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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134608/factors-that-may-account-for-cardiovascular-risk-reduction-with-a-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-vildagliptin-in-young-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Marc Evans, Plamen Kozlovski, Päivi M Paldánius, James E Foley, Vaishali Bhosekar, Carmen Serban, Angelo Avogaro
INTRODUCTION: In a meta-analysis, we observed a significant 37% relative risk reduction in prospectively adjudicated major adverse cardiac events [MACEs, comprising of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, cardiovascular (CV) death] with vildagliptin vs. comparators in younger (< 65 years) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while the risk was similar in older patients (≥ 65 years). We carried out an exploratory analysis to identify the patient characteristics and on-treatment effects that may have contributed to the different outcomes in the two age groups...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119729/efficacy-of-statin-delivery-as-an-adjunct-to-scaling-and-root-planing-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-periodontitis-a-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Zohaib Akram, Fahim Vohra, Fawad Javed
The action of statins in stimulating bone formation and having other pleiotropic effects, such as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, has justified their use as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of statin delivery as an adjunct to SRP in the treatment of CP. Electronic searches were conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, up until July 2017...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096867/the-efficacy-of-anti-pcsk9-antibodies-results-from-recent-trials
#3
Ioanna Gouni-Berthold
The serine protease proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and directs it to the lysosome for degradation. This results in decreased numbers of LDLR available on the cell surface to bind LDL particles and remove them from the circulation and a subsequent increase in circulating LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. Since the role PCSK9 plays in LDL-C metabolism has been discovered in 2003, there have been major efforts in finding efficient and safe methods to inhibit it...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074093/a-new-hope-lessons-from-hope-3
#4
REVIEW
Travis M Howard, Aakash A Bavishi, Neil J Stone
Lifestyle medication is the cornerstone of preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). When this is not sufficient in reducing risk, statin therapy is first line. HOPE-3 was a randomized controlled trial of rosuvastatin vs placebo, which demonstrated a significant net benefit in a lower risk population without known atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. There were many novel characteristics about this trial that should not be overlooked. It contained a diverse population and was the first trial to base inclusion solely on easily ascertainable metabolic risk factors...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069843/statins-reduce-all-cause-mortality-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#5
Wen-Feng Li, Yu-Qing Huang, Cheng Huang, Ying-Qing Feng
Recently, a number of observational studies have suggested that use of statins reduces mortality in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To obtain a more valid assessment, we update the meta-analysis of the effect of statins on COPD exacerbation and mortality. We searched for eligible articles using PubMed, Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Databases and Web of Science between January 2006 and February 2017, with no restrictions. The hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was estimated...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069377/effect-of-statins-and-non-statin-ldl-lowering-medications-on-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-secondary-prevention-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#6
Konstantinos C Koskinas, George C M Siontis, Raffaele Piccolo, Dimitris Mavridis, Lorenz Räber, François Mach, Stephan Windecker
Aims: Current evidence on dyslipidaemia management has expanded to novel treatments and very low achieved levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We sought to compare the clinical impact of more-intensive vs. less-intensive LDL-C lowering by means of statins and currently recommended non-statin medications in secondary prevention. Methods and results: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for randomized controlled trials of statins, ezetimibe, proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, or bile acid sequestrants with >500 patients followed for ≥1 year...
October 23, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049804/preoperative-statins-as-modifiers-of-cardiac-and-inflammatory-outcomes-following-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#7
JingHui An, FengWu Shi, Su Liu, Jie Ma, QianLi Ma
Early postoperative cardiac complications of coronary artery bypass graft surgery, such as atrial fibrillation (AF) or myocardial infarction (MI), may be beneficially modulated by preoperative statins, involving their anti-inflammatory effects. There is uncertainty on the clinical merit of statin pretreatment. Addressing this, we conducted a meta-analysis of early cardiac complications and inflammatory markers following statin pretreatment in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. A search of Medline and Cochrane databases was undertaken to identify suitable studies...
