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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350251/pyramidal-cell-selective-glun1-knockout-causes-impairments-in-salience-attribution-and-related-eeg-activity
#1
Alexandra D Forrest, Jakyung Bang, Robert E Featherstone, Jonathan H Bloom, Matthew S Luminais, Rebecca V Zhang, Christopher R Gajewski, Mary F McMullen, Yuling Liang, Steven J Siegel
Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric disease characterized by symptoms including hallucinations, delusions, social withdrawal, loss of pleasure, and inappropriate affect. Although schizophrenia is marked by dysfunction in dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling, it is not presently clear how these dysfunctions give rise to symptoms. The aberrant salience hypothesis of schizophrenia argues that abnormal attribution of motivational salience to stimuli is one of the main contributors to both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
January 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348483/cell-type-specific-survey-of-epigenetic-modifications-by-tandem-chromatin-immunoprecipitation-sequencing
#2
Mari Mito, Mitsutaka Kadota, Kaori Tanaka, Yasuhide Furuta, Kuniya Abe, Shintaro Iwasaki, Shinichi Nakagawa
The nervous system of higher eukaryotes is composed of numerous types of neurons and glia that together orchestrate complex neuronal responses. However, this complex pool of cells typically poses analytical challenges in investigating gene expression profiles and their epigenetic basis for specific cell types. Here, we developed a novel method that enables cell type-specific analyses of epigenetic modifications using tandem chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (tChIP-Seq). FLAG-tagged histone H2B, a constitutive chromatin component, was first expressed in Camk2a-positive pyramidal cortical neurons and used to purify chromatin in a cell type-specific manner...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348376/-benign-outcome-of-cochlear-implantation-in-a-patient-with-superficial-siderosis
#3
Kei Sato, Takekazu Ohi, Taisaku Shozaki, Shin Kariya
We report the case of a 38-year-old man with gait disorder and hearing loss. The patient had developed gait disorder due to a cervical meningioma since 4 year-old disappeared for 15 years after the surgical removal of the meningioma. However, at the age of 21 year-old, the gait disorder reappeared and worsened progressively. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and epileptic seizures developed during the disease course, and he was diagnosed with superficial siderosis (SS). When he was 37 years old, he experienced sudden-onset of right-side hearing impairment and was considered a candidate for cochlear implantation (CI) at the otorhinolaryngology clinic of the nearby University Hospital...
January 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347867/the-mediterranean-diet-its-definition-and-evaluation-of-a-priori-dietary-indexes-in-primary-cardiovascular-prevention
#4
Annunziata D'Alessandro, Giovanni De Pergola
We have analysed the definition of Mediterranean Diet in 28 studies included in six meta-analyses evaluating the relation between the Mediterranean Diet and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Some typical food of this dietary pattern like whole cereals, olive oil and red wine were taken into account only in a few a priori indexes, and the dietary pattern defined as Mediterranean showed many differences among the studies and compared to traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Altogether, the analysed studies show a protective effect of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease but present different effects against specific conditions as cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347418/preconditioned-lattice-boltzmann-method-for-steady-flows-a-noncascaded-central-moments-based-approach
#5
Alessandro De Rosis
We present a concise yet effective central-moments-based lattice Boltzmann method with an accelerated convergence to the steady state through preconditioning. It is demonstrated that the proposed scheme reduces to a slight modification of the unaccelerated one, as the preconditioning affects only the equilibrium state. Different from previous efforts carried out within the lattice Boltzmann community, the present scheme is built on an original model. In fact, the corresponding collision operator loses the pyramidal orchestrated nature that is typical of the cascaded scheme, hence we coin the name "noncascaded...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346880/emergence-and-detailed-structure-of-terraced-surfaces-produced-by-oblique-incidence-ion-sputtering
#6
Matt P Harrison, Daniel A Pearson, R Mark Bradley
We study the nanoscale terraced topographies that arise when a solid surface is bombarded with a broad ion beam that has a relatively high angle of incidence θ. We find that the surface is not completely flat between the regions in which the surface slope changes rapidly with position: Instead, small-amplitude ripples propagate along the surface. Our analytical work on these ripples yields their propagation velocity as well as the scaling behavior of their amplitude. Our simulations establish that the surfaces exhibit interrupted coarsening, i...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346381/control-of-recollection-by-slow-gamma-dominating-mid-frequency-gamma-in-hippocampus-ca1
#7
Dino Dvorak, Basma Radwan, Fraser T Sparks, Zoe Nicole Talbot, André A Fenton
