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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782905/pathology-of-nnos-expressing-gabaergic-neurons-in-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Seungho Choi, Je-Seong Won, Steven L Carroll, Balasubramaniam Annamalai, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that is often accompanied by mood and emotional disturbances and seizures. There is growing body of evidence that neurons expressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in regulation of cognition, mood, and emotion as well as seizure susceptibility, but participation of GABAergic neuronal pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not understood well at present. Here, we report that transgenic mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein Swedish-Deutch-Iowa mutant (APPSweDI ) exhibit early loss of neurons expressing GAD67, a GABA synthesizing enzyme, in advance to the loss of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 region...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781223/delayed-injury-of-hippocampal-interneurons-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-and-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-a-murine-model
#2
Raul Chavez-Valdez, Paul Emerson, Janasha Goffigan-Holmes, Alfredo Kirkwood, Lee J Martin, Frances J Northington
Delayed hippocampal injury and memory impairments follow neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) despite the use of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Death of hippocampal pyramidal cells occurs acutely after HI, but characterization of delayed cell death and injury of interneurons (INs) is unknown. We hypothesize that injury of INs after HI is: i) asynchronous to that of pyramidal cells, ii) independent of injury severity, and iii) unresponsive to TH. HI was induced in C57BL6 mice at p10 with unilateral right carotid ligation and 45 min of hypoxia (FiO2 =0...
May 21, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781151/facile-separation-spectroscopic-identification-and-electrochemical-properties-of-higher-trifluoromethylated-derivatives-of-the-70-fullerene
#3
Maria P Kosaya, Alexey V Rybalchenko, Natalia S Lukonina, Olga N Mazaleva, Ilya N Ioffe, Vitaliy Yu Markov, Sergey I Troyanov, Lev N Sidorov, Nadezhda B Tamm, Alexey A Goryunkov
We survey structure and electronic properties of the family of higher trifluoromethylated C70(CF3)n molecules with n=14, 16, 18, and 20. Twenty two available compounds, of which thirteen are newly obtained and characterized, demonstrate broad diversity of π-system topologies, having enabled us to study the interplay between the CF3 addition pattern and the electronic properties. UV-vis spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric studies demonstrate importance of the exact addition pattern rather than the plain number of addends...
May 20, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780932/case-series-pyramidal-cataracts-intact-irides-and-nystagmus-from-three-novel-pax6-mutations
#4
Bharesh K Chauhan, Anagha Medsinge, Matthew P Baumgartner, Hannah L Scanga, Smaragda Kamakari, Eva Gajdosova, Carlos J Camacho, Ken K Nischal
Purpose: To investigate the association between novel PAX6 mutations to bilateral anterior pyramidal congenital cataracts (APyC), complete and intact irides, and nystagmus. Observations: This is a retrospective observational case series in a multi-center setting with genetic testing. Three female patients were diagnosed with bilateral APyC, intact irides and nystagmus. Genetic testing identified the three patients had novel missense mutations in PAX6 - c.128C > T; p...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780316/resonance-analysis-as-a-tool-for-characterizing-functional-division-of-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons
#5
Melvin A Felton, Alfred B Yu, David L Boothe, Kelvin S Oie, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Evidence suggests that layer 5 pyramidal neurons can be divided into functional zones with unique afferent connectivity and membrane characteristics that allow for post-synaptic integration of feedforward and feedback inputs. To assess the existence of these zones and their interaction, we characterized the resonance properties of a biophysically-realistic compartmental model of a neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neuron. Consistent with recently published theoretical and empirical findings, our model was configured to have a "hot zone" in distal apical dendrite and apical tuft where both high- and low-threshold Ca2+ ionic conductances had densities 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than anywhere else in the apical dendrite...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779963/action-potential-initiation-propagation-and-cortical-invasion-in-the-hyperdirect-pathway-during-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation
#6
Ross W Anderson, AmirAli Farokhniaee, Kabilar Gunalan, Bryan Howell, Cameron C McIntyre
BACKGROUND: High frequency (∼130 Hz) deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic region is an established clinical therapy for the treatment of late stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Direct modulation of the hyperdirect pathway, defined as cortical layer V pyramidal neurons that send an axon collateral to the subthalamic nucleus (STN), has emerged as a possible component of the therapeutic mechanisms. However, numerous questions remain to be addressed on the basic biophysics of hyperdirect pathway stimulation...
