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Salience Network

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820891/scene-text-detection-via-extremal-region-based-double-threshold-convolutional-network-classification
#1
Wei Zhu, Jing Lou, Longtao Chen, Qingyuan Xia, Mingwu Ren
In this paper, we present a robust text detection approach in natural images which is based on region proposal mechanism. A powerful low-level detector named saliency enhanced-MSER extended from the widely-used MSER is proposed by incorporating saliency detection methods, which ensures a high recall rate. Given a natural image, character candidates are extracted from three channels in a perception-based illumination invariant color space by saliency-enhanced MSER algorithm. A discriminative convolutional neural network (CNN) is jointly trained with multi-level information including pixel-level and character-level information as character candidate classifier...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819132/treatment-associated-changes-of-functional-connectivity-of-midbrain-brainstem-nuclei-in-major-depressive-disorder
#2
Gerd Wagner, Feliberto de la Cruz, Stefanie Köhler, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies demonstrated an abnormally coordinated network functioning in Major Depression Disorder (MDD) during rest. The main monoamine-producing nuclei within midbrain/brainstem are functionally integrated within these specific networks. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of these nuclei in 45 MDD patients and differences between patients receiving two different classes of antidepressant drugs. Patients showed reduced RSFC from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and stronger RSFC to the left amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817710/excessive-use-of-wechat-social-interaction-and-locus-of-control-among-college-students-in-china
#3
Juan Hou, Yamikani Ndasauka, Yingying Jiang, Zi Ye, Ying Wang, Lizhuang Yang, Xiaoming Li, Yongjun Zhang, Liangjun Pang, Yan Kong, Fei Xu, Xiaochu Zhang
In China, the number of college students using mobile phone based messaging and social networking applications like WeChat is increasing rapidly. However, there has been minimal research into the addictive nature of these applications and the psychological characteristics associate with their excessive use. There is also no published scale available for assessing excessive use of WeChat and similar applications. In the current study, we collected data from 1,245 college students in China (715 females) and developed the WeChat Excessive Use Scale (WEUS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806707/deviant-functional-activation-and-connectivity-of-the-right-insula-are-associated-with-lack-of-awareness-of-episodic-memory-impairment-in-nonamnesic-alcoholism
#4
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Tilman Schulte, Matthew R Serventi, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
A disorder of metamemory, expressed as unawareness of mnemonic ability, is typically associated with the profound amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS). A similar but less severe type of limited awareness can also occur in non-KS alcoholism and is observed as an impairment in generating Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) predictions about future recognition performance. We previously found that FOK accuracy was selectively related to volumes of the insula in alcoholics involved in the present study. Unknown, however, are the neural substrates of unawareness of memory impairment in alcoholism...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798678/striatal-neuropeptides-enhance-selection-and-rejection-of-sequential-actions
#5
David Buxton, Enrico Bracci, Paul G Overton, Kevin Gurney
The striatum is the primary input nucleus for the basal ganglia, and receives glutamatergic afferents from the cortex. Under the hypothesis that basal ganglia perform action selection, these cortical afferents encode potential "action requests." Previous studies have suggested the striatum may utilize a mutually inhibitory network of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) to filter these requests so that only those of high salience are selected. However, the mechanisms enabling the striatum to perform clean, rapid switching between distinct actions that form part of a learned action sequence are still poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791789/acute-calming-effects-of-alcohol-are-associated-with-disruption-of-the-salience-network
#6
Stephanie M Gorka, K Luan Phan, Emma Childs
The mood-altering properties of alcohol are a key motivation for drinking, and people commonly report that they drink alcohol to alleviate stress or to relax. To date, the neural processes associated with the self-reported calming effects of alcohol are not well understood. Existing data imply that alcohol may target and disrupt activity within anterior insula (aINS) and amygdala-based neural networks, which are regions implicated in threat detection and anxious responding. The aims of the current study were (1) to examine the acute effect of alcohol upon functional connectivity within aINS and amygdala circuits and (2) to assess relationships between alcohol effects on functional connectivity and self-reported subjective mood...
