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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711562/early-executive-function-differences-in-infants-born-moderate-to-late-preterm
#1
Amanda S Hodel, Kate L Senich, Claire Jokinen, Oren Sasson, Alyssa R Morris, Kathleen M Thomas
Individuals who are born very preterm (<32weeks gestation) show differential development of prefrontal cortex structure, function, and dependent behaviors, including executive function (EF) skills, beginning during late infancy and extending into adulthood. Preschool-aged children born moderate-to-late preterm (PT; 32-36weeks gestation) show smaller discrepancies in EF development, but it is unclear whether these differences first emerge during the early childhood years, when EF is rapidly developing, or if they arise from alterations in complex cognitive skills measurable in late infancy...
July 13, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691573/plasticity-in-the-working-memory-system-life-span-changes-and-response-to-injury
#2
Sean Froudist-Walsh, Diana López-Barroso, María José Torres-Prioris, Paula Croxson, Marcelo L Berthier
Working memory acts as a key bridge between perception, long-term memory, and action. The brain regions, connections, and neurotransmitters that underlie working memory undergo dramatic plastic changes during the life span, and in response to injury. Early life reliance on deep gray matter structures fades during adolescence as increasing reliance on prefrontal and parietal cortex accompanies the development of executive aspects of working memory. The rise and fall of working memory capacity and executive functions parallels the development and loss of neurotransmitter function in frontal cortical areas...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667905/spatial-and-temporal-postural-analysis-in-children-born-prematurely
#3
REVIEW
Maria Pia Bucci, Margherita Tringali, Clémence Trousson, Isabelle Husson, Olivier Baud, Valerie Biran
The aim of this study was to compare postural stability in a group of preterm-born children aged 4-6 years old and in a group of age-matched full-term control children by exploring both spatial and temporal analysis of the Center of Pressure (CoP). Twenty-nine children born prematurely (mean age: 5.38±0.17) and twenty-nine age-matched full-term control children participated in this study. Postural control was tested on both a stable and an unstable platform (from Framiral(®)) in three different visual conditions: eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed, and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation...
June 24, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608856/antenatal-dexamethasone-exposure-differentially-affects-distinct-cortical-neural-progenitor-cells-and-triggers-long-term-changes-in-murine-cerebral-architecture-and-behavior
#4
M A Tsiarli, A Rudine, N Kendall, M O Pratt, R Krall, E Thiels, D B DeFranco, A P Monaghan
Antenatal administration of synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC) is the standard of care for women at risk for preterm labor before 34 gestational weeks. Despite their widespread use, the type of sGC used and their dose or the dosing regimens are not standardized in the United States of America or worldwide. Several studies have identified neural deficits and the increased risk for cognitive and psychiatric disease later in life for children administered sGC prenatally. However, the precise molecular and cellular targets of GC action in the developing brain remain largely undefined...
June 13, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566104/attention-and-regional-gray-matter-development-in-very-preterm-children-at-age-12-years
#5
Rachel E Lean, Tracy R Melzer, Samudragupta Bora, Richard Watts, Lianne J Woodward
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the selective, sustained, and executive attention abilities of very preterm (VPT) born children in relation to concurrent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of regional gray matter development at age 12 years. METHODS: A regional cohort of 110 VPT (≤32 weeks gestation) and 113 full term (FT) born children were assessed at corrected age 12 years on the Test of Everyday Attention-Children. They also had a structural MRI scan that was subsequently analyzed using voxel-based morphometry to quantify regional between-group differences in cerebral gray matter development, which were then related to attention measures using multivariate methods...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528963/neuronal-activity-patterns-in-the-developing-barrel-cortex
#6
Heiko J Luhmann, Rustem Khazipov
The developing barrel cortex reveals a rich repertoire of neuronal activity patterns, which have been also found in other sensory neocortical areas and in other species including the somatosensory cortex of preterm human infants. The earliest stage is characterized by asynchronous, sparse single-cell firing at low frequencies. During the second stage neurons show correlated firing, which is initially mediated by electrical synapses and subsequently transforms into network bursts depending on chemical synapses...
May 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527570/mechanisms-of-glucocorticoid-action-during-development
#7
Jonathan T Busada, John A Cidlowski
Glucocorticoids are primary stress hormones produced by the adrenal cortex. The concentration of serum glucocorticoids in the fetus is low throughout most of gestation but surge in the weeks prior to birth. While their most well-known function is to stimulate differentiation and functional development of the lungs, glucocorticoids also play crucial roles in the development of several other organ systems. Mothers at risk of preterm delivery are administered glucocorticoids to accelerate fetal lung development and prevent respiratory distress...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472809/developmental-changes-in-expression-of-gabaa-receptor-subunits-%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-3-in-the-pig-brain
#8
Stephanie M Miller, Viskasari P Kalanjati, Paul B Colditz, Stella Tracey Björkman
GABA is a major neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. In the mature brain GABA exerts inhibitory actions via the GABAA receptor (GABAAR); however, in the immature brain GABA provides much of the excitatory drive. We examined the expression of 3 predominant GABAA α-subunit proteins in the pig brain at various pre- and postnatal ages. Brain tissue was collected from piglets born via caesarean section at preterm ages 91, 97, 100, and 104 days' gestational age (GA), at term equivalent (114 days' GA, caesarean section) and at term, postnatal day 0 (P0) (spontaneous delivery, term = 115 days)...
