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Muscle cross innervation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904095/distinct-roles-for-motor-neuron-autophagy-early-and-late-in-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-als
#1
Noam D Rudnick, Christopher J Griffey, Paolo Guarnieri, Valeria Gerbino, Xueyong Wang, Jason A Piersaint, Juan Carlos Tapia, Mark M Rich, Tom Maniatis
Mutations in autophagy genes can cause familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the role of autophagy in ALS pathogenesis is poorly understood, in part due to the lack of cell type-specific manipulations of this pathway in animal models. Using a mouse model of ALS expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1(G93A)), we show that motor neurons form large autophagosomes containing ubiquitinated aggregates early in disease progression. To investigate whether this response is protective or detrimental, we generated mice in which the critical autophagy gene Atg7 was specifically disrupted in motor neurons (Atg7 cKO)...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856708/degeneration-of-serotonin-neurons-triggers-spasticity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#2
Hajer El Oussini, Jelena Scekic-Zahirovic, Pauline Vercruysse, Christine Marques, Sylvie Dirrig-Grosch, Stéphane Dieterlé, Gina Picchiarelli, Jérôme Sinniger, Caroline Rouaux, Luc Dupuis
OBJECTIVE: Spasticity occurs in a wide range of neurological diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, after trauma or after stroke and is characterized by increased reflexes leading to muscle hypertonia. Spasticity is a painful symptom and can severely restrict everyday life, but might also participate in maintaining a low level of motor function in severely impaired patients. Constitutive activity of the serotonin receptors 5-HT2B/C is required for the development of spasticity after spinal cord injury or during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
August 30, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795071/distal-musculotendinous-t-junction-injuries-of-the-biceps-femoris-an-mri-case-review
#3
Tom Entwisle, Yuan Ling, Alex Splatt, Peter Brukner, David Connell
BACKGROUND: Injury to the distal musculotendinous T junction (DMTJ) of the biceps femoris is a distinct clinical entity that behaves differently from other hamstring injuries due to its complex, multicomponent anatomy and dual innervation. Injury in this region demonstrates a particularly high rate of recurrence, even with prolonged rehabilitation times. PURPOSE: To describe the anatomy of the DMTJ of the biceps femoris and analyze the injury patterns seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to aid prognosis and rehabilitation and minimize the risk of recurrence...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754501/flexor-carpi-radialis-brevis-muscle-a-case-report-and-its-prevalence-in%C3%A2-patients-with-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#4
Tetsuhiko Mimura, Shigeharu Uchiyama, Masanori Hayashi, Kazutaka Uemura, Hideki Moriya, Hiroyuki Kato
BACKGROUND: During the surgery for a distal radius fracture, we encountered a large anomalous muscle lying across the distal radius. The muscle was identified as a flexor carpi radialis brevis muscle (FCRB), based on its location, function, and innervation. This experience led us to clarify its prevalence in living subjects and alert surgeons of its presence. METHODS: We reviewed wrist MRI scans of 515 hands of 379 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The prevalence of the FCRB was calculated...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607408/differences-in-pharmacodynamic-responses-to-rocuronium-in-normal-or-injured-orbicularis-oris-are-associated-with-expression-of-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits
#5
Yong Huang, Yian Xing, Hong Wang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
Previous research has indicated that differences in sensitivities to muscle relaxants exist between facial nerve- and somatic nerve-innervated muscles. Here, we report that the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for rocuronium were significantly larger in the normal orbicularis oris than those in the gastrocnemius. Increased IC50 values and reduced twitch tension were observed after facial nerve injury. The normal orbicularis oris had a smaller muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and a larger ratio of endplate surface area (ESA) to muscle fiber CSA (ESA/CSA), but no difference was found in the density of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits on endplates between normal orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580861/factors-associated-with-upper-extremity-contractures-after-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-a-pilot-study
#6
Dustin Hardwick, Anne Bryden, Gina Kubec, Kevin Kilgore
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of joint contractures in the upper limb and association with voluntary strength, innervation status, functional status, and demographics in a convenience sample of individuals with cervical spinal cord injury to inform future prospective studies. DESIGN: Cross-sectional convenience sampled pilot study. SETTING: Department of Veterans Affairs Research Laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-eight participants with cervical level spinal cord injury...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321940/anatomy-of-psoas-muscle-innervation-cadaveric-study
#7
Mark A Mahan, Luke E Sanders, Jian Guan, Andrew T Dailey, William Taylor, David A Morton
Hip flexion weakness is relatively common after lateral transpsoas surgery. Persistent weakness may result from injury to the innervation of the psoas major muscles (PMMs); however, anatomical texts have conflicting descriptions of this innervation, and the branching pattern of the nerves within the psoas major, particularly relative to vertebral anatomy, has not been described. The authors dissected human cadavers to describe the branching pattern of nerves supplying the PMMs. Sixteen embalmed cadavers were dissected, and the fine branching pattern of the innervation to the PMM was studied in 24 specimens...