August 9, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783763/mapping-altered-brain-connectivity-and-its-clinical-associations-in-adult-moyamoya-disease-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#7
Ken Kazumata, Khin Khin Tha, Haruto Uchino, Masaki Ito, Naoki Nakayama, Takeo Abumiya
Detection of subtle ischemic injuries in moyamoya disease may enable optimization of timing of revascularization surgery, and could potentially improve functional outcomes. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to study functional organization of the brain, but it remains unclear whether rs-fMRI could elucidate distinct characteristics in moyamoya disease. Here, we aimed to determine changes in a conventional rs-fMRI measure and analyze any associations with clinical symptoms and cerebral hemodynamics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774192/cortical-functional-connectivity-evident-after-birth-and-behavioral-inhibition-at-age-2
#8
Chad M Sylvester, Christopher D Smyser, Tara Smyser, Jeanette Kenley, Joseph J Ackerman, Joshua S Shimony, Steve E Petersen, Cynthia E Rogers
OBJECTIVE: The infant temperament behavioral inhibition is a potent risk factor for development of an anxiety disorder. It is difficult to predict risk for behavioral inhibition at birth, however, and the neural underpinnings are poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that neonatal functional connectivity of the ventral attention network is related to behavioral inhibition at age 2 years beyond sociodemographic and familial factors. This hypothesis is supported by the ventral attention network's role in attention to novelty, a key feature of behavioral inhibition...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771497/sinc-saliency-injected-neural-codes-for-representation-and-efficient-retrieval-of-medical-radiographs
#9
Jamil Ahmad, Muhammad Sajjad, Irfan Mehmood, Sung Wook Baik
Medical image collections contain a wealth of information which can assist radiologists and medical experts in diagnosis and disease detection for making well-informed decisions. However, this objective can only be realized if efficient access is provided to semantically relevant cases from the ever-growing medical image repositories. In this paper, we present an efficient method for representing medical images by incorporating visual saliency and deep features obtained from a fine-tuned convolutional neural network (CNN) pre-trained on natural images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769748/mechanism-of-cerebralcare-granule%C3%A2-for-improving-cognitive-function-in-resting-state-brain-functional-networks-of-sub-healthy-subjects
#10
Jing Li, Hao Guo, Ling Ge, Long Cheng, Junjie Wang, Hong Li, Kerang Zhang, Jie Xiang, Junjie Chen, Hui Zhang, Yong Xu
Cerebralcare Granule® (CG), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to ameliorate cognitive impairment induced by ischemia or mental disorders. The ability of CG to improve health status and cognitive function has drawn researchers' attention, but the relevant brain circuits that underlie the ameliorative effects of CG remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of CG in ameliorating cognitive function in sub-healthy subjects using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768906/integration-of-homeostatic-signaling-and-food-reward-processing-in-the-human-brain
#11
Joe J Simon, Anne Wetzel, Maria Hamze Sinno, Mandy Skunde, Martin Bendszus, Hubert Preissl, Paul Enck, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: Food intake is guided by homeostatic needs and by the reward value of food, yet the exact relation between the two remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different metabolic states and hormonal satiety signaling on responses in neural reward networks. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task distinguishing between the anticipation and the receipt of either food- or monetary-related reward...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763777/structural-deficits-in-salience-network-regions-are-associated-with-increased-impulsivity-and-compulsivity-in-alcohol-dependence
#12
Erica N Grodin, Carlos R Cortes, Primavera A Spagnolo, Reza Momenan
BACKGROUND: Convergent preclinical and clinical evidence has linked the anterior insula to impulsivity and alcohol-associated compulsivity. The anterior insula is functionally connected to the anterior cingulate cortex, together comprising the major nodes of the salience network, which serves to signal salient events, including negative consequences. Clinical studies have found structural and functional alterations in the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortices of alcohol dependent individuals...
July 22, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762756/intranasal-oxytocin-selectively-modulates-large-scale-brain-networks-in-humans
#13
Katja Brodmann, Oliver Gruber, Roberto Goya-Maldonado
A growing body of evidence indicates that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) alters the neural correlates of socio-emotional and salience processing. Yet the effects of OT over important large-scale networks involved in these processes, such as the default mode (DM), ventral attention (VA) and cingulo-opercular (CO) networks, remain unknown. Therefore, we conducted a placebo-controlled crossover study with intranasal 24IU OT in 38 healthy male subjects using a resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) paradigm to investigate its impact over these three candidate networks...
