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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913833/tight-repulsion-linkage-between-sr36-and-sr39-was-revealed-by-genetic-cytogenetic-and-molecular-analyses
#1
Bosco Chemayek, Urmil K Bansal, Naeela Qureshi, Peng Zhang, William W Wagoire, Harbans S Bariana
The shortening of Aegilops speltoides segment did not facilitate recombination between stem rust resistance genes Sr36 and Sr39 . Robustness of marker rwgs28 for marker-assisted selection of Sr39 was demonstrated. Stem rust resistance genes Sr39 and Sr36 were transferred from Aegilops speltoides and Triticum timopheevii, respectively, to chromosome 2B of wheat. Genetic stocks RL6082 and RWG1 carrying Sr39 on a large and a shortened Ae. speltoides segments, respectively, and the Sr36-carrying Australian wheat cultivar Cook were used in this study...
December 2, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913590/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#2
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) at low stimulation frequency (0...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911756/activation-of-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-promotes-ltp-induction-at-schaffer-collateral-ca1-pyramidal-cell-synapses-by-priming-nmda-receptors
#3
Nadia Rosenberg, Urs Gerber, Jeanne Ster
: It is well established that selective activation of group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors induces LTD of synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. In contrast, application of 1S,3R-ACPD, a mixed agonist at group I and group II mGlu receptors, induces LTP. Using whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells and field recordings in the hippocampal CA1 region, we investigated the specific contribution of group II mGlu receptors to synaptic plasticity at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute slices of adult mice...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911754/cortical-control-of-spatial-resolution-by-vip-interneurons
#4
Inbal Ayzenshtat, Mahesh Miikael Karnani, Jesse Jackson, Rafael Yuste
: Neuronal tuning, defined by the degree of selectivity to a specific stimulus, is a hallmark of cortical computation. Understanding the role of GABAergic interneurons in shaping cortical tuning is now possible with the ability to manipulate interneuron classes selectively. Here, we show that interneurons expressing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP(+)) regulate the spatial frequency (SF) tuning of pyramidal neurons in mouse visual cortex. Using two-photon calcium imaging and optogenetic manipulations of VIP(+) cell activity, we found that activating VIP(+) cells elicited a stronger network response to stimuli of higher SFs, whereas suppressing VIP(+) cells resulted in a network response shift toward lower SFs...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911380/method-for-identifying-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-the-protein-protein-interaction-between-hcn1-and-trip8b
#5
Ye Han, Kyle A Lyman, Matt Clutter, Gary E Schiltz, Quratul-Ain Ismail, Xiangying Cheng, Chi-Hao Luan, Dane M Chetkovich
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are expressed ubiquitously throughout the brain, where they function to regulate the excitability of neurons. The subcellular distribution of these channels in pyramidal neurons of hippocampal area CA1 is regulated by tetratricopeptide repeat-containing Rab8b interacting protein (TRIP8b), an auxiliary subunit. Genetic knockout of HCN pore forming subunits or TRIP8b, both lead to an increase in antidepressant-like behavior, suggesting that limiting the function of HCN channels may be useful as a treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911261/targeted-deletion-of-akap7-in-dentate-granule-cells-impairs-spatial-discrimination
#6
Brian W Jones, Jennifer Deem, Thomas J Younts, Michael Weisenhaus, Christina A Sanford, Margaret C Slack, Jenesa Chin, Daniela Nachmanson, Alex McKennon, Pablo E Castillo, G Stanley McKnight
Protein Kinase A (PKA) mediates synaptic plasticity and is widely implicated in learning and memory. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is thought to be responsible for processing and encoding distinct contextual associations in response to highly similar inputs. The mossy fiber (MF) axons of the dentate granule cells convey strong excitatory drive to CA3 pyramidal neurons and express presynaptic, PKA-dependent forms of plasticity. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for the PKA anchoring protein, AKAP7, in mouse MF axons and terminals...
