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zoonosis in children

Charles Rupprecht, Ivan Kuzmin, Francois Meslin
Lyssaviruses are bullet-shaped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses and the causative agents of the ancient zoonosis rabies. Africa is the likely home to the ancestors of taxa residing within the Genus Lyssavirus, Family Rhabdoviridae. Diverse lyssaviruses are envisioned as co-evolving with bats, as the ultimate reservoirs, over seemingly millions of years. In terms of relative distribution, overt abundance, and resulting progeny, rabies virus is the most successful lyssavirus species today, but for unknown reasons...
2017: F1000Research
Patricia Rodrigues Naufal Spir, Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro, Elivelton Silva Fonseca, Aline Dayse, Rogério Giuffrida, Lourdes Aparecida Zampieri D'Andrea
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging zoonosis, and Brazil harbors about 90% of those infected in Latin America. Since 1998, the disease has been spreading quickly in São Paulo state, and the western region is considered an emerging focus of VL in Brazil. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and spatial distribution of VL in children referred to a public tertiary hospital located in the western region of São Paulo state, Brazil. METHODS: Medical records of children up to 18 years of age who were diagnosed with VL between January 2006 and December 2010 were reviewed...
March 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
Simona Gabrielli, Suzana Tasić-Otašević, Aleksandra Ignjatović, Maurizio Fraulo, Marija Trenkić-Božinović, Stefan Momčilović, Gabriella Cancrini
We report data on the Toxocara seroprevalence evidenced in 2015 from samples of 40 children and 298 adults of the population living in different areas of Serbia, and on possible association of certain variables with infection. Detection of specific antibodies was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; all ambiguous results and part of the positive and negative sera were further analyzed by confirmatory Western blot test. An overall 23.5% seroprevalence was noticed, which was confirmed in 13.0% of the examined population with no significant difference regarding the age (children = 10...
January 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Anne Straily, Naomi Drexler, Denica Cruz-Loustaunau, Christopher D Paddock, Gerardo Alvarez-Hernandez
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a life-threatening tickborne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a reemerging disease in Mexico (1,2). R. rickettsii is an intracellular bacterium that infects vascular endothelium and can cause multisystem organ failure and death in the absence of timely administration of a tetracycline-class antibiotic, typically doxycycline. Epidemic RMSF, as described in parts of Arizona and Mexico, is associated with massive local infestations of the brown dog tick (Rhiphicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on domestic dogs and in peridomestic settings that result in high rates of human exposure; for example, during 2003-2012, in Arizona the incidence of RMSF in the three most highly affected communities was 150 times the U...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
E Kalthan, J P Dondo-Fongbia, S Yambele, L R Dieu-Creer, R Zepio, C M Pamatika
An outbreak of monkeypox occurred in the district of Bangassou in 2015. The monkeypox is a re-emerging zoonosis of viral origin highly contagious. It is an eruptive fever which evolves in an epidemic manner. An investigation was held December 10, 2015, to February 10, 2016 in the focus of the epidemic. Its objective was to describe the epidemic according to the time, places and people and to determine the incidence and lethality of the disease. This was a descriptive study. The data collection was made by interview and using a linear plug composed of several sections...
December 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Agnieszka Antonowicz, Piotr Skrzypczyk, Beata Kępa, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
Toxocariasis is a common zoonosis caused by infection with Toxocara canis or cati larvae. Ocular toxocariasis is one of the forms of infestation found in 1/1,000 - 1/10,000 children. Children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) are at high risk of infections, also parasitic infestations, which can, in turn, cause relapses of the disease. A CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 6-year-old boy with steroiddependent nephrotic syndrome. The disease started at age of 2, the boy had 9 relapses of INS, and was treated with oral prednisone, levamisole, and cyclophosphamide...
October 19, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
E Rossi, A Perrone, D Narese, M Cangelosi, S Sollai, A Semeraro, M Mortilla, C Defilippi
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a zoonosis in children, result of infection by Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacillus. Infection is generally characterized by regional and self-limited lymphadenopathy after exposure to a scratch or bite from a cat. Rarely, B. henselae is cause of fever of unknown origin (FUO), with dissemination to various organs, most often involving the reticuloendothelial system (liver, spleen, bone marrow), mimicking an inflammatory rather than a lymphoproliferative disease. Whole-body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WBMRI), in association with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWIBS), allows a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients, without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation...
July 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
Séverine Thys, Kabemba E Mwape, Pierre Lefèvre, Pierre Dorny, Andrew M Phiri, Tanguy Marcotty, Isaac K Phiri, Sarah Gabriël
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement...
July 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Lucero Noguera-Morel, Daniel Azorin, Georgios Xirotagaros
UNLABELLED: Cutaneous leishma iasis (CL) is zoonosis with a spectrum of cutaneous manifestations caused by protozoan parasites of thegenus Leishmania.Manifestation varies according to the parasite virulence and the host immune response. Pentavalent antimonials (sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate) have been used as a first-line therapy for the last 70 years around the world.We report a case of a 1-year-old boy with two small yellowish papules mimicking juvenile xantogranuloma diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis after a biopsy...
March 16, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
Mallika Sengupta, Shalini Anandan, Dolly Daniel, John Antony Jude Prakash
Scrub typhus, a zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an important cause of acute febrile illness in India. This preliminary study determines the seroprevalence of scrub typhus in healthy Indian adults by measuring IgM and IgG antibodies to scrub typhus by ELISA in 100 healthy blood donors. Our study demonstrates a 15% seroprevalence of scrub typhus in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings especially in children.
