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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326964/adrenal-histologic-stress-related-changes-in-third-trimester-stillbirth
#1
Suzanne M Jacques, Faisal Qureshi
Adrenal histologic changes, including compact cell change (CCC), cystic change (CYC), and adrenal hemorrhage (AH), and their clinical correlations have only infrequently been investigated in stillbirth. We evaluated 75 third trimester singleton stillborns with complete autopsies (30 term and 45 preterm). A total of 58 had unexplained stillbirth and 17 had clinical placental abruption. The mothers were predominantly African-American (89%). CCC and CYC were diagnosed as cytoplasmic eosinophilia and cystic cavities in the definitive cortex, respectively...
March 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207964/impaired-nephrogenesis-in-neonatal-rats-with-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#2
Mayu Nakagawa, Naoto Nishizaki, Amane Endo, Tomonosuke Someya, Yuta Saito, Akira Mizutani, Taichi Hara, Yayoi Murano, Koji Sakuraya, Satoshi Hara, Daisuke Umino, Daishi Hirano, Shuichiro Fujinaga, Yoshiyuki Ohtomo, Toshiaki Shimizu
OBJECTIVES: Preterm neonates are born while nephrogenesis is ongoing and are commonly exposed to factors in a hyperoxic environment that can impair renal development. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is the most clinically relevant model of ROP because its biologic features closely resemble those of ROP in preterm infants. We investigated impaired renal development in a rat model of OIR...
February 16, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143492/a-longitudinal-study-of-associations-between-psychiatric-symptoms-and-disorders-and-cerebral-gray-matter-volumes-in-adolescents-born-very-preterm
#3
Violeta L Botellero, Jon Skranes, Knut Jørgen Bjuland, Asta Kristine Håberg, Stian Lydersen, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Marit S Indredavik, Marit Martinussen
BACKGROUND: Being born preterm with very low birthweight (VLBW ≤ 1500 g) poses a risk for cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) abnormalities, as well as for having more psychiatric problems during childhood and adolescence than term-born individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cortical and subcortical GM volumes and the course of psychiatric disorders during adolescence in VLBW individuals. METHODS: We followed VLBW individuals and term-born controls (birth weight ≥10th percentile) from 15 (VLBW;controls n = 40;56) to 19 (n = 44;60) years of age...
February 1, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117062/neonatal-amygdala-functional-connectivity-at-rest-in-healthy-and-preterm-infants-and-early-internalizing-symptoms
#4
Cynthia E Rogers, Chad M Sylvester, Carrie Mintz, Jeanette K Kenley, Joshua S Shimony, Deanna M Barch, Christopher D Smyser
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in the normal developmental trajectory of amygdala resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) have been associated with atypical emotional processes and psychopathology. Little is known, however, regarding amygdala rs-FC at birth or its relevance to outcomes. This study examined amygdala rs-FC in healthy, full-term (FT) infants and in very preterm (VPT) infants, and tested whether variability of neonatal amygdala rs-FC predicted internalizing symptoms at age 2 years...
February 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079529/leveraging-the-skills-of-nurses-and-the-power-of-language-nutrition-to-ensure-a-better-future-for-children
#5
REVIEW
Ashley Darcy Mahoney, Lauren Head Zauche, Sunny Hallowell, Arianne Weldon, Jennifer Stapel-Wax
BACKGROUND: Early language exposure is critical for language acquisition and significantly influences a child's literacy skills. However, preterm infants may experience language deprivation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Nurses are vital to helping parents understand their critical role in early language development. PURPOSE: To discuss the impact of language-rich interactions and interventions that promote early language exposure, or Language Nutrition, by parents and caregivers on the long-term developmental, language, and educational outcomes of high-risk infants...
