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Muscle cross innervation

Joseph Catapano, Daniel R B Demsey, Emily S Ho, Ronald M Zuker, Gregory H Borschel
Smiling is an important aspect of emotional expression and social interaction, leaving facial palsy patients with impaired social functioning and decreased overall quality of life. Although there are several techniques available for facial reanimation, staged facial reanimation using donor nerve branches from the contralateral, functioning facial nerve connected to a cross-face nerve graft (CFNG) is the only technique that can reliably reproduce an emotionally spontaneous smile. Although CFNGs provide spontaneity, they typically produce less smile excursion than when the subsequent free functioning muscle flap is innervated with the motor nerve to the masseter muscle...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Vuvi H Nguyen, Hao Howe Liu, Armando Rosales, Rustin Reeves
Compression of the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) is associated with pain in the upper extremity and back. Even though entrapment of the DSN within the middle scalene muscle is typically the primary cause of pain, it is still easily missed during diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to document the DSN's anatomy and measure the oblique course it takes with regard to the middle scalene muscle. From 20 embalmed adult cadavers, 23 DSNs were documented regarding the nerve's spinal root origin, anatomical route, and muscular innervations...
2016: Anatomy Research International
Hidemi Misawa, Daijiro Inomata, Miseri Kikuchi, Sae Maruyama, Yasuhiro Moriwaki, Takashi Okuda, Nobuyuki Nukina, Tomoyuki Yamanaka
VAChT-Cre.Fast and VAChT-Cre.Slow mice selectively express Cre recombinase in approximately one half of post-natal somatic motor neurons. The mouse lines have been used in various studies with selective genetic modifications in adult motor neurons. In the present study, we crossed VAChT-Cre lines with a reporter line, CAG-Syp/tdTomato, in which synaptophysin-tdTomato fusion proteins are efficiently sorted to axon terminals, making it possible to label both cell bodies and axon terminals of motor neurons. In the mice, Syp/tdTomato fluorescence preferentially co-localized with osteopontin, a recently discovered motor neuron marker for slow-twitch fatigue-resistant (S) and fast-twitch fatigue-resistant (FR) types...
September 6, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Rafael Bos, Srivinas Gosla Reddy, Maurice Y Mommaerts
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to compare the outcomes of reconstructive surgery for long-standing facial paralysis by gracilis free flap transfer versus lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM) according to Daniel Labbé. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Cochrane Library, Directory of Open Access Journals, and SAGE Premier 2011 database were electronically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), and case series with a sample size > 5 were sought...
August 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Gangpyo Lee, Jae-Young Lim, Walter R Frontera
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the apoptotic response to different degrees of denervation in young and older rats randomized into control (C), partial (PD), and complete denervation (CD) of muscles innervated by the sciatic nerve. METHODS: Muscle wet weight to body weight (MWW/BW), myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, and fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA) were determined in gastrocnemius (GCM) and soleus (SOL) muscles. Apoptotic responses were determined by changes in myonuclei and expression of Bcl-2 and BAX...
June 16, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Chengyuan Wang, Summit Kundaria, Juan Fernandez-Miranda, Umamaheswar Duvvuri
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To illustrate detailed anatomy of the extracranial portion of the glossopharyngeal nerve in the parapharyngeal space as encountered during transoral surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cadaveric dissection. All dissections were performed transorally and confirmed with transcervical dissection. METHODS: Eight color-injected cadaveric heads (16 sides) were dissected to demonstrate the course and anatomy of the glossopharyngeal nerve...
September 2016: Laryngoscope
Sule Sahin Onat, Ayse Merve Ata, Levent Ozcakar
Meralgia paresthetica refers to the entrapment of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve at the level of the inguinal ligament. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve - a purely sensory nerve - arises from the L2 and L3 spinal nerve roots, travels downward lateral to the psoas muscle, and then crosses the iliacus muscle. Close to the anterior superior iliac spine, the nerve courses in contact with the lateral aspect of the inguinal ligament and eventually innervates the lateral thigh. The entrapment syndrome is usually idiopathic but can also ensue due to trauma/overuse, pelvic and retroperitoneal tumors, stretching of the nerve due to prolonged leg/trunk hyperextension, leg length discrepancies, prolonged standing, external compression by belts, weight gain, and tight clothing...