October 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Vojtech Boldiš, František Ondriska, Eva Špitalská, Katarína Reiterová
Human toxocarosis is an important zoonosis caused by larvae of Toxocara canis/cati. The objective was to evaluate the role of IgG anti-Toxocara antibody detection and the specific IgG avidity in diagnostics of human toxocarosis. Anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies and IgG avidity were evaluated by excretory-secretory (ES)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The IgG anti-Toxocara seroprevalence in people (n = 7678) from western Slovakia was 15.3% and found to be highest in the oldest age groups. The presence of low- IgG avidity in 179 suspected patients for toxocarosis was evaluated in relation to sex, age, IgG antibody levels, eosinophilia, increased total IgE, domicile, geophagia, dog/cat ownership, anamnesis...
December 2015: Experimental Parasitology
Ana I Molineri, Marcelo L Signorini-Porchietto, Héctor D Tarabla
OBJECTIVES: a) To identify possible risk factors associated with rural accidents in women, b) to describe women's knowledge about zoonosis, c) to describe women's risk perception about farming, d) to describe mothers' risk perception about children's activities in rural settings, e) to estimate the initial age of exposure to the rural setting and its dangers, and f) to identify possible risk factors associated with rural accidents in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional design...
January 2015: Revista de Salud Pública
Liya Hu, Sasirekha Ramani, Rita Czako, Banumathi Sankaran, Ying Yu, David F Smith, Richard D Cummings, Mary K Estes, B V Venkataram Prasad
Strain-dependent variation of glycan recognition during initial cell attachment of viruses is a critical determinant of host specificity, tissue-tropism and zoonosis. Rotaviruses (RVs), which cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in infants and children, display significant genotype-dependent variations in glycan recognition resulting from sequence alterations in the VP8* domain of the spike protein VP4. The structural basis of this genotype-dependent glycan specificity, particularly in human RVs, remains poorly understood...
September 30, 2015: Nature Communications
Alexander Gonçalves Ferreira Guimarães, Gustavo Benedito Medeiros Alves, Anita de Moura Pessoa, Nelson Jorge da Silva Junior
INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis of great importance to public health and is considered a neglected disease by the World Health Organization. The disease has expanded and become more prevalent in urban areas in Brazil. METHODS: Geospatial analyses were performed and thematic maps of the triad of the disease were produced for the study period (2003-2012) in the urban area of the municipality of Rondonópolis in the midwestern State of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil, TerraView 4...
May 2015: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Giovanni Ianiro, Roberto Delogu, Lucia Fiore, Franco M Ruggeri
Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children, causing up to 450,000 deaths worldwide, mostly in developing countries. Most of RVA human infections in developed countries are related to five major G/P combinations: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8] and G9P[8]. During the surveillance activity of RotaNet-Italy, three uncommon G3P[6] RVA strains, designated as RVA/Human-wt/ITA/NA01/2009/G3P[6], RVA/Human-wt/ITA/NA06/2009/G3P[6], and RVA/Human-wt/ITA/NA19/2009/G3P[6], were identified in the stools of children with diarrhea hospitalized in Southern Italy in 2009...
July 2015: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Mehmet Arasli, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Nazif Elaldi, Alexander J McAuley, Eda Karadag Oncel, Ishak Ozel Tekin, Mustafa Gokhan Gozel, Ali Kaya, Fusun Dilara Icagasioglu, Dilek Yagci Caglayik, Gulay Korukluoglu, Furuzan Kokturk, Mehmet Bakir, Dennis A Bente, Mehmet Ceyhan
BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral zoonosis. Clinical reports indicate the severity of CCHF is milder in children than adults. The chemokines are important chemo-attractant mediators of the host immune system. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of the study was to identify whether or not there were any differences in chemokine levels between the pediatric and adult patients and control groups, and whether there was any correlation with disease severity...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Cristina Dobrescu, Horia Hriscu, Mihaela Emandi, Carmen Zamfir, Codruta Nemet
Trichinellosis is an important zoonosis that is difficult to diagnose and that can lead to disability, death and economic losses for the meat processing industry. The outbreaks are related to the consumption of insufficiently cooked pork containing larvae of Trichinella spiralis (Owen, 1833). Here, we describe epidemiological features of the disease in a region where incidence rates are typically elevated (Brasov County, Romania). Our descriptive, retrospective epidemiological study spanned a period of 25 years (1983-2007) in a group of 3 345 consumers of infected meat, of whom 2179 became infected...
December 2014: Folia Parasitologica
Peter Olupot-Olupot
Ebola virus disease is caused by a highly contagious and pathogenic threadlike RNA virus of the Filoviridae family. The index human case is usually a zoonosis that launches human-to-human transmission interface with varying levels of sustainability of the epidemic depending on the level of public health preparedness of the affected country and the Ebola virus strain. The disease affects all age groups in the population. Clinical diagnosis is challenging in index cases especially in the early stages of the disease when the presenting features are usually nonspecific and only similar to a flu-like illness...
March 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Italo José Mesquita Cavalcante, Marcus Raimundo Vale
INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala-azar) is a serious zoonosis that can be lethal, especially in untreated patients. Due to the fact that the State of Ceará is still an important area of transmission of VL, and based on the constant reports of the urbanization process of the disease in the country, it was necessary to monitor the occurrence of cases of leishmaniasis through epidemiological surveillance. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of leishmaniasis cases in Ceará, Brazil...
December 2014: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Sevcan A Bakkaloglu, Bradley A Warady
Despite technological improvements in dialysis connectology and dialysis technique, peritonitis remains the most common and most significant complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in children. Most children undergoing chronic PD experience none or only one peritonitis episode, while others have multiple episodes or episodes secondary to unusual organisms. Knowledge of potential risk factors and likely patient outcome is imperative if treatment is to be optimized. In this review we will, in turn, describe episodes of peritonitis that are characterized as either relapsing, recurrent, repeat or zoonosis-related to highlight the clinical issues that are commonly encountered by clinicians treating these infections...
September 2015: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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