Behavior is used to assess memory and cognitive deficits in animals like Fmr1-null mice that model Fragile X Syndrome, but behavior is a proxy for unknown neural events that define cognitive variables like recollection. We identified an electrophysiological signature of recollection in mouse dorsal Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) hippocampus. During a shocked-place avoidance task, slow gamma (SG) (30-50 Hz) dominates mid-frequency gamma (MG) (70-90 Hz) oscillations 2-3 s before successful avoidance, but not failures...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344041/impact-of-nutrition-education-in-improving-dietary-pattern-during-pregnancy-based-on-pender-s-health-promotion-model-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Masoomeh Goodarzi-Khoigani, Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Farahnaz Mardanian, Hossein Fallahzadeh, SeyedSaeed Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad
Background: Different types of nutrients in adequate amounts are required to meet the increased demands of the mother and the developing fetus. Therefore, we examined the impact of nutrition education on the number of food servings per day. Materials and Methods: Pregnant mothers were recruited to a prospective, randomized clinical trial from May to September, 2016. At 6-10 weeks of gestation, the participants were randomly divided into the intervention (n = 96) or the control group (n = 96), and were followed-up until the end of pregnancy...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341342/the-pentagonal-pyramidal-hexamethylbenzene-dication-the-many-shades-of-coordination-chemistry-at-carbon
#9
Johannes E M N Klein, Remco W A Havenith, Gerald Knizia
A recent report of the crystal structure of the pentagonal-pyramidal hexamethylbenzene dication C6(CH3)62+ by Malischewski and Seppelt [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2017, 56, 368.] confirmed the structural proposal made in the first report of this compound in 1973 by Hogeveen and Kwant [Tetrahedron Lett. 1973, 14, 1665]. The widespread attention that this compound quickly gained led us to reinvestigate its electronic structure. Based on intrinsic bond orbital analysis, effective oxidation state analysis, ring current analysis and comparison to well established coordination complexes, we demonstrate that the central carbon atom behaves like a transition metal...
January 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340398/synthesis-and-crystal-structure-of-sr3bi2o6-and-structural-change-in-the-strontium-bismuth-oxide-system
#10
Yanquan Yang, Jian Li, Youyou Yuan, Fengjuan Pan, Dier Shi, Cong Lin, Xin Du, Junliang Sun
The crystal structures and their changing trend in the strontium-bismuth-oxide system are critical for the studies of the related systems and their applications. The crystal structure of Sr3Bi2O6 was obtained for the first time in the space group of R3[combining macron] with a huge unit cell of a = b = 25.1146(19) Å and c = 18.3685(16) Å and all bismuth ions are Bi3+ forming [BiO3] trigonal pyramids. Sr3Bi2O6 is a key compound for the structural change trend in the SrO-Bi2O3 binary oxide system at 1000 °C...
January 17, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338380/transplantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-reveals-structural-and-functional-improvements-in-the-spastic-han-wistar-rat-model-of-ataxia
#11
Ruslan L Nuryyev, Toni L Uhlendorf, Wesley Tierney, Suren Zatikyan, Oleg Kopyov, Alex Kopyov, Jessica Ochoa, William Van Trigt, Cindy S Malone, Randy W Cohen
The use of regenerative medicine to treat nervous system disorders like ataxia has been proposed to either replace or support degenerating neurons. In this study, we assessed the ability of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to repair and restore the function of dying neurons within the spastic Han-Wistar rat (sHW), a model of ataxia. The sHW rat suffers from neurodegeneration of specific neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells leading to the observed symptoms of forelimb tremor, hind-leg rigidity, gait abnormality, motor incoordination, and a shortened life span...
November 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337147/neuronal-pten-deletion-in-adult-cortical-neurons-triggers-progressive-growth-of-cell-bodies-dendrites-and-axons
#12
Erin A Gallent, Oswald Steward
Deletion of the phosphatase and tensin (PTEN) gene in neonatal mice leads to enlargement of the cell bodies of cortical motoneurons (CMNs) in adulthood (Gutilla et al., 2016). Here, we assessed whether PTEN deletion in adult mice would trigger growth of mature neurons. PTEN was deleted by injecting AAV-Cre into the sensorimotor cortex of adult transgenic mice with a lox-P flanked exon 5 of the PTEN gene and Cre-dependent reporter gene tdTomato. PTEN-deleted CMN's identified by tdT expression and retrograde labeling with fluorogold (FG) were significantly enlarged four months following PTEN deletion, and continued to increase in size through the latest time intervals examined (12-15 months post-deletion)...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337045/increased-dendritic-length-in-ca1-and-ca3-hippocampal-neurons-during-the-metestrus-phase-in-wistar-rats
#13
Anayeli López Mendoza, Dolores Adriana Bravo Durán, Adriana Berenice Silva Gómez
Studies have shown that changes in ovarian hormone concentrations promote natural fluctuations in the density of dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons in female Sprague-Dawley rats, without changes in dendritic length, throughout the estrous cycle. However, it is still unknown whether these fluctuations are present in other rat strains. Due to our interest in Wistar, the objective of the present study was to determine if there is natural dendritic remodeling in the female Wistar rat throughout the estrous cycle...
