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Salience Network

Gianina Toller, Jesse Brown, Marc Sollberger, Suzanne M Shdo, Laura Bouvet, Paul Sukhanov, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
Connectivity in intrinsically connected networks (ICNs) may predict individual differences in cognition and behavior. The drastic alterations in socioemotional awareness of patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are presumed to arise from changes in one such ICN, the salience network (SN). We examined how individual differences in SN connectivity are reflected in overt social behavior in healthy individuals and patients, both to provide neuroscientific insight into this key brain-behavior relationship, and to provide a practical tool to diagnose patients with early bvFTD...
February 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Xuming Liu, Jiyong Zheng, Bi-Xia Liu, Xi-Jian Dai
Primary insomnia (PIs) is highly prevalent and can lead to adverse socioeconomic impacts, but the underlying mechanism of its complex brain network impairment remains largely unknown. Functional studies are too few and diverse in methodology, which makes it difficult to glean general conclusions. To answer this question, we first used graph theory-based network analyse, together with seed-based functional connectivity approach, to characterize the topology architecture of whole-brain functional networks associated with PIs...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mateja Marić, Dražen Domijan
Huang and Pashler (2007) suggested that feature-based attention creates a special form of spatial representation, which is termed a Boolean map. It partitions the visual scene into two distinct and complementary regions: selected and not selected. Here, we developed a model of a recurrent competitive network that is capable of state-dependent computation. It selects multiple winning locations based on a joint top-down cue. We augmented a model of the WTA circuit that is based on linear-threshold units with two computational elements: dendritic non-linearity that acts on the excitatory units and activity-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission between excitatory and inhibitory units...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Elisabeth Kuhn, Ruth Haselmair, Heidemarie Pirker, Christian R Vogl
BACKGROUND: Food knowledge and consumption in the context of migration is an important topic in ethnobiological research. Little research is done on the process of how external factors impact food knowledge amongst migrants. Taking into account social organisation and power relations of food knowledge transmission and distribution of food knowledge, this study sheds light on how the accessibility of resources, the predominant cuisine in the host country and ethnic tourism influences the food knowledge tradition of Tyrolean migrants and their descendants in Treze Tílias...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Ling-Li Zeng, Huaning Wang, Panpan Hu, Bo Yang, Weidan Pu, Hui Shen, Xingui Chen, Zhening Liu, Hong Yin, Qingrong Tan, Kai Wang, Dewen Hu
BACKGROUND: A lack of a sufficiently large sample at single sites causes poor generalizability in automatic diagnosis classification of heterogeneous psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia based on brain imaging scans. Advanced deep learning methods may be capable of learning subtle hidden patterns from high dimensional imaging data, overcome potential site-related variation, and achieve reproducible cross-site classification. However, deep learning-based cross-site transfer classification, despite less imaging site-specificity and more generalizability of diagnostic models, has not been investigated in schizophrenia...
March 23, 2018: EBioMedicine
Chun-Hong Liu, Jing Guo, Shun-Li Lu, Li-Rong Tang, Jin Fan, Chuan-Yue Wang, Lihong Wang, Qing-Quan Liu, Cun-Zhi Liu
Background: Insomnia is one of the main symptom correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD), but the neural mechanisms underlying the multifaceted interplay between insomnia and depression are not fully understood. Materials and methods: Patients with MDD and high insomnia (MDD-HI, n  = 24), patients with MDD and low insomnia (MDD-LI, n  = 37), and healthy controls (HCs, n  = 51) were recruited to participate in the present study. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) during the resting state were compared among the three groups...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Daniela Cohen, Anat Perry, Naama Mayseless, Oded Kleinmintz, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
Personal space, defined as the distance individuals choose to maintain between themselves and others, is an indicator of affiliation and closeness. Most paradigms that measure personal space preferences involve explicit choice and therefore fail to examine the implicit aspects of such preferences. In the current study, we sought to investigate an implicit form of interpersonal space that is more closely related to real-life situations involving affiliation. We studied the effects of oxytocin (OT) on neural networks that involve affiliation and tested the impact on personal space preferences...
