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Salience Network

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227771/tracking-intrinsic-connectivity-brain-network-features-during-successive-pseudo-resting-states-and-interoceptive-task-fmri
#1
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Advanced multivariate analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contras have revealed that the human brain organizes its activities into multiple intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Several fMRI studies have evaluated the modulations of these networks during different cognitive or emotional tasks using blind source separation techniques particularly the independent component analysis (ICA). In this exploratory study, we applied ICA methodology to examine ICN modulations under different interoceptive conditions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227769/identifying-the-effects-of-visceral-interoception-on-human-brain-connectome-a-multivariate-analysis-of-covariance-of-fmri-data
#2
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Sources of variations in the neural circuitry of the human brain and interrelationship between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are still a matter of debate and ongoing research. Here, we applied a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) based on high-dimensional independent component analysis (ICA) to identify the effects of interoception and related variables on human brain connectome. Fifteen healthy right-handed subjects (all females, age range 21 - 48 years; mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.7 years) underwent a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that included continuous intravesical saline infusion and drainage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227749/reconstructing-multivariate-causal-structure-between-functional-brain-networks-through-a-laguerre-volterra-based-granger-causality-approach
#3
Andrea Duggento, Gaetano Valenza, Luca Passamonti, Maria Guerrisi, Riccardo Barbieri, Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Gaetano Valenza, Luca Passamonti, Maria Guerrisi, Riccardo Barbieri, Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Nicola Toschi, Maria Guerrisi, Luca Passamonti, Riccardo Barbieri, Gaetano Valenza
Classical multivariate approaches based on Granger causality (GC) which estimate functional connectivity in the brain are almost exclusively based on autoregressive models. Nevertheless, information available from past samples is limited due to both signal autocorrelation and necessarily low model orders. Consequently, multiple time-scales interactions are usually unaccounted for. To overcome these limitations, in this study we propose the use of discrete-time orthogonal Laguerre basis functions within a Wiener-Volterra decomposition of the BOLD signals to perform effective GC assessments of brain functional connectivity...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223812/resting-state-functional-connectivity-changes-within-the-default-mode-network-and-the-salience-network-after-antipsychotic-treatment-in-early-phase-schizophrenia
#4
Yingchan Wang, Weijun Tang, Xiaoduo Fan, Jianye Zhang, Daoying Geng, Kaida Jiang, Dianming Zhu, Zhenhua Song, Zeping Xiao, Dengtang Liu
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (FC), particularly in the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN), has been reported in schizophrenia, but little is known about the effects of antipsychotics on these networks. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of atypical antipsychotics on DMN and SN and the relationship between these effects and symptom improvement in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 33 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and treated with antipsychotics at Shanghai Mental Health Center...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220826/different-brain-structures-associated-with-artistic-and-scientific-creativity-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#5
Baoguo Shi, Xiaoqing Cao, Qunlin Chen, Kaixiang Zhuang, Jiang Qiu
Creativity is the ability to produce original and valuable ideas or behaviors. In real life, artistic and scientific creativity promoted the development of human civilization; however, to date, no studies have systematically investigated differences in the brain structures responsible for artistic and scientific creativity in a large sample. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study identified differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV) across the brain between artistic and scientific creativity (assessed by the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) in 356 young, healthy subjects...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195139/altered-insula-connectivity-under-mdma
#6
Ishan C Walpola, Timothy Nest, Leor Roseman, David Erritzoe, Amanda Feilding, David J Nutt, Robin L Carhart-Harris
Recent work with noninvasive human brain imaging has started to investigate the effects of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on large-scale patterns of brain activity. MDMA, a potent monoamine-releaser with particularly pronounced serotonin- releasing properties, has unique subjective effects that include: marked positive mood, pleasant/unusual bodily sensations and pro-social, empathic feelings. However, the neurobiological basis for these effects is not properly understood, and the present analysis sought to address this knowledge gap...
