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Salience Network

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908310/individual-differences-in-aesthetic-engagement-are-reflected-in-resting-state-fmri-connectivity-implications-for-stress-resilience
#1
Paula G Williams, Kimberley T Johnson, Brian J Curtis, Jace B King, Jeffrey S Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Individual differences in aesthetic engagement-the propensity to be moved by art, nature, and beauty-are associated with positive health outcomes, as well as stress resilience. The purpose of the current study was to identify potential neural substrate mechanisms underlying individual differences in aesthetic engagement and reported proneness to aesthetic chill. METHODS: Data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) 1200 Subjects Release were utilized...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907738/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-is-associated-with-neural-response-during-selective-social-attention
#2
Meghan H Puglia, Jessica J Connelly, James P Morris
Aberrant attentional biases to social stimuli have been implicated in a number of disorders including autism and social anxiety disorder. Oxytocin, a naturally-occurring mammalian hormone and neuromodulator involved in regulating social behavior, has been proposed to impact basic biological systems that facilitate the detection of and orientation to social information. Here, we investigate a role for naturally-occurring variability in the endogenous oxytocinergic system in regulating neural response during attention to social information...
June 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905768/brain-activity-and-network-interactions-in-the-impact-of-internal-emotional-distraction
#3
A D Iordan, S Dolcos, F Dolcos
Emotional distraction may come from the external world and from our mind, as internal distraction. Although external emotional distraction has been extensively investigated, less is known about the mechanisms associated with the impact of internal emotional distraction on cognitive performance, and those involved in coping with such distraction. These issues were investigated using a working memory task with emotional distraction, where recollected unpleasant autobiographical memories served as internal emotional distraction...
June 14, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899404/cortico-thalamic-hypo-and-hyperconnectivity-extend-consistently-to-basal-ganglia-in-schizophrenia
#4
Mihai Avram, Felix Brandl, Josef Bäuml, Christian Sorg
Schizophrenia is characterized by hypoconnectivity or decreased intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between prefrontal-limbic cortices and thalamic nuclei, as well as hyperconnectivity or increased iFC between primary-sensorimotor cortices and thalamic nuclei. However, cortico-thalamic iFC overlaps with larger, structurally defined cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC) circuits. If such an overlap is relevant for intrinsic hypo-/hyperconnectivity, it suggests (i) that patterns of cortico-subcortical hypo-/hyperconnectivity extend consistently from thalamus to basal ganglia nuclei; and (ii) such consistent hypo-/hyperconnectivity might link distinctively but consonant with different symptom dimensions, namely cognitive and psychotic impairments...
April 12, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897555/linked-4-way-multimodal-brain-differences-in-schizophrenia-in-a-large-chinese-han-population
#5
Shengfeng Liu, Haiying Wang, Ming Song, Luxian Lv, Yue Cui, Yong Liu, Lingzhong Fan, Nianming Zuo, Kaibin Xu, Yuhui Du, Qingbao Yu, Na Luo, Shile Qi, Jian Yang, Sangma Xie, Jian Li, Jun Chen, Yunchun Chen, Huaning Wang, Hua Guo, Ping Wan, Yongfeng Yang, Peng Li, Lin Lu, Hao Yan, Jun Yan, Huiling Wang, Hongxing Zhang, Dai Zhang, Vince D Calhoun, Tianzi Jiang, Jing Sui
Multimodal fusion has been regarded as a promising tool to discover covarying patterns of multiple imaging types impaired in brain diseases, such as schizophrenia (SZ). In this article, we aim to investigate the covarying abnormalities underlying SZ in a large Chinese Han population (307 SZs, 298 healthy controls [HCs]). Four types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, including regional homogeneity (ReHo) from resting-state functional MRI, gray matter volume (GM) from structural MRI, fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion MRI, and functional network connectivity (FNC) resulted from group independent component analysis, were jointly analyzed by a data-driven multivariate fusion method...
April 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892518/pathways-to-neuroprediction-opportunities-and-challenges-to-prediction-of-treatment-response-in-depression
#6
Scott A Langenecker, Natania A Crane, Lisanne M Jenkins, K Luan Phan, Heide Klumpp
Purpose of review: We set out to review the current state of science in neuroprediction, using biological measures of brain function, with task based fMRI to prospectively predict response to a variety of treatments. Recent findings: Task-based fMRI neuroprediction studies are balanced between whole brain and ROI specific analyses. The predominant tasks are emotion processing, with ROIs based upon amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate gyrus, both within the salience and emotion network...