May 5, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439520/relationship-between-relative-cerebral-blood-flow-relative-cerebral-blood-volume-and-relative-cerebral-metabolic-rate-of-oxygen-in-the-preterm-neonatal-brain
#9
Mina Nourhashemi, Guy Kongolo, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Sabrina Goudjil, Fabrice Wallois
The mechanisms responsible for coupling between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]), an important function of the microcirculation in preterm infants, remain unclear. Identification of a causal relationship between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text] in preterms may, therefore, help to elucidate the principles of cortical hemodynamics during development. We simultaneously recorded rCBF and rCBV and estimated [Formula: see text] by two independent acquisition systems: diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively, in 10 preterms aged between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434006/unbiased-quantification-of-subplate-neuron-loss-following-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-a-rat-model
#10
Alexandra Mikhailova, Naveena Sunkara, Patrick S McQuillen
BACKGROUND: Cellular targets of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) include both oligodendrocyte and neuronal lineages with differences in the patterns of vulnerable cells depending upon the developmental stage at which the injury occurs. Injury to the developing white matter is a characteristic feature of human preterm brain injury. Data are accumulating, however, for neuronal injury in the developing cerebral cortex. In the most widely used rodent model of preterm HI brain injury, conflicting data have been reported regarding the sensitivity of subplate neurons to early neonatal HI, with some reports of selective vulnerability and others that find no increased loss of subplate neurons in comparison with other cortical layers...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326964/adrenal-histologic-stress-related-changes-in-third-trimester-stillbirth
#11
Suzanne M Jacques, Faisal Qureshi
Adrenal histologic changes, including compact cell change (CCC), cystic change (CYC), and adrenal hemorrhage (AH), and their clinical correlations have only infrequently been investigated in stillbirth. We evaluated 75 third trimester singleton stillborns with complete autopsies (30 term and 45 preterm). A total of 58 had unexplained stillbirth and 17 had clinical placental abruption. The mothers were predominantly African-American (89%). CCC and CYC were diagnosed as cytoplasmic eosinophilia and cystic cavities in the definitive cortex, respectively...
March 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207964/impaired-nephrogenesis-in-neonatal-rats-with-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#12
Mayu Nakagawa, Naoto Nishizaki, Amane Endo, Tomonosuke Someya, Yuta Saito, Akira Mizutani, Taichi Hara, Yayoi Murano, Koji Sakuraya, Satoshi Hara, Daisuke Umino, Daishi Hirano, Shuichiro Fujinaga, Yoshiyuki Ohtomo, Toshiaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Preterm neonates are born while nephrogenesis is ongoing, and are commonly exposed to factors in a hyperoxic environment that can impair renal development. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is the most clinically relevant model of ROP because its biologic features closely resemble those of ROP in preterm infants. We investigated impaired renal development in a rat model of OIR...
February 16, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143492/a-longitudinal-study-of-associations-between-psychiatric-symptoms-and-disorders-and-cerebral-gray-matter-volumes-in-adolescents-born-very-preterm
#13
Violeta L Botellero, Jon Skranes, Knut Jørgen Bjuland, Asta Kristine Håberg, Stian Lydersen, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Marit S Indredavik, Marit Martinussen
BACKGROUND: Being born preterm with very low birthweight (VLBW ≤ 1500 g) poses a risk for cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) abnormalities, as well as for having more psychiatric problems during childhood and adolescence than term-born individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cortical and subcortical GM volumes and the course of psychiatric disorders during adolescence in VLBW individuals. METHODS: We followed VLBW individuals and term-born controls (birth weight ≥10th percentile) from 15 (VLBW;controls n = 40;56) to 19 (n = 44;60) years of age...
February 1, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117062/neonatal-amygdala-functional-connectivity-at-rest-in-healthy-and-preterm-infants-and-early-internalizing-symptoms
#14
Cynthia E Rogers, Chad M Sylvester, Carrie Mintz, Jeanette K Kenley, Joshua S Shimony, Deanna M Barch, Christopher D Smyser
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in the normal developmental trajectory of amygdala resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) have been associated with atypical emotional processes and psychopathology. Little is known, however, regarding amygdala rs-FC at birth or its relevance to outcomes. This study examined amygdala rs-FC in healthy, full-term (FT) infants and in very preterm (VPT) infants, and tested whether variability of neonatal amygdala rs-FC predicted internalizing symptoms at age 2 years...