January 11, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335828/low-but-not-high-doses-of-copper-sulfate-impair-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-region-in-vivo
#14
Abolfazl Jand, Mohammad Reza Taheri-Nejad, Masoumeh Mosleh, Mohammad Reza Palizvan
Previous studies have shown the inhibitory effect of the in vitro application of copper sulfate on hippocampal long-term potentiation. While in vivo administration of copper did not affect spatial learning and memory. To find possible answers to this controversial issue, we evaluate the effect of different doses of copper sulfate on in vivo long-term potentiation, synaptic transmission, and paired-pulse behavior of CA1 pyramidal cells. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, 5, 10, and 15 mg of copper sulfate...
January 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335778/hippocampal-area-ca2-properties-and-contribution-to-hippocampal-function
#15
REVIEW
Vincent Robert, Sadiyah Cassim, Vivien Chevaleyre, Rebecca A Piskorowski
This review focuses on area CA2 of the hippocampus, as recent results have revealed the unique properties and surprising role of this region in encoding social, temporal and contextual aspects of memory. Originally identified and described by Lorente de No, in 1934, this region of the hippocampus has unique intra-and extra-hippocampal connectivity, sending and receiving input to septal and hypothalamic regions. Recent in vivo studies have indicated that CA2 pyramidal neurons encode spatial information during immobility and play an important role in the generation of sharp-wave ripples...
January 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335478/publisher-correction-marked-bias-towards-spontaneous-synaptic-inhibition-distinguishes-non-adapting-from-adapting-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-barrel-cortex
#16
Ion R Popescu, Kathy Q Le, Rocío Palenzuela, Rebecca Voglewede, Ricardo Mostany
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335357/nonlinear-relationship-between-spike-dependent-calcium-influx-and-trpc-channel-activation-enables-robust-persistent-spiking-in-neurons-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#17
Stéphanie Ratté, Sergei Karnup, Steven A Prescott
Persistent spiking - the continuation of spiking after a stimulus ends - is thought to support working memory. Muscarinic receptor activation enables persistent spiking among synaptically isolated pyramidal neurons in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) but a detailed characterization of that spiking is lacking and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the rate of persistent spiking in ACC neurons is insensitive to the intensity and number of triggers but can be modulated by injected current, and that persistent spiking can resume after several seconds of hyperpolarization-imposed quiescence...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335356/single-bursts-of-individual-granule-cells-functionally-rearrange-feed-forward-inhibition
#18
Máté Neubrandt, Viktor János Oláh, János Brunner, Endre Marosi, Ivan Soltesz, János Szabadics
The sparse single spike activity of dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) is punctuated by occasional brief bursts of 3 to 7 action potentials. It is well-known that such presynaptic bursts in individual mossy fibers (MFs; axons of granule cells) are often able to discharge postsynaptic CA3 pyramidal cells due to powerful short-term facilitation. However, what happens in the CA3 network after the passage of a brief MF burst, before the arrival of the next burst or solitary spike, is not understood. Because MFs innervate significantly more CA3 interneurons than pyramidal cells, we focused on unitary MF responses in identified interneurons in the seconds-long post-burst period, using paired recordings in rat hippocampal slices...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333487/activation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-reverses-cognitive-and-respiratory-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#19
C James Howell, Michael P Sceniak, Min Lang, Wenceslas Krakowiecki, Fatimah E Abouelsoud, Saloni U Lad, Heping Yu, David M Katz
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2; Amir et al., 1999), a transcriptional regulatory protein (Klose et al., 2005). Mouse models of RTT (Mecp2 mutants) exhibit excitatory hypoconnectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC; Sceniak et al., 2015), a region critical for functions that are abnormal in RTT patients, ranging from learning and memory to regulation of visceral homeostasis (Riga et al...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332069/the-history-of-movement-disorder-brain-surgery
#20
L Dade Lunsford, Ajay Niranjan
The first surgical procedures for abnormal movement disorders began in the 1930s, when surgeons first proposed ablative techniques of the caudate nucleus or transection of motor (pyramidal) pathways to reduce involuntary movements in patients with Parkinson's related tremor. During the 50-year interval between 1945 and 1995, the development of precise intracranial guiding devices, brain maps, and advanced imaging led to the refinement of appropriate deep brain targets affecting extrapyramidal pathways. Lesional surgery and subsequent neuroaugmentation using deep brain stimulation extended the role of deep brain surgery for a wider group of patients with tremor, rigidity, dyskinesia, and other involuntary movement disorders...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
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