May 2016: Pain Physician
Magdalena N Muchlinski, Andrew S Deane
The mandibular nerve is a sensory and motor nerve that innervates the muscles of mastication, the lower dentition, and the lower lip and surrounding structures. Although this nerve contains both efferent and afferent fibers, the mental nerve, a terminal branch of the mandibular nerve, is a strictly sensory nerve that exits the mental foramen and innervates the lower lip, the skin overlaying the mandible, and the oral mucosa around the mandible. Osteological foramina are often used as proxies for nerve cross section area and they often correlate well with some aspect of a primate's ecology (e...
July 2016: Journal of Morphology
I O Haefliger, O Meienberg, A R Pimentel de Figueiredo
Background. Report of three cases of medial upper eyelid lagophthalmos as complication of external dacryocystorhinostomy. History and Signs. Shortly after dacryocystorhinostomy (skin incision on the side of the nose), three of ten consecutive patients (28 ± 4 years; mean ± standard deviation), presented with an ipsilateral lagophthalmos of 4 ± 1 mm in voluntary eyelid closure and 6 ± 1 mm in spontaneous blink. The lagophthalmos was due to a selective paresis of the medial part of the orbicularis oculi muscle of the upper eyelid...
April 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Mohamed-Mounir El Mendili, Timothée Lenglet, Tanya Stojkovic, Anthony Behin, Raquel Guimarães-Costa, François Salachas, Vincent Meininger, Gaelle Bruneteau, Nadine Le Forestier, Pascal Laforêt, Stéphane Lehéricy, Habib Benali, Pierre-François Pradat
PURPOSE: The mechanisms underlying the topography of motor deficits in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) remain unknown. We investigated the profile of spinal cord atrophy (SCA) in SMN1-linked SMA, and its correlation with the topography of muscle weakness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen SMN1-linked SMA patients type III/V and 18 age/gender-matched healthy volunteers were included. Patients were scored on manual muscle testing and functional scales. Spinal cord was imaged using 3T MRI system...
2016: PloS One
Naeem Komeilipoor, Mikko Tiainen, Kaisa Tiippana, Martti Vainio, Lari Vainio
It is known that articulating different syllables is linked to different grasp actions, e.g. [ti] is linked to precision grip, and [kɑ] to power grip. The aim of the present study was to test whether articulating or hearing these syllables would result in an increased activity in the representation of hand muscles involved in these two actions in a muscle-specific manner. To this end, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate changes in the excitability of the left primary motor cortex (M1) innervating hand muscles while participants articulated or listened to meaningless syllables, listened to a metronome, or observed a fixation cross...
May 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Vita Čebašek, Samo Ribarič
We have previously shown by 3D study that 2 weeks after nerve injury there was no change in the length of capillaries per muscle fibre length in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL). The primary goal of the present 2D study was to determine the capillarity of rat EDL 4 weeks after various modes of nerve injury. Additionally, we wished to calculate the same capillary/fibre parameters that were used in our 3D stereological study. EDL muscles derived from denervated (4 weeks after nerve injury), re-innervated (4 weeks after two successive nerve crushes) and age-matched controls from the beginning (CON-1) and the end (CON-2) of the experiment were analysed in two ways...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
H Shen, Y Lv, X Q Shen, J H Xu, H Lu, L C Fu, T Duan
This study evaluated the effect of muscle satellite cells (MSCs) overexpressing myogenin (MyoG) on denervated muscle atrophy. Rat MSCs were isolated and transfected with the MyoG-EGFP plasmid vector GV143. MyoG-transfected MSCs (MTMs) were transplanted into rat gastrocnemius muscles at 1 week after surgical denervation. Controls included injections of untransfected MSCs or the vehicle only. Muscles were harvested and analyzed at 2, 4, and 24 weeks post-transplantation. Immunofluorescence confirmed MyoG overexpression in MTMs...