February 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079529/leveraging-the-skills-of-nurses-and-the-power-of-language-nutrition-to-ensure-a-better-future-for-children
#15
REVIEW
Ashley Darcy Mahoney, Lauren Head Zauche, Sunny Hallowell, Arianne Weldon, Jennifer Stapel-Wax
BACKGROUND: Early language exposure is critical for language acquisition and significantly influences a child's literacy skills. However, preterm infants may experience language deprivation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Nurses are vital to helping parents understand their critical role in early language development. PURPOSE: To discuss the impact of language-rich interactions and interventions that promote early language exposure, or Language Nutrition, by parents and caregivers on the long-term developmental, language, and educational outcomes of high-risk infants...
February 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076368/functional-laterality-of-task-evoked-activation-in-sensorimotor-cortex-of-preterm-infants-an-optimized-3-t-fmri-study-employing-a-customized-neonatal-head-coil
#16
Lukas Scheef, Jurek A Nordmeyer-Massner, Adam Pr Smith-Collins, Nicole Müller, Gaby Stegmann-Woessner, Jacob Jankowski, Jürgen Gieseke, Mark Born, Hermann Seitz, Peter Bartmann, Hans H Schild, Klaas P Pruessmann, Axel Heep, Henning Boecker
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in neonates has been introduced as a non-invasive method for studying sensorimotor processing in the developing brain. However, previous neonatal studies have delivered conflicting results regarding localization, lateralization, and directionality of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses in sensorimotor cortex (SMC). Amongst the confounding factors in interpreting neonatal fMRI studies include the use of standard adult MR-coils providing insufficient signal to noise, and liberal statistical thresholds, compromising clinical interpretation at the single subject level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060793/preterm-birth-and-ventilation-decrease-surface-density-of-glomerular-capillaries-in-lambs-regardless-of-postnatal-respiratory-support-mode
#17
Eveline Staub, Mar Janna Dahl, Calan Yost, Sydney Bowen, Toshio Aoki, Adam Blair, Zhengming Wang, Donald M Null, Bradley A Yoder, Kurt H Albertine
BACKGROUND: Prematurity is often complicated by respiratory support, including invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and noninvasive support (NIS). Compared with IMV, NIS reduces injury to the lung and brain. Prematurity may also disrupt glomerular architecture. Whether NIS differentially affects glomerular architecture is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that IMV would lead to greater disruption of glomerular architecture than NIS. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of kidneys from moderately preterm lambs delivered at ~131 d gestation (term ~150 d) that had antenatal steroid exposure and surfactant treatment before resuscitation by IMV...
July 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986613/oxygen-flux-reduces-cux1-positive-neurons-and-cortical-growth-in-a-gestational-rodent-model-of-growth-restriction
#18
Elaine Fletcher, Jean Wade, Petrina A Georgala, Trudi L Gillespie, David J Price, Elizabeth Pilley, Julie-Clare Becher
BACKGROUND: The mammalian cerebral cortex forms in an inside-out manner, establishing deep cortical layers before superficial layers and is regulated by transcription factors which influence cell differentiation. Preterm birth interrupts the trajectory of normal neurodevelopment and adverse perinatal exposures have been implicated in cortical injury. We hypothesise that growth restriction (GR) and fluctuating hyperoxia (ΔO2) impair cortical laminar development. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats received 18% (non-restricted, NR) or 9% (growth restricted, GR) protein diet from E15-P7...
March 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938480/human-amnion-epithelial-cells-protect-against-white-matter-brain-injury-after-repeated-endotoxin-exposure-in-the-preterm-ovine-fetus
#19
Tamara Yawno, Tharani Sabaretnam, Jingang Li, Courtney McDonald, Rebecca Lim, Graham Jenkin, Euan M Wallace, Suzanne L Miller
Intrauterine inflammation is a significant cause of injury to the developing fetal brain. Using a preterm fetal sheep model of in utero infection, we asked whether human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) were able to reduce inflammation-induced fetal brain injury. Surgery was undertaken on pregnant sheep at ∼105 days gestation (term is 147 days) for implantation of vascular catheters. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 ng/kg bolus) or saline was administered IV at 109, 110, and 111 days. Sixty million fluorescent-labeled hAECs were administered at 110, 111, and 112 days gestation via the brachial artery catheter...
April 13, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903733/development-of-activity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#20
Jing Shen, Matthew T Colonnese
A comprehensive developmental timeline of activity in the mouse cortex in vivo is lacking. Understanding the activity changes that accompany synapse and circuit formation is important to understand the mechanisms by which activity molds circuits and would help to identify critical checkpoints for normal development. To identify key principles of cortical activity maturation, we systematically tracked spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity with extracellular recordings of primary visual cortex (V1) in nonanesthetized mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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