May 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268895/prediction-of-forelimb-muscle-emgs-from-the-corticospinal-signals-in-rats
#8
Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin
To generate voluntary forearm movements, the information that is encoded in the activity of the cortical neurons has to travel through the spinal cord and activate the skeletal muscles. The axons carrying these signals are tightly bundled together in the descending tracts that control the spinal circuitry innervating the forearm muscles. In this paper, we show that corticospinal tract (CST) signals can be used to predict forearm electromyographic (EMG) activities that are recorded during an isometric-pull task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227096/prediction-of-forelimb-muscle-emgs-from-the-corticospinal-signals-in-rats
#9
Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin, Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin, Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin
To generate voluntary forearm movements, the information that is encoded in the activity of the cortical neurons has to travel through the spinal cord and activate the skeletal muscles. The axons carrying these signals are tightly bundled together in the descending tracts that control the spinal circuitry innervating the forearm muscles. In this paper, we show that corticospinal tract (CST) signals can be used to predict forearm electromyographic (EMG) activities that are recorded during an isometric-pull task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176462/hormonal-treatment-effects-on-the-cross-sectional-area-of-pubococcygeus-muscle-fibers-after-denervation-and-castration-in-male-rats
#10
Miguel Lara-García, Mayvi Alvarado, Estela Cuevas, Omar Lara-García, Dale R Sengelaub, Pablo Pacheco
We explore the interaction of muscle innervation and gonadal hormone action in the pubococcygeus muscle (Pcm) after castration and hormone replacement. Male Wistar rats were castrated and the Pcm was unilaterally denervated; after 2 or 6 weeks, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of Pcm fibers was assessed. Additional groups of castrated rats were used to examine the effects of hormone replacement. At 2 weeks post surgeries, rats were implanted with Silastic capsules containing either dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol benzoate (EB) or both hormones, and the CSA of Pcm fibers was assessed after 4 weeks of hormone treatment...
February 8, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159544/analysis-of-the-ideal-muscle-weight-of-gracilis-muscle-transplants-for-facial-reanimation-surgery-with-regard-to-the-donor-nerve-and-outcome
#11
David Braig, Holger Bannasch, G Björn Stark, Steffen U Eisenhardt
BACKGROUND: Free functional muscle transfers represent the 'criterion standard' for smile reconstruction in facial paralysis. The gracilis muscle is a common donor muscle; however, no data exist regarding the volume of the muscle tissue that is necessary for symmetric commissure excursion. METHODS: All patients with facial paralysis receiving a free functional muscle transfer for facial reanimation surgery between January 2009 and November 2015 were retrospectively analysed...
April 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073145/does-partial-muscle-reinnervation-preserve-future-re-innervation-potential
#12
Jonathan Isaacs, Satya Mallu, Mary Shall, Gaurangkumar Patel, Pooja Shah, Shalin Shah, Mark A Feger, Gordon Graham, Nikhil Pasula
INTRODUCTION: Late revision nerve surgery for incomplete motor recovery due to partial reinnervation would improve muscle function if all muscle fibers were protected from developing denervation atrophy. METHODS: Sixty immature Sprague-Dawley rats underwent the following tibial nerve manipulations (n = 15/group): group A, partial denervation (two thirds of nerve resected and the remaining one third crushed), revision repair at 8 months; group B, partial denervation; group C, complete denervation, immediate reconstruction; group D, complete denervation, reconstruction at 8 months; and group E, control...
January 10, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935599/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-functional-anatomy-of-the-superior-oblique-muscle-in-patients-with-primary-superior-oblique-overaction
#13
Q Gong, M Janowski, H Tang, Q Yang, H Wei, X Zhou, L Liu
PurposeTo quantitatively determine the size and contractility of the superior oblique (SO) muscle in primary SO overaction (PSOOA).Patients and methodsA prospective, observational study was conducted on 12 patients with PSOOA, and 10 healthy, orthotropic subjects. Sets of contiguous, 2 mm slice thickness, quasi-coronal magnetic resonance imaging were obtained during different gazes, giving pixel resolution of 0.391 mm. Cross-sectional areas of the SO muscles were determined in primary position, supraduction, and infraduction to evaluate size and contractility...
