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preterm cortex

Chieh-En Jane Tseng, Seán Froudist-Walsh, Philip J Brittain, Vyacheslav Karolis, Chiara Caldinelli, Jasmin Kroll, Serena J Counsell, Steven C R Williams, Robin M Murray, Chiara Nosarti
Very preterm (<32 weeks of gestation) birth is associated with structural brain alterations and memory impairments throughout childhood and adolescence. Here, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to study the neuroanatomy of recognition memory in 49 very preterm-born adults and 50 controls (mean age: 30 years) during completion of a task involving visual encoding and recognition of abstract pictures. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted images were also collected. Bilateral hippocampal volumes were calculated and tractography of the fornix and cingulum was performed and assessed in terms of volume and hindrance modulated orientational anisotropy (HMOA)...
September 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Dustin Scheinost, Soo Hyun Kwon, Cheryl Lacadie, Gordon Sze, Rajita Sinha, R Todd Constable, Laura R Ment
Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Augusto F Schmidt, Paranthaman S Kannan, Claire A Chougnet, Steve C Danzer, Lisa A Miller, Alan H Jobe, Suhas G Kallapur
BACKGROUND: Chorioamnionitis is associated with an increased risk of brain injury in preterm neonates. Inflammatory changes in brain could underlie this injury. Here, we evaluated whether neuroinflammation is induced by chorioamnionitis in a clinically relevant model. METHODS: Rhesus macaque fetuses were exposed to either intra-amniotic (IA) saline, or IA lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 mg) 16 or 48 h prior to delivery at 130 days (85 % of gestation) (n = 4-5 animals/group)...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Nasser H Kashou, Irfaan A Dar, Kathryn A Hasenstab, Ramzi W Nahhas, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
Palmar and plantar grasp are the foremost primitive neonatal reflexes and functions. Persistence of these reflexes in infancy is a sign of evolving cerebral palsy. Our aims were to establish measurement feasibility in a clinical setting and to characterize changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD) concentration in the bilateral frontoparietal cortex in unsedated neonates at the crib-side using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We hypothesized that bilateral concentration changes will occur upon somatic central and peripheral somatic stimulation...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
Maria Cristina Aisa, Benito Cappuccini, Antonella Barbati, Aldo Orlacchio, Mauro Baglioni, Gian Carlo Di Renzo
BACKGROUND: Premature and/or intrauterine growth-restricted neonates have an increased risk of developing postnatal renal injuries in later life. Studies on renal physiology in these neonates at a corrected age of 30-40 days are scarce and mostly relate to preterm infants. The data from these studies often lack the results of correlation analyses between biochemical parameters and nephron number-data which could provide additional insight and/or improve recognition of individuals at higher risk of renal failure...
August 25, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
C Papini, T P White, A Montagna, P J Brittain, S Froudist-Walsh, J Kroll, V Karolis, A Simonelli, S C Williams, R M Murray, C Nosarti
BACKGROUND: Very preterm birth (VPT; <32 weeks of gestation) has been associated with impairments in emotion regulation, social competence and communicative skills. However, the neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying such impairments have not been systematically studied. Here we investigated the functional integrity of the amygdala connectivity network in relation to the ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions in VPT adults. METHOD: Thirty-six VPT-born adults and 38 age-matched controls were scanned at rest in a 3-T MRI scanner...
October 2016: Psychological Medicine
R L Figueira, F L Gonçalves, A L Simões, C A Bernardino, L S Lopes, O Castro E Silva, L Sbragia
Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group): 1) preterm control (PTC), 2) preterm ventilated (PTV), 3) preterm asphyxiated (PTA), 4) preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV), 5) term control (TC), 6) term ventilated (TV), 7) term asphyxiated (TA), and 8) term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV)...
June 23, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Xiushuang Wu, Luqing Wei, Nan Wang, Zhangxue Hu, Li Wang, Juan Ma, Shuai Feng, Yue Cai, Xiaopeng Song, Yuan Shi
Little is known about the frequency features of spontaneous neural activity in the brains of moderate and late preterm (MLPT) newborns. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method to investigate the frequency properties of spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in 26 MLPT and 35 term newborns. Two frequency bands, slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) and slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz), were analyzed. Our results showed widespread differences in ALFF between the two bands; differences occurred mainly in the primary sensory and motor cortices and to a lesser extent in association cortices and subcortical areas...
October 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Suzanne M Jacques, Faisal Qureshi
Adrenal histologic changes, including compact cell change (CCC), cystic change (CYC), and adrenal hemorrhage (AH), and their clinical correlations have only infrequently been investigated in stillbirth. We evaluated 75 3rd trimester singleton stillborns with complete autopsies (30 term; 45 preterm). 58 had unexplained stillbirth, and 17 had clinical placental abruption. The mothers were predominantly African-American (89%). CCC and CYC were diagnosed as cytoplasmic eosinophilia and cystic cavities in the definitive cortex, respectively...
June 6, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Hosung Kim, Claude Lepage, Romir Maheshwary, Seun Jeon, Alan C Evans, Christopher P Hess, A James Barkovich, Duan Xu
Cerebral cortical folding becomes dramatically more complex in the fetal brain during the 3rd trimester of gestation; the process continues in a similar fashion in children who are born prematurely. To quantify this morphological development, it is necessary to extract the interface between gray matter and white matter, which is particularly challenging due to changing tissue contrast during brain maturation. We employed the well-established CIVET pipeline to extract this cortical surface, with point correspondence across subjects, using a surface-based spherical registration...