May 12, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779233/long-term-high-intensity-sound-stimulation-inhibits-h-current-i-h-in-ca1-pyramidal-neurons
#7
A O S Cunha, C C Ceballos, J L de Deus, R M Leão
Afferent neurotransmission to hippocampal pyramidal cells can lead to long-term changes to their intrinsic membrane properties and affect many ion currents. One of the most plastic neuronal currents is the hyperpolarization activated cationic current (Ih ), which changes in CA1 pyramidal cells in response to many types of physiological and pathological processes, including auditory stimulation. Recently we demonstrated that long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat hippocampal Schaffer-CA1 synapses is depressed by high-intensity sound stimulation...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778899/dopamine-loss-alters-the-hippocampus-nucleus-accumbens-synaptic-transmission-in-the-tg2576-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Alberto Cordella, Paraskevi Krashia, Annalisa Nobili, Annabella Pignataro, Livia La Barbera, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Alessandro Valzania, Flavio Keller, Martine Ammassari-Teule, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Nicola Berretta, Marcello D'Amelio
The functional loop involving the ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal hippocampus and nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a pivotal role in the formation of spatial memory and persistent memory traces. In particular, the dopaminergic innervation from the VTA to the hippocampus is critical for hippocampal-related memory function and alterations in the midbrain dopaminergic system are frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD), contributing to age-related decline in memory and non-cognitive functions. However, much less is known about the hippocampus-NAc connectivity in AD...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778809/effects-of-propofol-on-ipscs-in-ca1-and-dentate-gyrus-cells-of-rat-hippocampus-propofol-effects-on-hippocampal-cells-ipscs
#9
Masanori Ishiguro, Suguru Kobayashi, Kiyoji Matsuyama, Takashi Nagamine
Propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol) is one of the most popular intravenous anesthetic agents. In this study, we compared the effects of propofol on inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) induced by single and paired electrical stimulations in CA1 pyramidal cells (CA1-PCs) and dentate gyrus granule cells (DG-GCs) in rat hippocampal slices using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. In the absence of propofol, the amplitude of evoked IPSC by single stimulation and decay time constants were stable in both CA1-PCs and DG-GCs for 30 min...
May 17, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778761/preferential-stabilization-of-newly-formed-dendritic-spines-in-motor-cortex-during-manual-skill-learning-predicts-performance-gains-but-not-memory-endurance
#10
Taylor A Clark, Min Fu, Andrew K Dunn, Yi Zuo, Theresa A Jones
Previous findings that skill learning is associated with the formation and preferential stabilization of new dendritic spines in cortex have raised the possibility that this preferential stabilization is a mechanism for lasting skill memory. We investigated this possibility in adult mice using in vivo two-photon imaging to monitor spine dynamics on superficial apical dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons in motor cortex during manual skill learning. Spine formation increased over the first 3 days of training on a skilled reaching task, followed by increased spine elimination...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777731/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-2-is-required-for-ischemic-preconditioning-mediated-neuroprotection-in-the-hippocampus-following-a-subsequent-longer-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#11
Jae-Chul Lee, Chan Woo Park, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, Hyang-Ah Lee, Young-Myeong Kim, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Jeong Hwi Cho, Hyun-Jin Tae, In Koo Hwang, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Il Jun Kang
Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in neuronal damage in response to cerebral ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) provides neuroprotection against a subsequent severer or longer transient ischemia by ischemic tolerance. Here, we focused on the role of TNF-α in IPC-mediated neuroprotection against neuronal death following a subsequent longer transient cerebral ischemia (TCI). Gerbils used in this study were randomly assigned to eight groups; sham group, TCI operated group, IPC plus (+) sham group, IPC + TCI operated group, sham + etanercept (an inhibitor of TNF-a) group, TCI + etanercept group, IPC + sham + etanercept group, and IPC + TCI + etanercept group...
May 16, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775702/abnormal-sleep-architecture-and-hippocampal-circuit-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#12
Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775450/-congenital-megacalycosis-in-a-girl-with-unilateral-renal-agenesis
#13
Agnieszka Szmigielska, Grażyna Krzemień, Anna Zacharzewska, Teresa Dudek-Warchoł, Stanisław Warchoł
Renal agenesis occurs in pediatric population with the incidence 1:500- 2000 children. It is more often diagnosed in boys and on the left side of the body. Renal agenesis may be isolated or it may be a part of complex malformation syndrome. Megacalycosis is a very rare anomaly of urinary tract associated with abnormal structure of the kidney pyramids. AIM: The aim of the study was to present for the first time in the medical literature the case of a girl with unilateral renal agenesis and megacalycosis...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775168/dysphagia-in-supratentorial-recent-small-subcortical-infarcts-results-from-bilateral-pyramidal-tract-damage
#14
Simon Fandler, Thomas Gattringer, Daniela Pinter, Lukas Pirpamer, Florian Borsodi, Sebastian Eppinger, Kurt Niederkorn, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas
Background Dysphagia occurs in up to 20% of patients with a recent small subcortical infarct, even when excluding brainstem infarcts. Aim To examine the impact of lesion topography and concomitant cerebrovascular lesions on the occurrence of dysphagia in patients with a single supratentorial recent small subcortical infarct. Methods We retrospectively identified all inpatients with magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed supratentorial recent small subcortical infarcts over a five-year period. Dysphagia was determined by speech-language therapists...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772711/biomimetic-superhydrophobic-hollowed-out-pyramid-surface-based-on-self-assembly
#15
Weipeng Luo, Bin Yu, Dingbang Xiao, Meng Zhang, Xuezhong Wu, Guoxi Li
In this paper, we present a periodic hollowed-out pyramid microstructure with excellent superhydrophobicity. In our approach, T-topping pillars and capillary-induced self-assembly methods were combined with the photolithography process to fabricate a hollowed-out pyramid structure. First, a wideband ultraviolet source without a filter was used to fabricate the T-topping pillars during the exposure process; then, the evaporation-induced assembly collapsed the pillars and formed the hollowed-out pyramid structure...