March 13, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sevdalina Kandilarova, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Stefan Kostianev, Karsten Specht
Depression has been associated with changes in both functional and effective connectivity of large scale brain networks, including the default mode network, executive network, and salience network. However, studies of effective connectivity by means of spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) are still rare and the interaction between the different resting state networks has not been investigated in detail. Thus, we aimed at exploring differences in effective connectivity among eight right hemisphere brain areas-anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), frontal eye field, anterior cingulate cortex, superior parietal lobe, amygdala, and hippocampus, between a group of healthy controls ( N  = 20) and medicated depressed patients ( N  = 20)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Davide Zanchi, Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, André Schmidt, Claudia Suenderhauf, Antoinette Depoorter, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, Bettina Karin Wölnerhanssen, Stefan Borgwardt
The present randomized double-blinded cross-over study aims to extensively study the neural correlates underpinning cognitive functions in healthy subjects after acute glucose and fructose administration, using an integrative multimodal neuroimaging approach. Five minutes after glucose, fructose, or placebo administration through a nasogastric tube, 12 participants underwent 3 complementary neuroimaging techniques: 2 task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequences to assess working memory (N-back) and response inhibition (Go/No-Go) and one resting state fMRI sequence to address the cognition-related fronto-parietal network (FPN) and salience network (SN)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Christiane S Rohr, Anish Arora, Ivy Y K Cho, Prayash Katlariwala, Dennis Dimond, Deborah Dewey, Signe Bray
Children acquire attention skills rapidly during early childhood as their brains undergo vast neural development. Attention is well studied in the adult brain, yet due to the challenges associated with scanning young children, investigations in early childhood are sparse. Here, we examined the relationship between age, attention and functional connectivity (FC) during passive viewing in multiple intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) in 60 typically developing girls between 4 and 7 years whose sustained, selective and executive attention skills were assessed...
March 20, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Yunlong Yu, Fuxian Liu
One of the challenging problems in understanding high-resolution remote sensing images is aerial scene classification. A well-designed feature representation method and classifier can improve classification accuracy. In this paper, we construct a new two-stream deep architecture for aerial scene classification. First, we use two pretrained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as feature extractor to learn deep features from the original aerial image and the processed aerial image through saliency detection, respectively...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Pavan Kumar Mallikarjun, Paris Alexandros Lalousis, Thomas Frederick Dunne, Kareen Heinze, Renate Lep Reniers, Matthew R Broome, Baldeep Farmah, Femi Oyebode, Stephen J Wood, Rachel Upthegrove
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) often lead to distress and functional disability, and are frequently associated with psychotic illness. Previously both state and trait magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of AVH have identified activity in brain regions involving auditory processing, language, memory and areas of default mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN). Current evidence is clouded by research mainly in participants on long-term medication, with chronic illness and by choice of seed regions made 'a priori'...
March 27, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Kristen K Ellard, Jared P Zimmerman, Navneet Kaur, Koene R A Van Dijk, Joshua L Roffman, Andrew A Nierenberg, Darin D Dougherty, Thilo Deckersbach, Joan A Camprodon
BACKGROUND: Patients with bipolar depression are characterized by dysregulation across the full spectrum of mood, differentiating them from patients with unipolar depression. The ability to switch neural resources among the default mode network, salience network, and executive control network (ECN) has been proposed as a key mechanism for adaptive mood regulation. The anterior insula is implicated in the modulation of functional network switching. Differential connectivity between anterior insula and functional networks may provide insights into pathophysiological differences between bipolar and unipolar mood disorders, with implications for diagnosis and treatment...
February 7, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Jennifer W Evans, Joanna Szczepanik, Nancy Brutsché, Lawrence T Park, Allison C Nugent, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: The symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) are rapidly alleviated by administration of a single dose of the glutamatergic modulator ketamine. However, few studies have investigated the potential sustained neural effects of this agent beyond immediate infusion. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effect of a single ketamine infusion on the resting state default mode network (DMN) at 2 and 10 days after a single ketamine infusion in unmedicated subjects with MDD as well as healthy control subjects (HCs)...
