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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117499/preclinical-chorioamnionitis-dysregulates-cxcl1-cxcr2-signaling-throughout-the-placental-fetal-brain-axis
#1
REVIEW
Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Shahani Noor, Jessie R Maxwell, Christopher V Anstine, Akosua Y Oppong, Shenandoah Robinson, Erin D Milligan, Lauren L Jantzie
In the United States, perinatal brain injury (PBI) is a major cause of infant mortality and childhood disability. For a large proportion of infants with PBI, central nervous system (CNS) injury begins in utero with inflammation (chorioamnionitis/CHORIO) and/or hypoxia-ischemia. While studies show CHORIO contributes to preterm CNS injury and is also a common independent risk factor for brain injury in term infants, the molecular mechanisms mediating inflammation in the placental-fetal-brain axis that result in PBI remain a gap in knowledge...
November 5, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095379/using-functional-connectivity-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-brain-connectivity-in-preterm-infants
#2
Rita Pickler, Stephanie Sealschott, Margo Moore, Stephanie Merhar, Jean Tkach, Andrew P Salzwedel, Weili Lin, Wai Gao
BACKGROUND: The use of functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) in research involving preterm infants is relatively new, and its feasibility in this population is not fully established. However, fcMRI images reveal functional neural connections that may be useful in establishing the mechanisms of neuroprotective interventions in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using fcMRI to measure differences in functional neural connections in nursing intervention studies...
November 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089437/transient-hypoxemia-chronically-disrupts-maturation-of-preterm-fetal-ovine-subplate-neuron-arborization-and-activity
#3
Evelyn McClendon, Daniel C Shaver, Kiera Degener-O'Brien, Xi Gong, Thuan Nguyen, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár, Claudia Mohr, Ben D Richardson, David J Rossi, Stephen A Back
Preterm infants are at risk for a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral disabilities associated with diffuse disturbances in cortical growth and development. During brain development, subplate neurons (SPNs) are a largely transient population that serves a critical role to establish functional cortical circuits. By dynamically integrating into developing cortical circuits they assist in consolidation of intra and extracortical circuits. Although SPNs reside in close proximity to cerebral white matter, which is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, the susceptibility of SPNs remains controversial...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072385/-medical-clowns-the-triple-value-clown-parent-premature-neonate
#4
REVIEW
Hagit Friedman, Shay Barak, Yelena Chulsky, Shoshi Ofir, Amir Kushnir
The infant's brain develops rapidly during the prenatal and early postnatal period. Temporary new neural circuits appear, such as the sub-cortical plate (SCP). SCP links the thalamus and cortex in a time window of sensory circuits' intensive development, creating the basis for the infant's bonding interactions. SCP activity in premature neonates is vulnerable and hypoxic injury may have a long lasting influence on brain development. Preterm birth is an emotional trauma for the parents and may lead to depression, anxiety and stress...
October 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057284/association-between-hemodynamic-activity-and-motor-performance-in-six-month-old-full-term-and-preterm-infants-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#5
Suelen Rosa de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Cabral de Paula Machado, Jonas Jardim de Paula, Paulo Henrique Paiva de Moraes, Maria Juliana Silvério Nahin, Lívia de Castro Magalhães, Sergio L Novi, Rickson C Mesquita, Débora Marques de Miranda, Maria Cândida Ferrarez Bouzada
This study aimed to assess task-induced activation in motor cortex and its association with motor performance in full-term and preterm born infants at six months old. A cross-sectional study of 73 six-month-old infants was conducted (35 full-term and 38 preterm infants). Motor performance was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development third edition-Bayley-III. Brain hemodynamic activity during motor task was measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Motor performance was similar in full-term and preterm infants...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018332/the-beneficial-effects-of-melatonin-administration-following-hypoxia-ischemia-in-preterm-fetal-sheep
#6
Tamara Yawno, Mawin Mahen, Jingang Li, Michael C Fahey, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Melatonin (MLT) is an endogenous hormone that controls circadian cycle. MLT has additional important properties that make it appealing as a neuroprotective agent-it is a potent anti-oxidant, with anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. MLT is safe for administration during pregnancy or to the newborn after birth, and can reduce white matter brain injury under conditions of chronic fetal hypoxia. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined whether an intermediate dose of MLT could restore white matter brain development when administered after an acute hypoxic ischemic (HI) insult in preterm fetal sheep...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922852/magnesium-sulfate-prevents-neurochemical-and-long-term-behavioral-consequences-of-neonatal-excitotoxic-lesions-comparison-between-male-and-female-mice
#7
Ismaël Daher, Bérénice Le Dieu-Lugon, Nathalie Dourmap, Matthieu Lecuyer, Lauriane Ramet, Cathy Gomila, Jérôme Ausseil, Stéphane Marret, Philippe Leroux, Vincent Roy, Salah El Mestikawy, Stéphanie Daumas, Bruno Gonzalez, Isabelle Leroux-Nicollet, Carine Cleren
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) administration to mothers at risk of preterm delivery is proposed as a neuroprotective strategy against neurological alterations such as cerebral palsy in newborns. However, long-term beneficial or adverse effects of MgSO4 and sex-specific sensitivity remain to be investigated. We conducted behavioral and neurochemical studies of MgSO4 effects in males and females, from the perinatal period to adolescence in a mouse model of cerebral neonatal lesion. The lesion was produced in 5-day-old (P5) pups by ibotenate intracortical injection...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893378/localization-of-spontaneous-bursting-neuronal-activity-in-the-preterm-human-brain-with-simultaneous-eeg-fmri
#8
Tomoki Arichi, Kimberley Whitehead, Giovanni Barone, Ronit Pressler, Francesco Padormo, A David Edwards, Lorenzo Fabrizi
Electroencephalographic recordings from the developing human brain are characterized by spontaneous neuronal bursts, the most common of which is the delta brush. Although similar events in animal models are known to occur in areas of immature cortex and drive their development, their origin in humans has not yet been identified. Here, we use simultaneous EEG-fMRI to localise the source of delta brush events in 10 preterm infants aged 32-36 postmenstrual weeks. The most frequent patterns were left and right posterior-temporal delta brushes which were associated in the left hemisphere with ipsilateral BOLD activation in the insula only; and in the right hemisphere in both the insular and temporal cortices...
