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Muscle cross innervation

D K Boruah, A Prakash, B B Gogoi, R R Yadav, D D Dhingani, B Sarma
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hirayama disease is a benign focal amyotrophy of the distal upper limbs involving C7, C8, and T1 segmental myotomes with sparing of the brachioradialis and proximal muscles of the upper limb innervated by C5-6 myotomes. The objective of the present study was to study the utility of MR imaging in young patients presenting with weakness and wasting of the distal upper extremity and to evaluate the importance of the laminodural space during flexion cervical MR imaging...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Eunhee Chung, Huanbiao Mo, Shu Wang, Yujiao Zu, Manal Elfakhani, Steven R Rios, Ming-Chien Chyu, Rong-Sen Yang, Chwan-Li Shen
Skeletal muscle disorders including sarcopenia are prevalent during the complex biological process of aging. Loss of muscle mass and strength commonly seen in sarcopenia is induced by impaired neuromuscular innervation, transition of skeletal muscle fiber type, and reduced muscle regenerative capacity, all attributable to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Current literature suggests that vitamin E molecules (α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and the corresponding tocotrienols) with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities may mitigate age-associated skeletal dysfunction and enhance muscle regeneration, thus attenuating sarcopenia...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Miyuki Uehara, Fumiaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Double innervation of the transferred muscle with the contralateral facial nerve and the ipsilateral masseteric nerve has recently been reported by some authors. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of our procedure of double innervation of free gracilis muscle for reconstruction of long-standing facial palsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In our department, 6 cases of long-standing facial paralysis (4 cases of complete palsy and 2 of incomplete palsy) were reconstructed using a free gracilis muscle double innervated with the masseteric and contralateral facial nerves...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
A Kehrer, S Engelmann, R Bauer, C Taeger, S Grechenig, M Kehrer, L Prantl, E R Tamm, R L A W Bleys, V Mandlik
The zygomaticus major (ZM) is important for the human smile. There are conflicting data about whether the zygomatic or buccal branches of the facial nerve are responsible for its motor innervation. The literature provides no precise distinction of the transition zone between these two branch systems. In this study, a definition to distinguish the facial nerve branches at the level of the body of the zygoma is proposed. In the light of this definition, we conducted an anatomical study to determine how the source of innervation of the ZM was distributed...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Federico Biglioli, Matteo Zago, Fabiana Allevi, Daniela Ciprandi, Giovanni Dell'Aversana Orabona, Valentina Pucciarelli, Dimitri Rabbiosi, Ilaria Pacifici, Filippo Tarabbia, Chiarella Sforza
Alterations of facial muscles may critically humper patients' quality of life. One of the worst conditions is the reduction or abolition of eye blinking. To prevent these adverse effects, surgical rehabilitation of eyelid function is the current treatment choice. In the present paper, we present a modification of the technique devised by Nassif to recover lids from long-standing paralysis. In our modification, the upper lid is rehabilitated by a platisma graft innervated by the contralateral facial nerve branches using a cross-face sural nerve graft...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Amanda R White, Gregory M Holmes
A profound reduction in colorectal transit time accompanies spinal cord injury (SCI), yet the colonic alterations after SCI have yet to be understood fully. The loss of descending supraspinal input to lumbosacral neural circuits innervating the colon is recognized as one causal mechanism. Remodeling of the colonic enteric nervous system/smooth muscle junction in response to inflammation, however, is recognized as one factor leading to colonic dysmotility in other pathophysiological models. We investigated the alterations to the neuromuscular junction in rats with experimental high-thoracic (T3) SCI...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
David Putzer, Matthias Haselbacher, Romed Hörmann, Martin Thaler, Michael Nogler
INTRODUCTION: Gluteal insufficiency is of concern with lateral approaches to total hip arthroplasty. Damage to the branches of the superior gluteal nerve may cause degeneration of the innervated muscles. The direct anterior approach exploits the intermuscular and internerval interval between tensor fasciae latae laterally and sartorius and rectus femoris muscle medially. In this study, the distance of the superior gluteal nerve in relation to anatomical landmarks was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two experienced surgeons implanted trial components in 15 alcohol glycerol fixed cadavers with 30 hips...
