurostimulation occurs...
September 27, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Nicole M Warner, Ryder P Gwinn, Michael J Doherty
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate mirtazapine-induced changes in responsive neurostimulator (RNS) recordings in a patient with epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cortical detection/stimulation counts from an RNS implanted in a patient with bitemporal epilepsy were matched to mirtazapine use to see if that drug altered hippocampal excitability. RESULTS: Mirtazapine decreased hippocampal stability; when mirtazapine was held after a washout period, DSC counts declined, but when it was retrialed, DSC counts increased...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
B B Xie, H W Li, C F Dai
Objective: To identify the targets of the infrared laser stimulating on the cochlea of guinea pig which evoked auditory brainstem response (oABR), and explore the mechanisms of the infrared neurostimulation. Methods: A polished optical fiber with 200 μm diameter (NA=0.22) was planted into the scala tympani of guinea pigs to stimulate the cochlea of both the normal hearing and acute deafened guinea pigs. The direction of the fiber distal was changed to radiate different regions of the scala tympani, recording the oABR respectively...
September 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Martin M Reich, Joachim Brumberg, Nicolò G Pozzi, Giorgio Marotta, Jonas Roothans, Mattias Åström, Thomas Musacchio, Leonardo Lopiano, Michele Lanotte, Ralph Lehrke, Andreas K Buck, Jens Volkmann, Ioannis U Isaias
Thalamic deep brain stimulation is a mainstay treatment for severe and drug-refractory essential tremor, but postoperative management may be complicated in some patients by a progressive cerebellar syndrome including gait ataxia, dysmetria, worsening of intention tremor and dysarthria. Typically, this syndrome manifests several months after an initially effective therapy and necessitates frequent adjustments in stimulation parameters. There is an ongoing debate as to whether progressive ataxia reflects a delayed therapeutic failure due to disease progression or an adverse effect related to repeated increases of stimulation intensity...
September 21, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Wonhye Lee, Hyun-Chul Kim, Yujin Jung, Yong An Chung, In-Uk Song, Jong-Hwan Lee, Seung-Schik Yoo
Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is making progress as a new non-invasive mode of regional brain stimulation. Current evidence of FUS-mediated neurostimulation for humans has been limited to the observation of subjective sensory manifestations and electrophysiological responses, thus warranting the identification of stimulated brain regions. Here, we report FUS sonication of the primary visual cortex (V1) in humans, resulting in elicited activation not only from the sonicated brain area, but also from the network of regions involved in visual and higher-order cognitive processes (as revealed by simultaneous acquisition of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sarina J Iwabuchi, Felix Raschke, Dorothee P Auer, Peter F Liddle, Sudheer T Lankappa, Lena Palaniyappan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used worldwide to treat depression. However, the exact physiological effects are not well understood. Pathophysiology of depression involves crucial limbic structures (e.g. insula), and it is still not clear if these structures can be modulated through neurostimulation of surface regions (e.g. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC), and whether rTMS-induced excitatory/inhibitory transmission alterations relate to fronto-limbic connectivity changes...
September 17, 2016: NeuroImage
Doe Kumsa, Eric M Hudak, Fred W Montague, Shawn C Kelley, Darrel F Untereker, Benjamin P Hahn, Chris Condit, Martin Cholette, Hyowon Lee, Dawn Bardot, Pavel Takmakov
OBJECTIVE: Electrical neurostimulation has traditionally been limited to the use of charge-balanced waveforms. Charge-imbalanced and monophasic waveforms are not used to deliver clinical therapy, because it is believed that these stimulation paradigms may generate noxious electrochemical species that cause tissue damage. APPROACH: In this study, we investigated the dissolution of platinum as one of such irreversible reactions over a range of charge densities up to 160 μC cm(-2) with current-controlled first phase, capacitive discharge second phase waveforms of both cathodic-first and anodic-first polarity...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
John D Rolston, Dario J Englot, Philip A Starr, Paul S Larson
INTRODUCTION: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for movement disorders, and is under active investigation for other neurologic and psychiatric indications. While many studies describe outcomes and complications related to stimulation therapies, the majority of these are from large academic centers, and results may differ from those in general neurosurgical practice. METHODS: Using data from both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), we identified all DBS procedures related to primary placement, revision, or removal of intracranial electrodes...
September 12, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Sekib Sokolovic, Samir Mehmedagic
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this paper was to present the effects of the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on a blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in arterial hypertension patient. DESIGN AND METHOD: The pilot study (SPM-005) was designed to evaluate the eficiancy and safety profile of the neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways using the active implantable device for the vagus nerve stimulation in rheumatoid arthritis patient. We investigated the VNS on the BP and HR in 68 years old female patient with a long-standing arterial hypertension and the lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide in a therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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