July 26, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038386/effect-of-statins-on-patients-and-graft-survival-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-survival-meta-analysis
#8
Zohre Rostami, Mahdi Moteshaker Arani, Mahmood Salesi, Mahdi Safiabadi, Behzad Einollahi
INTRODUCTION: Modifying cardiovascular risk factors is very important for the patients after kidney transplantation. Statins are a potentially beneficial intervention for kidney transplant patients, and the effect of statins on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease varies according to the stages. This systematic review summarizes the potential beneficial effects of statins on kidney allograft outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by literature search using the PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020356/a-common-missense-variant-of-lilrb5-is-associated-with-statin-intolerance-and-myalgia
#9
Moneeza K Siddiqui, Cyrielle Maroteau, Abirami Veluchamy, Aleksi Tornio, Roger Tavendale, Fiona Carr, Ngu-Uma Abelega, Dan Carr, Katyrzyna Bloch, Par Hallberg, Qun-Ying Yue, Ewan R Pearson, Helen M Colhoun, Andrew D Morris, Eleanor Dow, Jacob George, Munir Pirmohamed, Paul M Ridker, Alex S F Doney, Ana Alfirevic, Mia Wadelius, Anke-Hilse Maitland-van der Zee, Daniel I Chasman, Colin N A Palmer
Aims: A genetic variant in LILRB5 (leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily-B) (rs12975366: T > C: Asp247Gly) has been reported to be associated with lower creatine phosphokinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Both biomarkers are released from injured muscle tissue, making this variant a potential candidate for susceptibility to muscle-related symptoms. We examined the association of this variant with statin intolerance ascertained from electronic medical records in the GoDARTS study...
August 29, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978973/editorial-statins-and-liver-disease-is-it-time-to-recommend-statins-to-prevent-liver-disease-progression
#10
EDITORIAL
Jennifer C Price, Phyllis C Tien
Evidence is emerging that statins may reduce liver-related adverse outcomes in individuals with chronic liver disease. In this issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology, Kamal et al. found in their meta-analysis that statin use was associated with a reduced risk of fibrosis progression, decompensated cirrhosis, and mortality. These encouraging findings suggest beneficial liver effects of statins. However, the overall quality of the evidence is low because 9 of the 10 studies included in the meta-analysis were observational...
October 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977956/statin-use-and-endometrial-cancer-risk-a-meta-analysis
#11
Jing Yang, Qiaoling Zhu, Qiao Liu, Yingxia Wang, Weimin Xie, Lili Hu
Several studies have evaluated the association between statin use and endometrial cancer risk. We carried out a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies to evaluate the effect of statins on endometrial cancer risk. A comprehensive search of electronic databases, conference abstracts and clinical trial registers was conducted for published and unpublished results. Studies that evaluated exposure to statins and endometrial cancer risk were considered. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using either a fixed-effects or a random-effects model...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976376/-dyslipidaemias-in-elderly-patients
#12
Aytül Belgi Yıldırım, Ali Yaşar Kılınç
Statin use in people over 65 years of age is high. A meta-analysis of older patients included in randomised trials found good evidence that statins reduce vascular events and mortality in people with existing coronary heart disease. In older adults, exposure to higher doses of statins or higher potency statins does not increase their effectiveness, but does increase the risk of adverse effects such as myopathy and cognitive impairment. Increasing age is a risk factor for adverse events with statins. Older patients may be less resilient to these effects...
September 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973101/coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-vs-functional-stress-testing-for-patients-with-suspected-coronary-artery-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Andrew J Foy, Sanket S Dhruva, Brandon Peterson, John M Mandrola, Daniel J Morgan, Rita F Redberg
Importance: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a new approach for the diagnosis of anatomical coronary artery disease (CAD), but it is unclear how CCTA performs compared with the standard approach of functional stress testing. Objective: To compare the clinical effectiveness of CCTA with that of functional stress testing for patients with suspected CAD. Data Sources: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and MEDLINE for English-language randomized clinical trials of CCTA published from January 1, 2000, to July 10, 2016...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971959/testing-genetic-pleiotropy-with-gwas-summary-statistics-for-marginal-and-conditional-analyses
#14
Yangqing Deng, Wei Pan
There is a growing interest in testing genetic pleiotropy, which is when a single genetic variant influences multiple traits. Several methods have been proposed, which however have some limitations. First, all the proposed methods are based on the use of individual-level genotype and phenotype data; in contrast, for logistic and other reasons, typically only summary statistics of univariate SNP-trait associations are available based on meta- or mega-analyzed large genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Second, existing tests are based on marginal pleiotropy, which cannot distinguish direct and indirect associations of a single genetic variant with multiple traits due to correlations among the traits...
