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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334443/pollutant-ground-concentrations-of-nonneutrally-buoyant-particles
#1
Alon Mandel, Eli Stern, Amos Ullmann, Neima Brauner
A methodology is suggested for the estimation of the mass density and the cumulative ground deposition of a nonvolatile, nonneutrally buoyant, air pollutant (liquid or solid) released from a polluted column (following an explosion caused during routine operation in, e.g., the chemical industry or due to any kind of hostile act) and deposited on the ground via gravitational settling. In many cases, the deposited mass due to gravitational settling constitutes a significant fraction of the original inventory released from the source...
March 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334154/ethical-issues-of-crispr-technology-and-gene-editing-through-the-lens-of-solidarity
#2
John J Mulvihill, Benjamin Capps, Yann Joly, Tamra Lysaght, Hub A E Zwart, Ruth Chadwick
Background: The avalanche of commentaries on CRISPR-Cas9 technology, a bacterial immune system modified to recognize any short DNA sequence, cut it out, and insert a new one, has rekindled hopes for gene therapy and other applications and raised criticisms of engineering genes in future generations. Sources of data: This discussion draws on articles that emphasize ethics, identified partly through PubMed and Google, 2014-2016. Areas of agreement: CRISPR-Cas9 has taken the pace and prospects for genetic discovery and applications to a high level, stoking anticipation for somatic gene engineering to help patients...
February 23, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330398/mental-health-consequences-and-social-issues-after-the-fukushima-disaster
#3
Masaharu Maeda, Misari Oe
The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear power plant accident caused multidimensional and long-term effects on the mental health condition of people living in Fukushima. In this article, focusing on the influence of the nuclear disaster, we present an overview of studies regarding the psychosocial consequences of people in Fukushima. Studies revealed that the experiences of the explosions at the plant as well as the tsunami are deeply embedded in their memory, leading to posttraumatic responses...
March 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330340/cooperative-enhancement-of-the-nonlinear-optical-response-in-conjugated-energetic-materials-a-td-dft-study
#4
Andrew E Sifain, Loza F Tadesse, Josiah A Bjorgaard, David E Chavez, Oleg V Prezhdo, R Jason Scharff, Sergei Tretiak
Conjugated energetic molecules (CEMs) are a class of explosives with high nitrogen content that posses both enhanced safety and energetic performance properties and are ideal for direct optical initiation. As isolated molecules, they absorb within the range of conventional lasers. Crystalline CEMs are used in practice, however, and their properties can differ due to intermolecular interaction. Herein, time-dependent density functional theory was used to investigate one-photon absorption (OPA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) of monomers and dimers obtained from experimentally determined crystal structures of CEMs...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330198/pretreatment-and-enzymatic-process-modification-strategies-to-improve-efficiency-of-sugar-production-from-sugarcane-bagasse
#5
Siddhartha Pal, Shereena Joy, Kalpana D Trimukhe, Pramod S Kumbhar, Anjani J Varma, Sasisanker Padmanabhan
Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis play a critical role in the economic production of sugars and fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we evaluated diverse pilot-scale pretreatments and different post-pretreatment strategies for the production of fermentable sugars from sugarcane bagasse. For the pretreatment of bagasse at pilot-scale level, steam explosion without catalyst and combination of sulfuric and oxalic acids at low and high loadings were used. Subsequently, to enhance the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated bagasse, three different post-pretreatment process schemes were investigated...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329435/face-shield-design-against-blast-induced-head-injuries
#6
Long Bin Tan, Kwong Ming Tse, Yuan Hong Tan, Mohamad Ali Bin Sapingi, Vincent Beng Chye Tan, Heow Pueh Lee
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been on the rise in recent years due to the increasing use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in conflict zones. Our study investigates the response of a helmeted human head subjected to a blast of 1 atm peak overpressure, for cases with and without a standard polycarbonate (PC) face shield and for face shields comprising of composite PC and aerogel materials and with lateral edge extension. The novel introduction of aerogel into the laminate face shield is explored and its wave-structure interaction mechanics and performance in blast mitigation is analysed...