March 2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890292/resting-state-functional-connectivity-underlying-costly-punishment-a-machine-learning-approach
#7
Chunliang Feng, Zhiyuan Zhu, Ruolei Gu, Xia Wu, Yue-Jia Luo, Frank Krueger
A large number of studies have demonstrated costly punishment to unfair events across human societies. However, individuals exhibit a large heterogeneity in costly punishment decisions, whereas the neuropsychological substrates underlying the heterogeneity remain poorly understood. Here, we addressed this issue by applying a multivariate machine learning approach to compare topological properties of resting-state brain networks as a potential neuromarker between individuals exhibiting different punishment propensities...
June 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888315/influencing-connectivity-and-cross-frequency-coupling-by-real-time-source-localized-neurofeedback-of-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex-reduces-tinnitus-related-distress
#8
Sven Vanneste, Kathleen Joos, Jan Ost, Dirk De Ridder
Background: In this study we are using source localized neurofeedback to moderate tinnitus related distress by influencing neural activity of the target region as well as the connectivity within the default network. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that up-training alpha and down-training beta and gamma activity in the posterior cingulate cortex has a moderating effect on tinnitus related distress by influencing neural activity of the target region as well as the connectivity within the default network and other functionally connected brain areas...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886429/beyond-the-limbic-system-disruption-and-functional-compensation-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-patients-with-anti-lgi1-encephalitis
#9
Josephine Heine, Harald Prüss, Ute A Kopp, Florian Wegner, Florian Then Bergh, Thomas Münte, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Friedemann Paul, Thorsten Bartsch, Carsten Finke
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal inflammation in anti-LGI1 encephalitis causes memory deficits, seizures and behavioural abnormalities. Recent findings suggest that extralimbic brain areas are additionally affected and that patients also suffer from non-limbic cognitive symptoms. Moreover, up to 60% of patients show no structural MRI abnormalities in the acute disease stage. We therefore investigated whether functional connectivity analyses can identify brain network changes underlying disease-related symptoms...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885487/a-common-polymorphism-on-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-rs2268498-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-amygdala-subregions-a-genetic-imaging-study
#10
Julika Zimmermann, Nadja Deris, Christian Montag, Martin Reuter, Andrea Felten, Benjamin Becker, Bernd Weber, Sebastian Markett
Across species, the neuropeptide oxytocin has been associated with affiliative and social approach behavior. It has been suggested to exert its effects by modulating neural circuitry underlying anxiety, affiliative motivation, and social salience. The present study aims to investigate differences in subregional amygdala resting-state connectivity in healthy adult carries of different genotypes of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene polymorphism rs2268498. Previous studies have associated this polymorphic locus with social cognitive and affiliative phenotypes...
June 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882015/differential-associations-of-combined-vs-isolated-cannabis-and-nicotine-on-brain-resting-state-networks
#11
Francesca M Filbey, Suril Gohel, Shikha Prashad, Bharat B Biswal
Concomitant cannabis and nicotine use is more prevalent than cannabis use alone; however, to date, most of the literature has focused on associations of isolated cannabis and nicotine use limiting the generalizability of existing research. To determine differential associations of concomitant use of cannabis and nicotine, isolated cannabis use and isolated nicotine use on brain network connectivity, we examined systems-level neural functioning via independent components analysis (ICA) on resting state networks (RSNs) in cannabis users (CAN, n = 53), nicotine users (NIC, n = 28), concomitant nicotine and cannabis users (NIC + CAN, n = 26), and non-users (CTRL, n = 30)...
June 7, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879391/neuroimaging-impaired-response-inhibition-and-salience-attribution-in-human-drug-addiction-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Anna Zilverstand, Anna S Huang, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
The impaired response inhibition and salience attribution (iRISA) model proposes that impaired response inhibition and salience attribution underlie drug seeking and taking. To update this model, we systematically reviewed 105 task-related neuroimaging studies (n > 15/group) published since 2010. Results demonstrate specific impairments within six large-scale brain networks (reward, habit, salience, executive, memory, and self-directed networks) during drug cue exposure, decision making, inhibitory control, and social-emotional processing...
June 6, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878344/resting-state-functional-connectivity-after-sphenopalatine-ganglion-blocks-in-chronic-migraine-with-medication-overuse-headache-a-pilot-longitudinal-fmri-study
#13
Kaitlin Krebs, Chris Rorden, X Michelle Androulakis
OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study, the purpose is to investigate if a series of sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) blockade treatments modulate the functional connectivity within the salience and central executive network (CEN) in chronic migraine with medication overuse headaches (CMw/MOH ). BACKGROUND: Using intranasal local anesthesia to block the SPG for the treatment of various headache disorders has been employed in clinical practice since the early 1900s. However, the exact mechanism of how SPG modulate resting state intrinsic functional brain networks connectivity remains to be elucidated...