September 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801253/investigating-the-maturation-of-microstructure-and-radial-orientation-in-the-preterm-human-cortex-with-diffusion-mri
#9
Zach Eaton-Rosen, Benoit Scherrer, Andrew Melbourne, Sebastien Ourselin, Jeffrey J Neil, Simon K Warfield
Preterm birth disrupts and alters the complex developmental processes in the cerebral cortex. This disruption may be a contributing factor to widespread delay and cognitive difficulties in the preterm population. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW MRI) is a noninvasive imaging technique that makes inferences about cellular structures, at scales smaller than the imaging resolution. One established finding is that DW MRI shows a transient radial alignment in the preterm cortex. In this study, we quantify this maturational process with the "radiality index", a parameter that measures directional coherence, which we expect to change rapidly in the perinatal period...
August 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711562/early-executive-function-differences-in-infants-born-moderate-to-late-preterm
#10
Amanda S Hodel, Kate L Senich, Claire Jokinen, Oren Sasson, Alyssa R Morris, Kathleen M Thomas
Individuals who are born very preterm (<32weeks gestation) show differential development of prefrontal cortex structure, function, and dependent behaviors, including executive function (EF) skills, beginning during late infancy and extending into adulthood. Preschool-aged children born moderate-to-late preterm (PT; 32-36weeks gestation) show smaller discrepancies in EF development, but it is unclear whether these differences first emerge during the early childhood years, when EF is rapidly developing, or if they arise from alterations in complex cognitive skills measurable in late infancy...
October 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691573/plasticity-in-the-working-memory-system-life-span-changes-and-response-to-injury
#11
Sean Froudist-Walsh, Diana López-Barroso, María José Torres-Prioris, Paula Croxson, Marcelo L Berthier
Working memory acts as a key bridge between perception, long-term memory, and action. The brain regions, connections, and neurotransmitters that underlie working memory undergo dramatic plastic changes during the life span, and in response to injury. Early life reliance on deep gray matter structures fades during adolescence as increasing reliance on prefrontal and parietal cortex accompanies the development of executive aspects of working memory. The rise and fall of working memory capacity and executive functions parallels the development and loss of neurotransmitter function in frontal cortical areas...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667905/spatial-and-temporal-postural-analysis-in-children-born-prematurely
#12
REVIEW
Maria Pia Bucci, Margherita Tringali, Clémence Trousson, Isabelle Husson, Olivier Baud, Valerie Biran
The aim of this study was to compare postural stability in a group of preterm-born children aged 4-6 years old and in a group of age-matched full-term control children by exploring both spatial and temporal analysis of the Center of Pressure (CoP). Twenty-nine children born prematurely (mean age: 5.38±0.17) and twenty-nine age-matched full-term control children participated in this study. Postural control was tested on both a stable and an unstable platform (from Framiral(®)) in three different visual conditions: eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed, and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation...
June 24, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608856/antenatal-dexamethasone-exposure-differentially-affects-distinct-cortical-neural-progenitor-cells-and-triggers-long-term-changes-in-murine-cerebral-architecture-and-behavior
#13
M A Tsiarli, A Rudine, N Kendall, M O Pratt, R Krall, E Thiels, D B DeFranco, A P Monaghan
Antenatal administration of synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC) is the standard of care for women at risk for preterm labor before 34 gestational weeks. Despite their widespread use, the type of sGC used and their dose or the dosing regimens are not standardized in the United States of America or worldwide. Several studies have identified neural deficits and the increased risk for cognitive and psychiatric disease later in life for children administered sGC prenatally. However, the precise molecular and cellular targets of GC action in the developing brain remain largely undefined...