August 1, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761079/alterations-in-resting-state-connectivity-along-the-autism-trait-continuum-a-twin-study
#14
J Neufeld, R Kuja-Halkola, K Mevel, É Cauvet, P Fransson, S Bölte
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been found to be associated with alterations in resting state (RS) functional connectivity, including areas forming the default mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN). However, insufficient control for confounding genetic and environmental influences and other methodological issues limit the generalizability of previous findings. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that ASD might be marked by early hyper-connectivity followed by later hypo-connectivity. To date, only a few studies have explicitly tested age-related influences on RS connectivity alterations in ASD...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756109/altered-coupling-of-default-mode-executive-control-and-salience-networks-in-internet-gaming-disorder
#15
J T Zhang, S-S Ma, C-G Yan, S Zhang, L Liu, L-J Wang, B Liu, Y-W Yao, Y-H Yang, X-Y Fang
BACKGROUND: Recently, a triple-network model suggested the abnormal interactions between the executive-control network (ECN), default-mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN) are important characteristics of addiction, in which the SN plays a critical role in allocating attentional resources toward the ECN and DMN. Although increasing studies have reported dysfunctions in these brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD), interactions between these networks, particularly in the context of the triple-network model, have not been investigated in IGD...
July 12, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747648/resting-state-brain-connectivity-changes-in-obese-women-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-a-longitudinal-study
#16
Gaia Olivo, Wei Zhou, Magnus Sundbom, Christina Zhukovsky, Pleunie Hogenkamp, Lamia Nikontovic, Julia Stark, Lyle Wiemerslage, Elna-Marie Larsson, Christian Benedict, Helgi B Schiöth
Bariatric surgery is an effective method to rapidly induce weight loss in severely obese people, however its impact on brain functional connectivity after longer periods of follow-up is yet to be assessed. We investigated changes in connectivity in 16 severely obese women one month before, one month after and one year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). 12 lean controls were also enrolled. Resting-state fMRI was acquired for all participants following an overnight fast and after a 260 kcal load...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743059/altered-connectivity-within-and-between-the-default-mode-central-executive-and-salience-networks-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Jie Fan, Mingtian Zhong, Jun Gan, Wanting Liu, Chaoyang Niu, Haiyan Liao, Hongchun Zhang, Jinyao Yi, Raymond C K Chan, Changlian Tan, Xiongzhao Zhu
BACKGROUND: Default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN) and salience network (SN) are the three most important intrinsic networks of the human brain. Recent studies emphasized the importance of the "triple-network model" which illustrated the interactions within and between DMN, CEN and SN in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. However, previous studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) just explored the altered connectivity within these networks while neglected the coupling between them...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741624/hormonal-cycle-and-contraceptive-effects-on-amygdala-and-salience-resting-state-networks-in-women-with-previous-affective-side-effects-on-the-pill
#18
Jonas Engman, Inger Sundström Poromaa, Lena Moby, Johan Wikström, Mats Fredrikson, Malin Gingnell
The mechanisms linking ovarian hormones to negative affect are poorly characterized, but important clues may come from the examination of the brain's intrinsic organization. Here, we studied the effects of both the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptives (OCs) on amygdala and salience network resting-state functional connectivity using a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled design. Hormone levels, depressive symptoms, and resting-state functional connectivity were measured in 35 healthy women (24...
June 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737256/insula-based-networks-in-professional-musicians-evidence-for-increased-functional-connectivity-during-resting-state-fmri
#19
Anna M Zamorano, Ignacio Cifre, Pedro Montoya, Inmaculada Riquelme, Boris Kleber
Despite considerable research on experience-dependent neuroplasticity in professional musicians, detailed understanding of an involvement of the insula is only now beginning to emerge. We investigated the effects of musical training on intrinsic insula-based connectivity in professional classical musicians relative to nonmusicians using resting-state functional MRI. Following a tripartite scheme of insula subdivisions, coactivation profiles were analyzed for the posterior, ventral anterior, and dorsal anterior insula in both hemispheres...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736312/resting-state-functional-connectivity-correlates-of-emotional-awareness
#20
Ryan Smith, Anna Alkozei, Jennifer Bao, Courtney Smith, Richard D Lane, William D S Killgore
Multiple neuroimaging studies have now linked emotional awareness (EA), as measured by the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), with activation in regions of neural networks associated with both conceptualization (i.e., default mode network [DMN] regions) and interoception (i.e., salience network [SN] regions) - consistent with the definition of EA as one's ability to appropriately recognize, conceptualize, and articulate the emotions of self and other in fine-grained, differentiated ways. However, no study has yet tested the hypothesis that greater LEAS scores are associated with greater resting state functional connectivity (FC) within these networks...
July 20, 2017: NeuroImage
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