March 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Andre S Potenza, Vergilius J F Araujo Filho, Claudio R Cernea
The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) innervates the cricothyroid muscle (CTM) to promote lengthening and thinning of the vocal fold, thus increasing voice pitch. The close relation with the superior thyroid vessels (STV) puts the EBSLN in risk every time the superior pole of the thyroid is dissected. It travels downward to innervate the CTM, lateral to the thyroid cartilage and to the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (IPCM), being eventually covered by this muscle fibers as it approaches its entry point...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
Dale R Sengelaub, Qi Han, Nai-Kui Liu, Melissa Maczuga, Violetta Szalavari, Stephanie Valencia, Xiao-Ming Xu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in lesions that destroy tissue and disrupt spinal tracts, producing deficits in locomotor and autonomic function. We previously demonstrated that motoneurons, and the muscles they innervate, show pronounced atrophy after SCI, and these changes are prevented by treatment with testosterone. Here we assessed if the testosterone active metabolites, estradiol and dihydrotestosterone, have similar protective effects after SCI. Young adult female rats received either sham or T9 spinal cord contusion injuries and were treated with estradiol, dihydrotestosterone, both, or nothing via Silastic capsules...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
Carla Stecco, Gian Paolo Azzena, Veronica Macchi, Andrea Porzionato, Astrid Behr, Anna Rambaldo, Cesare Tiengo, Raffaele De Caro
PURPOSE: To improve the current knowledge of rectus abdominis innervation, so as to identify a safe area where the vascular pedicle should be dissected to reduce the risk of nerve damage during deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvesting. METHODS: Ten abdominal wall dissections were performed. Perforating arteries were identified and classified into nerve-related perforators and non-nerve-related perforators depending on the presence of nerve branches crossing vessels...
November 10, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Aaron M Adams, Keith W VanDusen, Tatiana Y Kostrominova, Jacob P Mertens, Lisa M Larkin
Damage to peripheral nerve tissue may cause loss of function in both the nerve and the targeted muscles it innervates. This study compared the repair capability of engineered nerve conduit (ENC), engineered fibroblast conduit (EFC), and autograft in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap. ENCs were fabricated utilizing primary fibroblasts and the nerve cells of rats on embryonic day 15 (E15). EFCs were fabricated utilizing primary fibroblasts only. Following a 12-week recovery, nerve repair was assessed by measuring contractile properties in the medial gastrocnemius muscle, distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, and histology of muscle and nerve...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Noam D Rudnick, Christopher J Griffey, Paolo Guarnieri, Valeria Gerbino, Xueyong Wang, Jason A Piersaint, Juan Carlos Tapia, Mark M Rich, Tom Maniatis
Mutations in autophagy genes can cause familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the role of autophagy in ALS pathogenesis is poorly understood, in part due to the lack of cell type-specific manipulations of this pathway in animal models. Using a mouse model of ALS expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1(G93A)), we show that motor neurons form large autophagosomes containing ubiquitinated aggregates early in disease progression. To investigate whether this response is protective or detrimental, we generated mice in which the critical autophagy gene Atg7 was specifically disrupted in motor neurons (Atg7 cKO)...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hajer El Oussini, Jelena Scekic-Zahirovic, Pauline Vercruysse, Christine Marques, Sylvie Dirrig-Grosch, Stéphane Dieterlé, Gina Picchiarelli, Jérôme Sinniger, Caroline Rouaux, Luc Dupuis
OBJECTIVE: Spasticity occurs in a wide range of neurological diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, after trauma, and after stroke, and is characterized by increased reflexes leading to muscle hypertonia. Spasticity is a painful symptom and can severely restrict everyday life, but might also participate in maintaining a low level of motor function in severely impaired patients. Constitutive activity of the serotonin receptors 5-HT2B/C is required for the development of spasticity after spinal cord injury and during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
September 2017: Annals of Neurology
Tom Entwisle, Yuan Ling, Alex Splatt, Peter Brukner, David Connell