May 16, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771912/a-multi-focus-image-fusion-method-via-region-mosaicking-on-laplacian-pyramids
#16
Liang Kou, Liguo Zhang, Kejia Zhang, Jianguo Sun, Qilong Han, Zilong Jin
In this paper, a method named Region Mosaicking on Laplacian Pyramids (RMLP) is proposed to fuse multi-focus images that is captured by microscope. First, the Sum-Modified-Laplacian is applied to measure the focus of multi-focus images. Then the density-based region growing algorithm is utilized to segment the focused region mask of each image. Finally, the mask is decomposed into a mask pyramid to supervise region mosaicking on a Laplacian pyramid. The region level pyramid keeps more original information than the pixel level...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771287/term-or-preterm-cesarean-section-delivery-does-not-lead-to-long-term-detrimental-consequences-in-mice
#17
Morgane Chiesa, Damien Guimond, Roman Tyzio, Alexandre Pons-Bennaceur, Natalia Lozovaya, Nail Burnashev, Diana C Ferrari, Yehezkel Ben-Ari
Epidemiological studies have provided contradictory data on the deleterious sequels of cesarean section (C-section) delivery and their links with developmental brain disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorders. To gain better insight on these issues, we have now compared physiological, morphological, and behavioral parameters in vaginal, term, and preterm C-section delivered mice. We report that C-section delivery does not lead to long-term behavioral alterations though preterm C-section delivery modifies communicative behaviors in pups...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768854/theoretical-study-for-characteristic-surface-morphologies-fabricated-by-anisotropic-chemical-etching
#18
Kun-Dar Li, Tsung-Lung Chang, Jin-Ru Miao
The technique of the anisotropic wet chemical etching had turned into one of the widely used processes for manufacturing the functional materials in microelectromechanical systems. To better understand the issues of growth mechanisms for the characteristic surface morphologies during an anisotropic chemical etching, in this study the formation and evolution of surface structures were investigated by numerical simulation methods. A chemical etching model was established on the basis of chemical reaction and atomic diffusion...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768361/a-novel-kiaa0196-mutation-in-a-chinese-patient-with-spastic-paraplegia-8-a-case-report
#19
Limin Ma, Yingying Shi, Zhongcan Chen, Shujian Li, Weiwei Qin, Jiewen Zhang
RATIONALE: We report a case of Spastic paraplegia 8 (SPG8) with a novel mutation of KIAA0196 gene. PATIENTS CONCERNS: A 12-year-old boy presented as ankle sprained, lower limb stiffness, abnormal gait since he was 5 years old. DIAGNOSES: The next generation sequence showed a novel c.1128delG (p.L376fs) mutation in KIAA0196 gene, the electromyography showed the pyramidal tract conduction dysfunction and deep sensory conduction abnormalities of lower limbs without motor neuron damage...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768201/activation-of-ephb2-forward-signaling-enhances-memory-consolidation
#20
Jessica M Alapin, Monica Dines, Maria Vassiliev, Tal Tamir, Alon Ram, Clifford Locke, Ji Yu, Raphael Lamprecht
EphB2 is involved in enhancing synaptic transmission and gene expression. To explore the roles of EphB2 in memory formation and enhancement, we used a photoactivatable EphB2 (optoEphB2) to activate EphB2 forward signaling in pyramidal neurons in lateral amygdala (LA). Photoactivation of optoEphB2 during fear conditioning, but not minutes afterward, enhanced long-term, but not short-term, auditory fear conditioning. Photoactivation of optoEphB2 during fear conditioning led to activation of the cAMP/Ca2+ responsive element binding (CREB) protein...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
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