February 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193692/goal-directed-and-habit-like-modulations-of-stimulus-processing-during-reinforcement-learning
#7
David Luque, Tom Beesley, Richard Morris, Bradley N Jack, Oren Griffiths, Thomas Whitford, Mike E Le Pelley
Recent research has shown that perceptual processing of stimuli previously associated with high-value rewards is automatically prioritized, even when rewards are no longer available. It has been hypothesized that such reward-related modulation of stimulus salience is conceptually similar to an 'attentional habit'. Recording event-related potentials in humans during a reinforcement learning task, we show strong evidence in favor of this hypothesis. Resistance to outcome devaluation (the defining feature of a habit) was shown by the stimulus-locked P1 component, reflecting activity in the extrastriate visual cortex...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193583/nicotinic-modulation-of-salience-network-connectivity-and-centrality-in-schizophrenia
#8
Jason Smucny, Korey P Wylie, Eugene Kronberg, Kristina T Legget, Jason R Tregellas
Although functional abnormalities of the salience network are associated with schizophrenia, the acute effects of nicotine on its function and network dynamics during the resting state in patients are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of a 7 mg nicotine patch (vs. placebo) on salience network connectivity were examined in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy subjects. We hypothesized abnormal connectivity between the salience network and other major networks (e.g. executive network) in patients under placebo administration and amelioration of this difference after nicotine...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191693/gene-expression-profiles-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-correlate-with-salience-network-activity-in-chronic-visceral-pain-a-pilot-study
#9
A Gupta, S Cole, J S Labus, S Joshi, T J Nguyen, L A Kilpatrick, K Tillisch, B D Naliboff, L Chang, E A Mayer
BACKGROUND: Distinct gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) consistent with increased sympathetic nervous system activity have been described in different populations under chronic stress. Neuroinflammatory brain changes, possibly related to the migration of primed monocytes to the brain, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic pain. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive gastrointestinal disorder associated with altered brain-gut interactions and increased sympathetic/vagal tone and anxiety...
February 12, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176662/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-allele-relateted-alterations-in-hippocampal-connectivity-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease-support-memory-performance
#10
Matteo De Marco, Annamaria Vallelunga, Francesca Meneghello, Susheel Varma, Alejandro Frangi, Annalena Venneri
BACKGROUND: Whether the presence of the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele modulates hippocampal connectivity networks in abnormal ageing has yet to be fully clarified. OBJECTIVE: Allele-dependent differences in this pattern of functional connectivity were investigated in patients with very mild neurodegeneration of the Alzheimer's type, carriers and non-carriers of the ε4 allele. METHOD: A seed-based connectivity approach was used. The two groups were similar in demographics, volumetric measures of brain-structure, and cognitive profiles...
February 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176434/network-level-assessment-of-reward-related-activation-in-patients-with-adhd-and-healthy-individuals
#11
Daniel von Rhein, Christian F Beckmann, Barbara Franke, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman, Marjolein Luman, Stephen V Faraone, Roshan Cools, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
INTRODUCTION: Reward processing is a key aspect of cognitive control processes, putatively instantiated by mesolimbic and mesocortical brain circuits. Deficient signaling within these circuits has been associated with psychopathology. We applied a network discovery approach to assess specific functional networks associated with reward processing in participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: To describe task-related processes in terms of integrated functional networks, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to task response maps of 60 healthy participants who performed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task...
February 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174127/altered-functional-connectivity-in-default-mode-network-in-internet-gaming-disorder-influence-of-childhood-adhd
#12
Deokjong Lee, Junghan Lee, Jung Eun Lee, Young-Chul Jung
OBJECTIVE: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a type of behavioral addiction characterized by abnormal executive control, leading to loss of control over excessive gaming. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common comorbid disorders in IGD, involving delayed development of the executive control system, which could predispose individuals to gaming addiction. We investigated the influence of childhood ADHD on neural network features of IGD. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis was performed on 44 young, male IGD subjects with and without childhood ADHD and 19 age-matched, healthy male controls...
February 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167076/brain-network-alterations-in-the-inflammatory-soup-animal-model-of-migraine
#13
Lino Becerra, James Bishop, Gabi Barmettler, Vanessa Kainz, Rami Burstein, David Borsook
Advances in our understanding of the human pain experience have shifted much of the focus of pain research from the periphery to the brain. Current hypotheses suggest that the progression of migraine depends on abnormal functioning of neurons in multiple brain regions. Accordingly, we sought to capture functional brain changes induced by the application of an inflammatory cocktail known as inflammatory soup (IS), to the dura mater across multiple brain networks. Specifically, we aimed to determine whether IS alters additional neural networks indirectly related to the primary nociceptive pathways via the spinal cord to the thalamus and cortex...