September 2016: NeuroImage
Stefano Bembich, Francesca Marrazzo, Alice Barini, Paola Ravalico, Gabriele Cont, Sergio Demarini
The aim of the study was to investigate whether cortical response to a repeated noxious procedure may change over time in preterm infants. Possible reasons for change are: (1) advancing maturation of central nervous system; and (2) increasing experience with noxious procedures during hospital stay. Sixteen preterm infants were recruited, with a postmenstrual age (PMA) ranging between 29 and 36 weeks. Newborns were assessed during a heel-prick procedure, once a week for at least 3 consecutive times. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy was used to detect cortical activation, by measuring increase in cortical oxy-haemoglobin (HbO2)...
September 2016: Pain
Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Mariya Hristova
Hypoxic-ischaemic damage to the developing brain is a leading cause of child death, with high mortality and morbidity, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and cognitive disabilities. The developmental stage of the brain and the severity of the insult influence the selective regional vulnerability and the subsequent clinical manifestations. The increased susceptibility to hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) of periventricular white matter in preterm infants predisposes the immature brain to motor, cognitive, and sensory deficits, with cognitive impairment associated with earlier gestational age...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Jenq-Wei Yang, Vicente Reyes-Puerta, Werner Kilb, Heiko J Luhmann
Spontaneous and sensory evoked spindle bursts represent a functional hallmark of the developing cerebral cortex in vitro and in vivo. They have been observed in various neocortical areas of numerous species, including newborn rodents and preterm human infants. Spindle bursts are generated in complex neocortical-subcortical circuits involving in many cases the participation of motor brain regions. Together with early gamma oscillations, spindle bursts synchronize the activity of a local neuronal network organized in a cortical column...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Jakob Frie, Nelly Padilla, Ulrika Ådén, Hugo Lagercrantz, Marco Bartocci
OBJECTIVES: To compare cortical hemodynamic responses to known and unknown facial stimuli between infants born extremely preterm and term-born infants, and to correlate the responses of the extremely preterm-born infants to regional cortical volumes at term-equivalent age. STUDY DESIGN: We compared 27 infants born extremely preterm (<28 gestational weeks) with 26 term-born infants. Corrected age and chronological age at testing were between 6 and 10 months, respectively...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
F Bertling, I Bendix, K Drommelschmidt, H G Wisniewski, U Felderhoff-Mueser, M Keller, S Prager
Inflammation is an important factor contributing to developmental brain injury in preterm infants. Although tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6) has immunomodulatory effects in several inflammatory conditions of adult animals, nothing is currently known about the role of TSG-6 in the developing brain, its impact on perinatal inflammation and its therapeutic potential. The aim of the current work was 1) to characterize the developmental expression of TSG-6 in the newborn rat brain, 2) to evaluate the impact of LPS exposure on TSG-6 expression and 3) to assess the therapeutic potential of exogenous TSG-6 administration...
May 2016: Experimental Neurology
Ömer Kartal, Seçil Aydınöz, Ayşe Tuğba Kartal, Taha Kelestemur, Ahmet Burak Caglayan, Mustafa Caglar Beker, Ferhan Karademir, Selami Süleymanoğlu, Mustafa Kul, Burak Yulug, Ertugrul Kilic
Hypoxic-ischemia (HI) is a widely used animal model to mimic the preterm or perinatal sublethal hypoxia, including hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It causes diffuse neurodegeneration in the brain and results in mental retardation, hyperactivity, cerebral palsy, epilepsy and neuroendocrine disturbances. Herein, we examined acute and subacute correlations between neuronal degeneration and serum growth factor changes, including growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) after hypoxic-ischemia (HI) in neonatal rats...
August 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Heidi Furre Østgård, Anne Elisabeth Sølsnes, Knut Jørgen Bjuland, Lars Morten Rimol, Marit Martinussen, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Asta Kristine Håberg, Jon Skranes, Gro Christine Christensen Løhaugen
BACKGROUND: Being born with very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight (BW) ≤1500 g) is associated with increased risk of maldevelopment of the immature brain which may affect neurological functioning. Deficits in attention and executive function problems have been reported in VLBW survivors compared with healthy subjects. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate attention and executive functions and to relate the clinical test results to cortical morphometry findings in VLBW young adults compared with term-born controls...
April 2016: Early Human Development
Megan A Rowlands, Dustin Scheinost, Cheryl Lacadie, Betty Vohr, Fangyong Li, Karen C Schneider, R Todd Constable, Laura R Ment
BACKGROUND: Preterm (PT) children show early cognitive and language deficits and display altered cortical connectivity for language compared to term (T) children. Developmentally, functional connectivity networks become more segregated and integrated, through the weakening of short-range and strengthening of long-range connections. METHODS: Longitudinal intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD) values were assessed in PT (n = 13) compared to T children (n = 12) at ages 8 vs...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Y S Zhang, C X Huang, J G Wen, G Y Sheng, X Y Cheng, Q Zhang
INTRODUCTION: It remains controversial as to whether the brain affects voiding control in preterm newborns. Constant bladder volume has previously been thought to induce bladder voiding in neonates, with no influence from the brain. Lately, there has been distinct evidence for an existing connection between the central nervous system and bladder voiding in preterm infants, as the voiding reflex arouses neonatal children. Video electroencephalography (EEG) is useful for recording bioelectrical activity of the cerebral cortex and exploring its relationship with voiding patterns in preterm neonates...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Niek E van der Aa, Manon J N L Benders, Peter G Nikkels, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Residual injury after perinatal arterial ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory usually involves the loss of cortical gray matter and subcortical white matter. In this article, we describe a different pattern of residual injury after middle cerebral artery stroke in preterm-born infants, in which the cortex is spared. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging scans of 40 infants (12 preterm and 28 full-term infants) with a large middle cerebral artery stroke were reviewed and correlated with outcome...
March 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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