May 2018: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878280/schizotypal-traits-are-linked-to-dopamine-induced-striato-cortical-decoupling-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#14
Julian Rössler, Lui Unterassner, Thomas Wyss, Helene Haker, Peter Brugger, Wulf Rössler, Diana Wotruba
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia implies that alterations in the dopamine system cause functional abnormalities in the brain that may converge to aberrant salience attribution and eventually lead to psychosis. Indeed, widespread brain disconnectivity across the psychotic spectrum has been revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). However, the dopaminergic involvement in intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) and its putative relationship to the development of psychotic spectrum disorders remains partly unclear-in particular at the low-end of the psychosis continuum...
June 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876279/disrupted-grey-matter-network-morphology-in-pediatric-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#15
Running Niu, Du Lei, Fuqin Chen, Ying Chen, Xueling Suo, Lingjiang Li, Su Lui, Xiaoqi Huang, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Introduction: Disrupted topological organization of brain functional networks has been widely observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the topological organization of the brain grey matter (GM) network has not yet been investigated in pediatric PTSD who was more vulnerable to develop PTSD when exposed to stress. Materials and methods: Twenty two pediatric PTSD patients and 22 matched trauma-exposed controls who survived a massive earthquake (8...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876262/-motoring-in-idle-the-default-mode-and-somatomotor-networks-are-overactive-in-children-and-adolescents-with-functional-neurological-symptoms
#16
Kasia Kozlowska, Chris J Spooner, Donna M Palmer, Anthony Harris, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Stephen Scher, Leanne M Williams
Objective: Children and adolescents with functional neurological symptom disorder (FND) present with diverse neurological symptoms not explained by a disease process. Functional neurological symptoms have been conceptualized as somatoform dissociation, a disruption of the brain's intrinsic organization and reversion to a more primitive level of function. We used EEG to investigate neural function and functional brain organization in children/adolescents with FND. Method: EEG was recorded in the resting eyes-open condition in 57 patients (aged 8...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875641/an-integrative-neuroscience-framework-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain-from-cellular-alterations-to-behavior
#17
Jess D Greenwald, Keith M Shafritz
Chronic pain can result from many pain syndromes including complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), phantom limb pain and chronic low back pain, among others. On a molecular level, chronic pain syndromes arise from hypersensitization within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, a process known as central sensitization. Central sensitization involves an upregulation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) similar to that of long-term potentiation (LTP). Regions of the brain in which LTP occurs, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, are implicated in fear- and memory-related brain circuity...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872059/lateral-intraparietal-area-lip-is-largely-effector-specific-in-free-choice-decisions
#18
Vassilios N Christopoulos, Igor Kagan, Richard A Andersen
Despite many years of intense research, there is no strong consensus about the role of the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) in decision making. One view of LIP function is that it guides spatial attention, providing a "saliency map" of the external world. If this were the case, it would contribute to target selection regardless of which action would be performed to implement the choice. On the other hand, LIP inactivation has been shown to influence spatial selection and oculomotor metrics in free-choice decisions, which are made using eye movements, arguing that it contributes to saccade decisions...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870435/from-anticipation-to-the-experience-of-pain-the-importance-of-visceral-versus-somatic-pain-modality-in-neural-and-behavioral-responses-to-pain-predictive-cues
#19
Laura Ricarda Koenen, Adriane Icenhour, Katarina Forkmann, Nina Theysohn, Michael Forsting, Ulrike Bingel, Sigrid Elsenbruch
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare behavioral and neural anticipatory responses to cues predicting either somatic or visceral pain in an associative learning paradigm. METHODS: Healthy women (N=22) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. During an acquisition phase, two different visual cues repeatedly signaled either experimental visceral or somatic pain. In a subsequent extinction phase, identical cues were presented without pain. Before and after each phase, cue valence and contingency awareness were assessed on visual analogue scales...
June 4, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867727/aberrant-effective-connectivity-of-the-right-anterior-insula-in-primary-insomnia
#20
Chao Li, Mengshi Dong, Yi Yin, Kelei Hua, Shishun Fu, Guihua Jiang
Objective: Daytime cognitive impairment is an essential symptom of primary insomnia (PI). However, the underlying neural substrate remains largely unknown. Many studies have shown that the right anterior insula (rAI) as a key node of salience network (SN) plays a critical role in switching between the executive control network (ECN) and the default mode network (DMN) for better performance of cognitively demanding tasks. Aberrant effective connectivity (directional functional connectivity) of rAI with ECN or DMN may be one reason for daytime cognitive impairment in PI patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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