April 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855526/morphometric-properties-and-innervation-of-muscle-compartments-in-rat-medial-gastrocnemius
#14
Malwina Taborowska, Dorota Bukowska, Hanna Drzymała-Celichowska, Barbara Mierzejewska-Krzyżowska, Jan Celichowski
The rat medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle is composed of the proximal and distal compartments. In this study, morphometric properties of the compartments and their muscle fibres at five levels of the muscle length and the innervation pattern of these compartments from lumbar segments were investigated. The size and number of muscle fibres in the compartments were different. The proximal compartment at the largest cross section (25% of the muscle length) had 34% smaller cross-sectional area but contained a slightly higher number of muscle fibres (max...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820875/improvement-of-eye-alignment-in-adult-strabismic-monkeys-by-sustained-igf-1-treatment
#15
Linda K McLoon, Stephen P Christiansen, Geoffrey M Ghose, Vallabh E Das, Michael J Mustari
Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine if continuous application of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) could improve eye alignment of adult strabismic nonhuman primates and to assess possible mechanisms of effect. Methods: A continuous release pellet of IGF-1 was placed on one medial rectus muscle in two adult nonhuman primates (M1, M2) rendered exotropic by the alternating monocular occlusion method during the first months of life. Eye alignment and eye movements were recorded for 3 months, after which M1 was euthanized, and the lateral and medial rectus muscles were removed for morphometric analysis of fiber size, nerve, and neuromuscular density...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757349/cross-face-nerve-grafting-with-infraorbital-nerve-pathway-protection-anatomic-and-histomorphometric-feasibility-study
#16
Joseph Catapano, Daniel R B Demsey, Emily S Ho, Ronald M Zuker, Gregory H Borschel
Smiling is an important aspect of emotional expression and social interaction, leaving facial palsy patients with impaired social functioning and decreased overall quality of life. Although there are several techniques available for facial reanimation, staged facial reanimation using donor nerve branches from the contralateral, functioning facial nerve connected to a cross-face nerve graft (CFNG) is the only technique that can reliably reproduce an emotionally spontaneous smile. Although CFNGs provide spontaneity, they typically produce less smile excursion than when the subsequent free functioning muscle flap is innervated with the motor nerve to the masseter muscle...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597900/a-cadaveric-investigation-of-the-dorsal-scapular-nerve
#17
Vuvi H Nguyen, Hao Howe Liu, Armando Rosales, Rustin Reeves
Compression of the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) is associated with pain in the upper extremity and back. Even though entrapment of the DSN within the middle scalene muscle is typically the primary cause of pain, it is still easily missed during diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to document the DSN's anatomy and measure the oblique course it takes with regard to the middle scalene muscle. From 20 embalmed adult cadavers, 23 DSNs were documented regarding the nerve's spinal root origin, anatomical route, and muscular innervations...
2016: Anatomy Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596971/reappraisal-of-vacht-cre-preference-in-slow-motor-neurons-innervating-type-i-or-iia-muscle-fibers
#18
Hidemi Misawa, Daijiro Inomata, Miseri Kikuchi, Sae Maruyama, Yasuhiro Moriwaki, Takashi Okuda, Nobuyuki Nukina, Tomoyuki Yamanaka
VAChT-Cre.Fast and VAChT-Cre.Slow mice selectively express Cre recombinase in approximately one half of postnatal somatic motor neurons. The mouse lines have been used in various studies with selective genetic modifications in adult motor neurons. In the present study, we crossed VAChT-Cre lines with a reporter line, CAG-Syp/tdTomato, in which synaptophysin-tdTomato fusion proteins are efficiently sorted to axon terminals, making it possible to label both cell bodies and axon terminals of motor neurons. In the mice, Syp/tdTomato fluorescence preferentially co-localized with osteopontin, a recently discovered motor neuron marker for slow-twitch fatigue-resistant (S) and fast-twitch fatigue-resistant (FR) types...
November 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364924/lengthening-temporalis-myoplasty-versus-free-muscle-transfer-with-the-gracilis-flap-for-long-standing-facial-paralysis-a-systematic-review-of-outcomes
#19
Rafael Bos, Srivinas Gosla Reddy, Maurice Y Mommaerts
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to compare the outcomes of reconstructive surgery for long-standing facial paralysis by gracilis free flap transfer versus lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM) according to Daniel Labbé. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Cochrane Library, Directory of Open Access Journals, and SAGE Premier 2011 database were electronically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), and case series with a sample size > 5 were sought...
August 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312511/apoptosis-in-young-and-old-denervated-rat-skeletal-muscle
#20
Gangpyo Lee, Jae-Young Lim, Walter R Frontera
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the apoptotic response to different degrees of denervation in young and older rats randomized into control (C), partial (PD), and complete denervation (CD) of muscles innervated by the sciatic nerve. METHODS: Muscle wet weight to body weight (MWW/BW), myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, and fiber cross-sectional area were determined in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Apoptotic responses were determined by changes in myonuclei and expression of Bcl-2 and BAX...
February 2017: Muscle & Nerve
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