December 2, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910840/-na-%C3%A2-5-mno2-13-nanorods-a-new-tunnel-structure-for-electrode-materials-determined-ab-initio-and-refined-through-a-combination-of-electron-and-synchrotron-diffraction-data
#7
Enrico Mugnaioli, Mauro Gemmi, Marco Merlini, Michele Gregorkiewitz
(Nax□1 - x)5[MnO2]13 has been synthesized with x = 0.80 (4), corresponding to Na0.31[MnO2]. This well known material is usually cited as Na0.4[MnO2] and is believed to have a romanèchite-like framework. Here, its true structure is determined, ab initio, by single-crystal electron diffraction tomography (EDT) and refined both by EDT data applying dynamical scattering theory and by the Rietveld method based on synchrotron powder diffraction data (χ(2) = 0.690, Rwp = 0.051, Rp = 0.037, RF2 = 0.035). The unit cell is monoclinic C2/m, a = 22...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909004/pea3-transcription-factors-etv4-and-etv5-are-required-for-proper-hippocampal-dendrite-development-and-plasticity
#8
Paula Aldana Fontanet, Antonella Soledad Ríos, Fernando Cruz Alsina, Gustavo Paratcha, Fernanda Ledda
The proper formation and morphogenesis of dendrites is essential to the establishment of neuronal connectivity. We report that 2 members of the Pea3 family of transcription factors, Etv4 and Etv5, are expressed in hippocampal neurons during the main period of dendritogenesis, suggesting that they have a function in dendrite development. Here, we show that these transcription factors are physiological regulators of growth and arborization of pyramidal cell dendrites in the developing hippocampus. Gain and loss of function assays indicate that Etv4 and Etv5 are required for proper development of hippocampal dendritic arbors and spines...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906381/video-stabilization-in-atmosphere-turbulent-conditions-based-on-the-laplacian-riesz-pyramid
#9
Bindang Xue, Yi Liu, Linyan Cui, Xiangzhi Bai, Xiaoguang Cao, Fugen Zhou
Video stabilization in atmosphere turbulent conditions is aimed at removing spatiotemporally varying distortions from video recordings. Conventional shaky video stabilization approaches do not perform effectively under turbulent circumstances due to the erratic motion common to those conditions. Using complex-valued image pyramids, we propose a method to mitigate this erratic motion in videos. First, each frame of a video is decomposed into different spatial frequencies using the Laplacian pyramid. Second, a Riesz transform is adopted to extract the local amplitude and the local phase of each sub-band...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906315/effect-of-non-conformal-gold-deposition-on-sers-related-plasmonic-effects
#10
Swe Zin Oo, Martin D B Charlton
Recently, a comprehensive three dimensional computational model based on rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) has been developed to investigate the properties of surface plasmons resident on metal coated arrays of inverted pyramidal pits used for SERS sensing applications in the form of 'klarite'. This simulation tool allows the identification of a variety of dispersive features including propagating and localized surface plasmons as well as simple diffraction relating to the influence of geometrical features...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905406/differential-roles-for-l-type-calcium-channel-subtypes-in-alcohol-dependence
#11
Stefanie Uhrig, David Vandael, Andrea Marcantoni, Nina Dedic, Ainhoa Bilbao, Miriam A Vogt, Natalie Hirth, Laura Broccoli, Rick E Bernardi, Kai Schönig, Peter Gass, Dusan Bartsch, Rainer Spanagel, Jan M Deussing, Wolfgang H Sommer, Emilio Carbone, Anita C Hansson
It has previously been shown that the inhibition of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) decreases alcohol consumption, although the contribution of the central LTCC subtypes Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 remains unknown. Here, we determined changes in Cav1.2 (Cacna1c) and Cav1.3 (Cacna1d) mRNA and protein expression in alcohol dependent rats during protracted abstinence and naïve controls using in situ hybridization and Western Blot analysis. Functional validation was obtained by electrophysiological recordings of calcium currents in dissociated hippocampal pyramidal neurons...
December 1, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905390/-pr%C3%B0-gnosis-of-motor-function-recovery-in-ischemic-stroke-using-diffusion-tensor-mri
#12
M Yu Maksimova, T A Popova, R N Konovalov
AIM: To identify factors of motor recovery in ischemic stroke (IS) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients with IS were studied within 1-2, 7-8, 14-15, 20-21 days after stroke. The fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the pyramidal tract were measured in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncle and pons. Relative values of FA (rFA) ratio (rFA=FA affected side/FA unaffected side) were assessed as well...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905090/marker-assisted-breeding-of-the-rice-restorer-line-wanhui-6725-for-disease-resistance-submergence-tolerance-and-aromatic-fragrance
#13
Yanchang Luo, Tingchen Ma, Aifang Zhang, Kar Hui Ong, Zefu Li, Jianbo Yang, Zhongchao Yin
BACKGROUND: Rice is a staple food crop in the world. With the increase in world population and economic development, farmers need to produce more rice in limited field. However, the rice production is frequently affected by biotic and abiotic stresses. The use of natural disease resistance and stress tolerance through genetic breeding is the most efficient and economical way to combat or acclimate to these stresses. In addition, rice with aromatic fragrance can significantly increase market value for its good grain quality...
December 2016: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905023/distinct-cortical-and-sub-cortical-neurogenic-domains-for-gabaergic-interneuron-precursor-transcription-factors-nkx2-1-olig2-and-coup-tfii-in-early-fetal-human-telencephalon
#14
Ayman Alzu'bi, Susan Lindsay, Janet Kerwin, Shi Jie Looi, Fareha Khalil, Gavin J Clowry
The extent of similarities and differences between cortical GABAergic interneuron generation in rodent and primate telencephalon remains contentious. We examined expression of three interneuron precursor transcription factors, alongside other markers, using immunohistochemistry on 8-12 post-conceptional weeks (PCW) human telencephalon sections. NKX2.1, OLIG2, and COUP-TFII expression occupied distinct (although overlapping) neurogenic domains which extended into the cortex and revealed three CGE compartments: lateral, medial, and ventral...