February 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076368/functional-laterality-of-task-evoked-activation-in-sensorimotor-cortex-of-preterm-infants-an-optimized-3-t-fmri-study-employing-a-customized-neonatal-head-coil
#6
Lukas Scheef, Jurek A Nordmeyer-Massner, Adam Pr Smith-Collins, Nicole Müller, Gaby Stegmann-Woessner, Jacob Jankowski, Jürgen Gieseke, Mark Born, Hermann Seitz, Peter Bartmann, Hans H Schild, Klaas P Pruessmann, Axel Heep, Henning Boecker
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in neonates has been introduced as a non-invasive method for studying sensorimotor processing in the developing brain. However, previous neonatal studies have delivered conflicting results regarding localization, lateralization, and directionality of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses in sensorimotor cortex (SMC). Amongst the confounding factors in interpreting neonatal fMRI studies include the use of standard adult MR-coils providing insufficient signal to noise, and liberal statistical thresholds, compromising clinical interpretation at the single subject level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060793/preterm-birth-and-ventilation-decrease-surface-density-of-glomerular-capillaries-in-lambs-regardless-of-postnatal-respiratory-support-mode
#7
Eveline Staub, Mar Janna Dahl, Calan Yost, Sydney Bowen, Toshio Aoki, Adam Blair, Zhengming Wang, Donald M Null, Bradley A Yoder, Kurt H Albertine
BACKGROUND: Prematurity is often complicated by respiratory support, including invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and non-invasive support (NIS). Compared to IMV, NIS reduces injury to the lung and brain. Prematurity may also disrupt glomerular architecture. Whether NIS differentially affects glomerular architecture is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that IMV would lead to greater disruption of glomerular architecture than NIS. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of kidneys from moderately preterm lambs delivered at ~131d gestation (term ~150d) that had antenatal steroid exposure and surfactant treatment before resuscitation by IMV...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986613/oxygen-flux-reduces-cux1-positive-neurons-and-cortical-growth-in-a-gestational-rodent-model-of-growth-restriction
#8
Elaine Fletcher, Jean Wade, Petrina A Georgala, Trudi L Gillespie, David J Price, Elizabeth Pilley, Julie-Clare Becher
BACKGROUND: The mammalian cerebral cortex forms in an inside-out manner, establishing deep cortical layers before superficial layers and is regulated by transcription factors which influence cell differentiation. Preterm birth interrupts the trajectory of normal neurodevelopment and adverse perinatal exposures have been implicated in cortical injury. We hypothesise that growth restriction (GR) and fluctuating hyperoxia (ΔO2) impair cortical laminar development. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats received 18% (non-restricted, NR) or 9% (growth restricted, GR) protein diet from E15-P7...
March 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938480/human-amnion-epithelial-cells-protect-against-white-matter-brain-injury-after-repeated-endotoxin-exposure-in-the-preterm-ovine-fetus
#9
Tamara Yawno, Tharani Sabaretnam, Jingang Li, Courtney McDonald, Rebecca Lim, Graham Jenkin, Euan Wallace, Suzanne Miller
<p>Intrauterine inflammation is a significant cause of injury to the developing fetal brain. Using a preterm fetal sheep model of in utero infection, we asked whether human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) were able to reduce inflammation-induced fetal brain injury.</p><p>Surgery was undertaken on pregnant sheep at ~105 days gestation (term is 147 days) for implantation of vascular catheters. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 ng/kg bolus) or saline was administered iv at 109, 110 and 111 days. 60 million fluorescent-labeled hAECs were administered at 110, 111, and 112 days gestation via the brachial artery catheter...
October 31, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903733/development-of-activity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#10
Jing Shen, Matthew T Colonnese
A comprehensive developmental timeline of activity in the mouse cortex in vivo is lacking. Understanding the activity changes that accompany synapse and circuit formation is important to understand the mechanisms by which activity molds circuits and would help to identify critical checkpoints for normal development. To identify key principles of cortical activity maturation, we systematically tracked spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity with extracellular recordings of primary visual cortex (V1) in nonanesthetized mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647705/a-multimodal-imaging-study-of-recognition-memory-in-very-preterm-born-adults
#11
Chieh-En Jane Tseng, Seán Froudist-Walsh, Philip J Brittain, Vyacheslav Karolis, Chiara Caldinelli, Jasmin Kroll, Serena J Counsell, Steven C R Williams, Robin M Murray, Chiara Nosarti
Very preterm (<32 weeks of gestation) birth is associated with structural brain alterations and memory impairments throughout childhood and adolescence. Here, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to study the neuroanatomy of recognition memory in 49 very preterm-born adults and 50 controls (mean age: 30 years) during completion of a task involving visual encoding and recognition of abstract pictures. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted images were also collected. Bilateral hippocampal volumes were calculated and tractography of the fornix and cingulum was performed and assessed in terms of volume and hindrance modulated orientational anisotropy (HMOA)...