BACKGROUND: Injury to the distal musculotendinous T junction (DMTJ) of the biceps femoris is a distinct clinical entity that behaves differently from other hamstring injuries due to its complex, multicomponent anatomy and dual innervation. Injury in this region demonstrates a particularly high rate of recurrence, even with prolonged rehabilitation times. PURPOSE: To describe the anatomy of the DMTJ of the biceps femoris and analyze the injury patterns seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to aid prognosis and rehabilitation and minimize the risk of recurrence...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Tetsuhiko Mimura, Shigeharu Uchiyama, Masanori Hayashi, Kazutaka Uemura, Hideki Moriya, Hiroyuki Kato
BACKGROUND: During the surgery for a distal radius fracture, we encountered a large anomalous muscle lying across the distal radius. The muscle was identified as a flexor carpi radialis brevis muscle (FCRB), based on its location, function, and innervation. This experience led us to clarify its prevalence in living subjects and alert surgeons of its presence. METHODS: We reviewed wrist MRI scans of 515 hands of 379 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The prevalence of the FCRB was calculated...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Yong Huang, Yian Xing, Hong Wang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
Previous research has indicated that differences in sensitivities to muscle relaxants exist between facial nerve- and somatic nerve-innervated muscles. Here, we report that the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for rocuronium were significantly larger in the normal orbicularis oris than those in the gastrocnemius. Increased IC50 values and reduced twitch tension were observed after facial nerve injury. The normal orbicularis oris had a smaller muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and a larger ratio of endplate surface area (ESA) to muscle fiber CSA (ESA/CSA), but no difference was found in the density of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits on endplates between normal orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dustin Hardwick, Anne Bryden, Gina Kubec, Kevin Kilgore
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of joint contractures in the upper limb and association with voluntary strength, innervation status, functional status, and demographics in a convenience sample of individuals with cervical spinal cord injury to inform future prospective studies. DESIGN: Cross-sectional convenience sampled pilot study. SETTING: Department of Veterans Affairs Research Laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-eight participants with cervical level spinal cord injury...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Mark A Mahan, Luke E Sanders, Jian Guan, Andrew T Dailey, William Taylor, David A Morton
Hip flexion weakness is relatively common after lateral transpsoas surgery. Persistent weakness may result from injury to the innervation of the psoas major muscles (PMMs); however, anatomical texts have conflicting descriptions of this innervation, and the branching pattern of the nerves within the psoas major, particularly relative to vertebral anatomy, has not been described. The authors dissected human cadavers to describe the branching pattern of nerves supplying the PMMs. Sixteen embalmed cadavers were dissected, and the fine branching pattern of the innervation to the PMM was studied in 24 specimens...
May 2017: Clinical Anatomy
Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin
To generate voluntary forearm movements, the information that is encoded in the activity of the cortical neurons has to travel through the spinal cord and activate the skeletal muscles. The axons carrying these signals are tightly bundled together in the descending tracts that control the spinal circuitry innervating the forearm muscles. In this paper, we show that corticospinal tract (CST) signals can be used to predict forearm electromyographic (EMG) activities that are recorded during an isometric-pull task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin, Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin, Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin
To generate voluntary forearm movements, the information that is encoded in the activity of the cortical neurons has to travel through the spinal cord and activate the skeletal muscles. The axons carrying these signals are tightly bundled together in the descending tracts that control the spinal circuitry innervating the forearm muscles. In this paper, we show that corticospinal tract (CST) signals can be used to predict forearm electromyographic (EMG) activities that are recorded during an isometric-pull task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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