November 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905022/neurophysiology-of-space-travel-energetic-solar-particles-cause-cell-type-specific-plasticity-of-neurotransmission
#15
Sang-Hun Lee, Barna Dudok, Vipan K Parihar, Kwang-Mook Jung, Miklós Zöldi, Young-Jin Kang, Mattia Maroso, Allyson L Alexander, Gregory A Nelson, Daniele Piomelli, István Katona, Charles L Limoli, Ivan Soltesz
In the not too distant future, humankind will embark on one of its greatest adventures, the travel to distant planets. However, deep space travel is associated with an inevitable exposure to radiation fields. Space-relevant doses of protons elicit persistent disruptions in cognition and neuronal structure. However, whether space-relevant irradiation alters neurotransmission is unknown. Within the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for cognition, perisomatic inhibitory control of pyramidal cells (PCs) is supplied by two distinct cell types, the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1)-expressing basket cells (CB1BCs) and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons (PVINs)...
November 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903188/the-role-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-for-gamma-knife-thalamotomy-planning
#16
João Gabriel Ribeiro Gomes, Alessandra Augusta Gorgulho, Amanda de Oliveira López, Crystian Wilian Chagas Saraiva, Lucas Petri Damiani, Anderson Martins Pássaro, João Victor Salvajoli, Ludmila de Oliveira Siqueira, Bernardo Peres Salvajoli, Antônio Afonso Ferreira De Salles
OBJECTIVE The role of tractography in Gamma Knife thalamotomy (GK-T) planning is still unclear. Pyramidal tractography might reduce the risk of radiation injury to the pyramidal tract and reduce motor complications. METHODS In this study, the ventralis intermedius nucleus (VIM) targets of 20 patients were bilaterally defined using Iplannet Stereotaxy Software, according to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) line and considering the localization of the pyramidal tract. The 40 targets and tractography were transferred as objects to the GammaPlan Treatment Planning System (GP-TPS)...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900944/amoxicillin-a-potential-epileptogenic-drug
#17
João Raposo, Rute Teotónio, Conceição Bento, Francisco Sales
Beta-lactams are known to cause a wide spectrum of neurotoxic manifestations including epileptic seizures. The neurotoxicity of penicillin was first reported in 1945 by Johnson and Walker and is believed to exert an inhibitory effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid transmission of cortical pyramidal cells, due to its beta-lactam ring structure. Epileptogenicity is also a feature of the semisynthetic beta-lactams including aminopenicillins. In this report, we present a patient with a recurrent history of discrete body twitching/jerks of epileptic nature in the context of amoxicillin exposure...
November 29, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898029/data-driven-multiresolution-camera-using-the-foveal-adaptive-pyramid
#18
Martin González, Antonio Sánchez-Pedraza, Rebeca Marfil, Juan A Rodríguez, Antonio Bandera
There exist image processing applications, such as tracking or pattern recognition, that are not necessarily precise enough to maintain the same resolution across the whole image sensor. In fact, they must only keep it as high as possible in a relatively small region, but covering a wide field of view. This is the aim of foveal vision systems. Briefly, they propose to sense a large field of view at a spatially-variant resolution: one relatively small region, the fovea, is mapped at a high resolution, while the rest of the image is captured at a lower resolution...
November 26, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897993/the-design-and-characterization-of-a-flexible-tactile-sensing-array-for-robot-skin
#19
Zhangping Ji, Hui Zhu, Huicong Liu, Nan Liu, Tao Chen, Zhan Yang, Lining Sun
In this study, a flexible tactile sensing array based on a capacitive mechanism was designed, fabricated, and characterized for sensitive robot skin. A device with 8 × 8 sensing units was composed of top and bottom flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrates with copper (Cu) electrodes, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) dielectric layer, and a bump contact layer. Four types of microstructures (i.e., pyramids and V-shape grooves) atop a PDMS dielectric layer were well-designed and fabricated to enhance tactile sensitivity...
November 25, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897969/satb2-determines-mirna-expression-and-long-term-memory-in-the-adult-central-nervous-system
#20
Clemens Jaitner, Chethan Reddy, Andreas Abentung, Nigel Whittle, Dietmar Rieder, Andrea Delekate, Martin Korte, Gaurav Jain, Andre Fischer, Farahnaz Sananbenesi, Isabella Cera, Nicolas Singewald, Georg Dechant, Galina Apostolova
SATB2 is a risk locus for schizophrenia and encodes a DNA-binding protein that regulates higher-order chromatin configuration. In the adult brain Satb2 is almost exclusively expressed in pyramidal neurons of two brain regions important for memory formation, the cerebral cortex and the CA1-hippocampal field. Here we show that Satb2 is required for key hippocampal functions since deletion of Satb2 from the adult mouse forebrain prevents the stabilization of synaptic long-term potentiation and markedly impairs long-term fear and object discrimination memory...
November 29, 2016: ELife
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