February 15, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Juha Salmi, Lars Nyberg, Matti Laine
The present meta-analytic study examined brain activation changes following working memory (WM) training, a form of cognitive training that has attracted considerable interest. Comparisons with perceptual-motor (PM) learning revealed that WM training engages domain-general large-scale networks for learning encompassing the dorsal attention and salience networks, sensory areas, and striatum. Also the dynamics of the training-induced brain activation changes within these networks showed a high overlap between WM and PM training...
March 21, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Giulia Sprugnoli, Elisa Tatti, Lucia Mencarelli, Francesco Neri, Davide Momi, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Simone Rossi, Alessandro Rossi
Coping abilities represent the individual set of mental and behavioral strategies adopted when facing stress or traumatic experiences. Coping styles related to avoidance have been linked to a disposition to develop psychiatric disorders such as PTSD, anxiety, and major depression, whereas problem-oriented coping skills have been positively correlated with well-being and high quality of life. Even though coping styles constitute an important determinant of resilience and can impact many aspects of everyday living, no study has investigated their brain functional connectivity underpinnings in humans...
March 23, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Stephanie M Hare, Alicia S Law, Judith M Ford, Daniel H Mathalon, Aral Ahmadi, Eswar Damaraju, Juan Bustillo, Aysenil Belger, Hyo Jong Lee, Bryon A Mueller, Kelvin O Lim, Gregory G Brown, Adrian Preda, Theo G M van Erp, Steven G Potkin, Vince D Calhoun, Jessica A Turner
Hallucinations characterize schizophrenia, with approximately 59% of patients reporting auditory hallucinations and 27% reporting visual hallucinations. Prior neuroimaging studies suggest that hallucinations are linked to disrupted communication across distributed (sensory, salience-monitoring and subcortical) networks. Yet, our understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie auditory and visual hallucinations in schizophrenia remains limited. This study integrates two resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis methods - amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and functional network connectivity (FNC) - to explore the hypotheses that (1) abnormal FNC between salience and sensory (visual/auditory) networks underlies hallucinations in schizophrenia, and (2) disrupted hippocampal oscillations (as measured by hippocampal ALFF) beget changes in FNC linked to hallucinations...
March 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Nora C Vetter, Judith Buse, Lea L Backhausen, Katya Rubia, Michael N Smolka, Veit Roessner
Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from poor emotion regulation that might arise from problems in the distribution of attentional resources when confronted with emotional distractors. Previous studies investigating the neurocognitive basis of these problems remain inconclusive. Moreover, most of these studies did not exclude participants with comorbidity, particularly of conduct or oppositional defiant disorder. The aim of this study was to assess alterations in fronto-limbic activation in ADHD adolescents specifically during negative distractors in an emotional attention task...
March 23, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Nianming Zuo, Zhengyi Yang, Yong Liu, Jin Li, Tianzi Jiang
Introduction: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become very important for noninvasively characterizing BOLD signal fluctuations, which reflect the changes in neuronal firings in the brain. Unlike the activation detection strategy utilized with fMRI, which only emphasizes the synchronicity between the functional nodes (activated regions) and the task design, brain connectivity and network theory are able to decipher the interactive structure across the entire brain. However, little is known about whether and how the activated/less-activated interactions are associated with the functional changes that occur when the brain changes from the resting state to a task state...
January 2018: Brain and Behavior
Annette Safi, Christoph Nikendei, Valentin Terhoeven, Matthias Weisbrod, Anuradha Sharma
Background: The study aimed to isolate and localize mutually independent cognitive processes evoked during a word recognition task involving food-related and food-neutral words using independent component analysis (ICA) for continuously recorded EEG data. Recognition memory (old/new effect) involves cognitive subcomponents-familiarity and recollection-which may be temporally and spatially dissociated in the brain. Food words may evoke additional attentional salience which may interact with the old/new effect...
January 2018: Brain and Behavior
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