February 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162895/the-brain-basis-for-misophonia
#14
Sukhbinder Kumar, Olana Tansley-Hancock, William Sedley, Joel S Winston, Martina F Callaghan, Micah Allen, Thomas E Cope, Phillip E Gander, Doris-Eva Bamiou, Timothy D Griffiths
Misophonia is an affective sound-processing disorder characterized by the experience of strong negative emotions (anger and anxiety) in response to everyday sounds, such as those generated by other people eating, drinking, chewing, and breathing [1-8]. The commonplace nature of these sounds (often referred to as "trigger sounds") makes misophonia a devastating disorder for sufferers and their families, and yet nothing is known about the underlying mechanism. Using functional and structural MRI coupled with physiological measurements, we demonstrate that misophonic subjects show specific trigger-sound-related responses in brain and body...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160660/altered-default-mode-fronto-parietal-and-salience-networks-in-adolescents-with-internet-addiction
#15
Lubin Wang, Hui Shen, Yu Lei, Ling-Li Zeng, Fenglin Cao, Linyan Su, Zheng Yang, Shuqiao Yao, Dewen Hu
Internet addiction (IA) is a condition characterized by loss of control over Internet use, leading to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to identify IA-related changes in specific brain regions and connections. However, whether and how the interactions within and between the large-scale brain networks are disrupted in individuals with IA remain largely unexplored. Using group independent component analysis, we extracted five intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) from the resting-state fMRI data of 26 adolescents with IA and 43 controls, including the anterior and posterior default mode network (DMN), left and right fronto-parietal network (FPN), and salience network (SN)...
January 15, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130005/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia-patients-with-and-without-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-a-preliminary-report
#16
Xiao Chang, Guusje Collin, Yibin Xi, Longbiao Cui, Lianne H Scholtens, Iris E Sommer, Huaning Wang, Hong Yin, René S Kahn, Martijn P van den Heuvel
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a cardinal feature of schizophrenia that has been associated with activation in language processing areas, in concert with higher-order cognitive brain networks. It remains to be determined whether, and if so how, the functional dynamics between these brain regions contributes to the emergence of AVH. The current study recruited 36 first-episode medication-naïve schizophrenia patients, including 18 patients with AVH, 18 patients free of AVH and 18 controls matched on age, gender and level of education...
January 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130003/deep-dreaming-aberrant-salience-and-psychosis-connecting-the-dots-by-artificial-neural-networks
#17
Matcheri S Keshavan, Mukund Sudarshan
Why some individuals, when presented with unstructured sensory inputs, develop altered perceptions not based in reality, is not well understood. Machine learning approaches can potentially help us understand how the brain normally interprets sensory inputs. Artificial neural networks (ANN) progressively extract higher and higher-level features of sensory input and identify the nature of an object based on a priori information. However, some ANNs which use algorithms such as the "deep-dreaming" developed by Google, allow the network to over-emphasize some objects it "thinks" it recognizes in those areas, and iteratively enhance such outputs leading to representations that appear farther and farther from "reality"...
January 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125578/functional-connectivity-anomalies-in-adolescents-with-psychotic-symptoms
#18
Francesco Amico, Erik O'Hanlon, Dominik Kraft, Viola Oertel-Knöchel, Mary Clarke, Ian Kelleher, Niamh Higgins, Helen Coughlan, Daniel Creegan, Mark Heneghan, Emmet Power, Lucy Power, Jessica Ryan, Thomas Frodl, Mary Cannon
BACKGROUND: Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research suggests that, prior to the onset of psychosis, high risk youths already exhibit brain abnormalities similar to those present in patients with schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to describe the functional organization of endogenous activation in young adolescents who report auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in view of the "distributed network" hypothesis of psychosis. We recruited 20 young people aged 13-16 years who reported AVHs and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender and handedness from local schools...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117515/multimodal-investigation-of-triple-network-connectivity-in-patients-with-22q11ds-and-association-with-executive-functions
#19
Maria C Padula, Marie Schaer, Elisa Scariati, Johanna Maeder, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Large-scale brain networks play a prominent role in cognitive abilities and their activity is impaired in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at high risk of developing schizophrenia and present similar cognitive impairments, including executive functions deficits. Thus, 22q11DS represents a model for the study of neural biomarkers associated with schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated structural and functional connectivity within and between the Default Mode (DMN), the Central Executive (CEN), and the Saliency network (SN) in 22q11DS using resting-state fMRI and DTI...
January 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116239/characterization-of-functional-brain-activity-and-connectivity-using-eeg-and-fmri-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#20
Michelle Case, Huishi Zhang, John Mundahl, Yvonne Datta, Stephen Nelson, Kalpna Gupta, Bin He
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a red blood cell disorder that causes many complications including life-long pain. Treatment of pain remains challenging due to a poor understanding of the mechanisms and limitations to characterize and quantify pain. In the present study, we examined simultaneously recording functional MRI (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) to better understand neural connectivity as a consequence of chronic pain in SCD patients. We performed independent component analysis and seed-based connectivity on fMRI data...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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