February 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622134/prenatal-stress-alters-amygdala-functional-connectivity-in-preterm-neonates
#12
Dustin Scheinost, Soo Hyun Kwon, Cheryl Lacadie, Gordon Sze, Rajita Sinha, R Todd Constable, Laura R Ment
Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596440/intra-amniotic-lps-causes-acute-neuroinflammation-in-preterm-rhesus-macaques
#13
Augusto F Schmidt, Paranthaman S Kannan, Claire A Chougnet, Steve C Danzer, Lisa A Miller, Alan H Jobe, Suhas G Kallapur
BACKGROUND: Chorioamnionitis is associated with an increased risk of brain injury in preterm neonates. Inflammatory changes in brain could underlie this injury. Here, we evaluated whether neuroinflammation is induced by chorioamnionitis in a clinically relevant model. METHODS: Rhesus macaque fetuses were exposed to either intra-amniotic (IA) saline, or IA lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 mg) 16 or 48 h prior to delivery at 130 days (85 % of gestation) (n = 4-5 animals/group)...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570791/somatic-stimulation-causes-frontoparietal-cortical-changes-in-neonates-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#14
Nasser H Kashou, Irfaan A Dar, Kathryn A Hasenstab, Ramzi W Nahhas, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
Palmar and plantar grasp are the foremost primitive neonatal reflexes and functions. Persistence of these reflexes in infancy is a sign of evolving cerebral palsy. Our aims were to establish measurement feasibility in a clinical setting and to characterize changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD) concentration in the bilateral frontoparietal cortex in unsedated neonates at the crib-side using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We hypothesized that bilateral concentration changes will occur upon somatic central and peripheral somatic stimulation...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557556/biochemical-parameters-of-renal-impairment-injury-and-surrogate-markers-of-nephron-number-in-intrauterine-growth-restricted-and-preterm-neonates-at-30-40%C3%A2-days-of-postnatal-corrected-age
#15
Maria Cristina Aisa, Benito Cappuccini, Antonella Barbati, Aldo Orlacchio, Mauro Baglioni, Gian Carlo Di Renzo
BACKGROUND: Premature and/or intrauterine growth-restricted neonates have an increased risk of developing postnatal renal injuries in later life. Studies on renal physiology in these neonates at a corrected age of 30-40 days are scarce and mostly relate to preterm infants. The data from these studies often lack the results of correlation analyses between biochemical parameters and nephron number-data which could provide additional insight and/or improve recognition of individuals at higher risk of renal failure...
August 25, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523311/altered-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-emotion-processing-brain-regions-in-adults-who-were-born-very-preterm
#16
C Papini, T P White, A Montagna, P J Brittain, S Froudist-Walsh, J Kroll, V Karolis, A Simonelli, S C Williams, R M Murray, C Nosarti
BACKGROUND: Very preterm birth (VPT; <32 weeks of gestation) has been associated with impairments in emotion regulation, social competence and communicative skills. However, the neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying such impairments have not been systematically studied. Here we investigated the functional integrity of the amygdala connectivity network in relation to the ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions in VPT adults. METHOD: Thirty-six VPT-born adults and 38 age-matched controls were scanned at rest in a 3-T MRI scanner...
October 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356106/brain-caspase-3-and-intestinal-fabp-responses-in-preterm-and-term-rats-submitted-to-birth-asphyxia
#17
R L Figueira, F L Gonçalves, A L Simões, C A Bernardino, L S Lopes, O Castro E Silva, L Sbragia
Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group): 1) preterm control (PTC), 2) preterm ventilated (PTV), 3) preterm asphyxiated (PTA), 4) preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV), 5) term control (TC), 6) term ventilated (TV), 7) term asphyxiated (TA), and 8) term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV)...
June 23, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27316633/frequency-of-spontaneous-bold-signal-differences-between-moderate-and-late-preterm-newborns-and-term-newborns
#18
Xiushuang Wu, Luqing Wei, Nan Wang, Zhangxue Hu, Li Wang, Juan Ma, Shuai Feng, Yue Cai, Xiaopeng Song, Yuan Shi
Little is known about the frequency features of spontaneous neural activity in the brains of moderate and late preterm (MLPT) newborns. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method to investigate the frequency properties of spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in 26 MLPT and 35 term newborns. Two frequency bands, slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) and slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz), were analyzed. Our results showed widespread differences in ALFF between the two bands; differences occurred mainly in the primary sensory and motor cortices and to a lesser extent in association cortices and subcortical areas...
October 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268047/adrenal-histologic-stress-related-changes-in-third-trimester-stillbirth-frequency-and-clinical-pathologic-correlations-in-a-predominantly-african-american-population
#19
Suzanne M Jacques, Faisal Qureshi
Adrenal histologic changes, including compact cell change (CCC), cystic change (CYC), and adrenal hemorrhage (AH), and their clinical correlations have only infrequently been investigated in stillbirth. We evaluated 75 3rd trimester singleton stillborns with complete autopsies (30 term; 45 preterm). 58 had unexplained stillbirth, and 17 had clinical placental abruption. The mothers were predominantly African-American (89%). CCC and CYC were diagnosed as cytoplasmic eosinophilia and cystic cavities in the definitive cortex, respectively...
June 6, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184202/neocivet-towards-accurate-morphometry-of-neonatal-gyrification-and-clinical-applications-in-preterm-newborns
#20
Hosung Kim, Claude Lepage, Romir Maheshwary, Seun Jeon, Alan C Evans, Christopher P Hess, A James Barkovich, Duan Xu
Cerebral cortical folding becomes dramatically more complex in the fetal brain during the 3rd trimester of gestation; the process continues in a similar fashion in children who are born prematurely. To quantify this morphological development, it is necessary to extract the interface between gray matter and white matter, which is particularly challenging due to changing tissue contrast during brain maturation. We employed the well-established CIVET pipeline to extract this cortical surface, with point correspondence across subjects, using a surface-based spherical registration...
September 2016: NeuroImage
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