October 2, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971955/systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-on-the-efficacy-of-evolocumab-and-other-therapies-for-the-management-of-lipid-levels-in-hyperlipidemia
#15
REVIEW
Peter P Toth, Gillian Worthy, Shravanthi R Gandra, Naveed Sattar, Sarah Bray, Lung-I Cheng, Ian Bridges, Gavin M Worth, Ricardo Dent, Carol A Forbes, Sohan Deshpande, Janine Ross, Jos Kleijnen, Erik S G Stroes
BACKGROUND: The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors evolocumab and alirocumab substantially reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) when added to statin therapy in patients who need additional LDL-C reduction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trials of lipid-lowering therapies from database inception through August 2016 (45 058 records retrieved). We found 69 trials of lipid-lowering therapies that enrolled patients requiring further LDL-C reduction while on maximally tolerated medium- or high-intensity statin, of which 15 could be relevant for inclusion in LDL-C reduction networks with evolocumab, alirocumab, ezetimibe, and placebo as treatment arms...
October 2, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963307/statin-associated-muscle-symptoms-sams-in-primary-prevention-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-older-adults-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#16
Zhen Zhou, Loai Albarqouni, Monique Breslin, Andrea J Curtis, Mark Nelson
INTRODUCTION: Although statins are commonly used for prevention of cardiovascular disease, there is limited evidence about statin-related adverse effects in older people. Statin-related adverse events (AEs), especially the statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), are the most common reasons for their discontinuation. Therefore, it is important to determine the risk of SAMS in the older population. We will undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis primarily focusing on the risk of SAMS and secondarily targeting myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, AEs and serious AEs, dropouts due to SAMS in run-in period, related permanent discontinuation rate of statins and creatine kinase level, among older people who received statins for primary prevention...
September 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960860/impact-of-statins-on-arteriovenous-fistulas-outcomes-a-meta-analysis
#17
Qingsong Wan, Li Li, Shikun Yang, Fenfen Chu
Statins are effective lipid-lowering drugs with beneficial pleiotropic effects for vascular remodeling processes, statins may have a beneficial effect on the function of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Therefore, we performed this systematic review to assess the protective effects of statin therapy in HD patients. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs and retrospective cohort studies (RCS) of statin therapy for the function of AVFs in HD patients were searched from multiple databases...
September 28, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958039/adherence-and-persistence-among-statin-users-aged-65-years-and-over-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Richard Ofori-Asenso, Avtar Jakhu, Ella Zomer, Andrea J Curtis, Maarit Jaana Korhonen, Mark Nelson, Manoj Gambhir, Andrew Tonkin, Danny Liew, Sophia Zoungas
Background: Older people (aged ≥ 65 years) have distinctive challenges with medication adherence. However, adherence and persistence patterns among older statin users have not been comprehensively reviewed. Methods: As part of a broader systematic review, we searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, CENTRAL and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database through December 2016 for English articles reporting adherence and/or persistence among older statin users...
September 2, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943224/the-effect-of-lipophilicity-and-dose-on-the-frequency-of-statin-associated-muscle-symptoms-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Jordon C Irwin, Saman Khalesi, Andrew S Fenning, Rebecca K Vella
Addressing the factors which lead to the development of statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) is vital for maintaining patient compliance with these pharmaceuticals, and thus improving patient outcomes. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between statin lipophilicity, or dose, and the frequency of adverse muscle symptoms using a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). RCTs, including statin monotherapy and placebo groups, which reported data on muscle adverse events were identified through the PubMed and Scopus databases...
September 21, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940025/exploring-association-between-statin-use-and-breast-cancer-risk-an-updated-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Md Mohaimenul Islam, Hsuan-Chia Yang, Phung-Anh Nguyen, Tahmina Nasrin Poly, Chih-Wei Huang, Shwetambara Kekade, Abdulwahed Mohammed Khalfan, Tonmoy Debnath, Yu-Chuan Jack Li, Shabbir Syed Abdul
PURPOSE: The benefits of statin treatment for preventing cardiac disease are well established. However, preclinical studies suggested that statins may influence mammary cancer growth, but the clinical evidence is still inconsistent. We, therefore, performed an updated meta-analysis to provide a precise estimate of the risk of breast cancer in individuals undergoing statin therapy. METHODS: For this meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, and CINAHL for published studies up to January 31, 2017...
September 22, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
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