February 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Gaoussou Touré, Evelyne Anzouan-Kacou
PURPOSE: In humans, the styloauricularis is a rare muscle extending from the tragal cartilage of the auricle to the styloid process. When it contracts, by bearing on the styloid process, it increases the cephalo-auricular angle. It can be a landmark for the facial nerve. We report a case with bilateral presence of the styloauricularis. METHODS: Bilateral presence of the styloauricularis was discovered during routine dissection of the head and neck. RESULTS: In the presented case, styloauricularis muscles arose from the cartilage of the external acoustic meatus on both sides of the head, crossing halfway along the facial nerve trunk and inserting the styloid process...
October 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Y C Gil, K J Shin, S H Lee, K S Koh, W C Song
UNLABELLED: The aim of this study was to provide a clear description of the course, precise branching pattern and distribution of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. A total of 36 hands from 18 preserved cadavers were dissected. The vertical distance from the pisoscaphoid line to the crossing points between the deep branch of the ulnar nerve and each metacarpal was about 4 cm. The deep branch of the ulnar nerve gave off two types of muscular branches: (1) trunks that innervate more than two intrinsic hand muscles; and (2) multiple separate branches innervating only a single muscle...
October 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
Tessa Gordon, Placheta Eva, Gregory H Borschel
Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery...
October 2015: Neural Regeneration Research
Yasuhiro Oisi, Satoko Fujimoto, Kinya G Ota, Shigeru Kuratani
INTRODUCTION: The vertebrate body is characterized by its dual segmental organization: pharyngeal arches in the head and somites in the trunk. Muscular and nervous system morphologies are also organized following these metameric patterns, with distinct differences between head and trunk; branchiomeric nerves innervating pharyngeal arches are superficial to spinal nerves innervating somite derivatives. Hypobranchial muscles originate from rostral somites and occupy the "neck" at the head-trunk interface...
2015: Zoological Letters
Robert A Clark, Joseph L Demer
Anatomical studies demonstrate selective compartmental innervation of most human extraocular muscles (EOMs), suggesting the potential for differential compartmental control. This was supported by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating differential lateral rectus (LR) compartmental contraction during ocular counterrolling, differential medial rectus (MR) compartmental contraction during asymmetric convergence, and differential LR, inferior rectus (IR), and superior oblique (SO) compartmental contraction during vertical vergence...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Akira Miyauchi, Hiroo Masuoka, Ayako Nakayama, Takuya Higashiyama
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: A major concern in thyroid surgery is possible changes in the patient's voice due to dysfunction of the laryngeal muscles. The classical understanding of the anatomy is that the cricothyroid muscle (CTM) is innervated solely by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN), and the endolaryngeal muscles are covered only by the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Meticulous anatomical studies found communication between these nerves. Recent neurophysiological studies revealed cross-innervations among these nerve-muscle sets...
May 2016: Laryngoscope
Nao Yamamoto, Natsuko Yoshimura Sawai, Shunsuke Ishimoto, Hide Ogura, Tomonao Aikawa, Mikihiko Kogo, Masaya Okura
BACKGROUND: Modified radical neck dissection (mRND) [preserving the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and the spinal accessory nerve] and supraomohyoid neck dissection have become common surgical procedures for treating head and neck cancer. Postoperative severe asymmetry of the neck and severe atrophy of the SCM, however, have been demonstrated. METHODS: Using computed tomographic images, cross-sectional areas of the SCMs were measured in 99 patients with carcinoma of the oral cavity who underwent unilateral mRND or supraomohyoid neck dissection...
September 2015: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
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