June 13, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566104/attention-and-regional-gray-matter-development-in-very-preterm-children-at-age-12-years
#14
Rachel E Lean, Tracy R Melzer, Samudragupta Bora, Richard Watts, Lianne J Woodward
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the selective, sustained, and executive attention abilities of very preterm (VPT) born children in relation to concurrent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of regional gray matter development at age 12 years. METHODS: A regional cohort of 110 VPT (≤32 weeks gestation) and 113 full term (FT) born children were assessed at corrected age 12 years on the Test of Everyday Attention-Children. They also had a structural MRI scan that was subsequently analyzed using voxel-based morphometry to quantify regional between-group differences in cerebral gray matter development, which were then related to attention measures using multivariate methods...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528963/neuronal-activity-patterns-in-the-developing-barrel-cortex
#15
Heiko J Luhmann, Rustem Khazipov
The developing barrel cortex reveals a rich repertoire of neuronal activity patterns, which have been also found in other sensory neocortical areas and in other species including the somatosensory cortex of preterm human infants. The earliest stage is characterized by asynchronous, sparse single-cell firing at low frequencies. During the second stage neurons show correlated firing, which is initially mediated by electrical synapses and subsequently transforms into network bursts depending on chemical synapses...
May 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527570/mechanisms-of-glucocorticoid-action-during-development
#16
Jonathan T Busada, John A Cidlowski
Glucocorticoids are primary stress hormones produced by the adrenal cortex. The concentration of serum glucocorticoids in the fetus is low throughout most of gestation but surge in the weeks prior to birth. While their most well-known function is to stimulate differentiation and functional development of the lungs, glucocorticoids also play crucial roles in the development of several other organ systems. Mothers at risk of preterm delivery are administered glucocorticoids to accelerate fetal lung development and prevent respiratory distress...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472809/developmental-changes-in-expression-of-gabaa-receptor-subunits-%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-3-in-the-pig-brain
#17
Stephanie M Miller, Viskasari P Kalanjati, Paul B Colditz, Stella Tracey Björkman
GABA is a major neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. In the mature brain GABA exerts inhibitory actions via the GABAA receptor (GABAAR); however, in the immature brain GABA provides much of the excitatory drive. We examined the expression of 3 predominant GABAA α-subunit proteins in the pig brain at various pre- and postnatal ages. Brain tissue was collected from piglets born via caesarean section at preterm ages 91, 97, 100, and 104 days' gestational age (GA), at term equivalent (114 days' GA, caesarean section) and at term, postnatal day 0 (P0) (spontaneous delivery, term = 115 days)...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439520/relationship-between-relative-cerebral-blood-flow-relative-cerebral-blood-volume-and-relative-cerebral-metabolic-rate-of-oxygen-in-the-preterm-neonatal-brain
#18
Mina Nourhashemi, Guy Kongolo, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Sabrina Goudjil, Fabrice Wallois
The mechanisms responsible for coupling between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]), an important function of the microcirculation in preterm infants, remain unclear. Identification of a causal relationship between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text] in preterms may, therefore, help to elucidate the principles of cortical hemodynamics during development. We simultaneously recorded rCBF and rCBV and estimated [Formula: see text] by two independent acquisition systems: diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively, in 10 preterms aged between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434006/unbiased-quantification-of-subplate-neuron-loss-following-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-a-rat-model
#19
Alexandra Mikhailova, Naveena Sunkara, Patrick S McQuillen
BACKGROUND: Cellular targets of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) include both oligodendrocyte and neuronal lineages with differences in the patterns of vulnerable cells depending upon the developmental stage at which the injury occurs. Injury to the developing white matter is a characteristic feature of human preterm brain injury. Data are accumulating, however, for neuronal injury in the developing cerebral cortex. In the most widely used rodent model of preterm HI brain injury, conflicting data have been reported regarding the sensitivity of subplate neurons to early neonatal HI, with some reports of selective vulnerability and others that find no increased loss of subplate neurons in comparison with other cortical layers...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326964/adrenal-histologic-stress-related-changes-in-third-trimester-stillbirth
#20
Suzanne M Jacques, Faisal Qureshi
Adrenal histologic changes, including compact cell change (CCC), cystic change (CYC), and adrenal hemorrhage (AH), and their clinical correlations have only infrequently been investigated in stillbirth. We evaluated 75 third trimester singleton stillborns with complete autopsies (30 term and 45 preterm). A total of 58 had unexplained stillbirth and 17 had clinical placental abruption. The mothers were predominantly African-American (89%). CCC and CYC were diagnosed as cytoplasmic eosinophilia and cystic cavities in the definitive cortex, respectively...
March 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
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