March 22, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328925/a-source-controlled-data-center-network-model
#7
Yang Yu, Mangui Liang, Zhe Wang
The construction of data center network by applying SDN technology has become a hot research topic. The SDN architecture has innovatively separated the control plane from the data plane which makes the network more software-oriented and agile. Moreover, it provides virtual multi-tenancy, effective scheduling resources and centralized control strategies to meet the demand for cloud computing data center. However, the explosion of network information is facing severe challenges for SDN controller. The flow storage and lookup mechanisms based on TCAM device have led to the restriction of scalability, high cost and energy consumption...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328219/energy-storage-during-compression-of-metal-organic-frameworks
#8
Yu-Run Miao, Zhi Su, Kenneth S Suslick
Practical applications of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials require an in-depth understanding of their mechanical properties. We have investigated the mechanical properties and energy absorption behavior of single crystals of four isostructural UiO-type MOFs under uniaxial compression. In situ nanocompression experiments were used to measure the mechanical behavior of individual MOF nanocrystals under compression within a transmission electron microscope. The plasticity and endothermicity during deformation of MOFs shows a surprising potential for absorption and dissipation of mechanical shock...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328154/a-symmetric-co-n5-2-h2-o-4-%C3%A2-4%C3%A2-h2-o-high-nitrogen-compound-formed-by-cobalt-ii-cation-trapping-of-a-cyclo-n5-anion
#9
Chong Zhang, Chen Yang, Bingcheng Hu, Chuanming Yu, Zhansheng Zheng, Chengguo Sun
The reactions of (N5 )6 (H3 O)3 (NH4 )4 Cl with Co(NO3 )2 ⋅6 H2 O at room temperature yielded Co(N5 )2 (H2 O)4 ⋅4 H2 O as an air-stable orange metal complex. The structure, as determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, has two planar cyclo-N5(-) rings and four bound water molecules symmetrically positioned around the central metal ion. Thermal analysis demonstrated the explosive properties of the material.
March 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327967/genome-sequence-of-pacific-abalone-haliotis-discus-hannai-the-first-draft-genome-in-family-haliotidae
#10
Bo-Hye Nam, Woori Kwak, Young-Ok Kim, Dong-Gyun Kim, Hee Jeong Kong, Woo-Jin Kim, Jeong-Ha Kang, Jung Youn Park, Cheul Min An, Ji-Young Moon, Choul Ji Park, Jae Woong Yu, Joon Yoon, Minseok Seo, Kwondo Kim, Duk Kyung Kim, SaetByeol Lee, Samsun Sung, Chul Lee, Younhee Shin, Myunghee Jung, Byeong-Chul Kang, Shin Ga-Hee, Sojeong Ka, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, Seoae Cho, Heebal Kim
Background: Abalones are large marine snails in the family Haliotidae and the genus Haliotis belonging to the class Gastropoda of the phylum Mollusca. The family Haliotidae contains only one genus, Haliotis, and this single genus is known to contain several species of abalone. With 18 additional subspecies, the most comprehensive treatment of Haliotidae considers 56 species valid [1]. Abalone is an economically important fishery and aquaculture animal which is considered a highly-prized seafood delicacy...
March 7, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327091/knn-mdr-a-learning-approach-for-improving-interactions-mapping-performances-in-genome-wide-association-studies
#11
Sinan Abo Alchamlat, Frédéric Farnir
BACKGROUND: Finding epistatic interactions in large association studies like genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with the nowadays-available large volume of genomic data is a challenging and largely unsolved issue. Few previous studies could handle genome-wide data due to the intractable difficulties met in searching a combinatorial explosive search space and statistically evaluating epistatic interactions given a limited number of samples. Our work is a contribution to this field...
March 21, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326236/the-longstanding-challenge-of-the-nanocrystallization-of-1-3-5-trinitroperhydro-1-3-5-triazine-rdx
#12
REVIEW
Florent Pessina, Denis Spitzer
Research efforts for realizing safer and higher performance energetic materials are continuing unabated all over the globe. While the thermites - pyrotechnic compositions of an oxide and a metal - have been finely tailored thanks to progress in other sectors, organic high explosives are still stagnating. The most symptomatic example is the longstanding challenge of the nanocrystallization of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Recent advances in crystallization processes and milling technology mark the beginning of a new area which will hopefully lead the pyroelectric industry to finally embrace nanotechnology...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326161/the-underlying-dimensions-of-dsm-5-ptsd-symptoms-and-their-relations-with-anxiety-and-depression-in-a-sample-of-adolescents-exposed-to-an-explosion-accident
#13
Haibo Yang, Li Wang, Chengqi Cao, Xing Cao, Ruojiao Fang, Jianxin Zhang, Jon D Elhai
Background: A large number of empirical studies pertaining to the latent dimensions of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms have accumulated. However, there is still a lack of studies specific to youths. Objective: This study sought to investigate the latent dimensions of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in a sample of adolescents exposed to an explosion accident. Method: Participants were 836 students (407 females and 428 males). Self-reported measures including the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and the anxiety and depression subscales of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were administered to participants...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324843/variations-in-pu-isotopic-composition-in-soils-from-the-spitsbergen-norway-three-potential-pollution-sources-of-the-arctic-region
#14
E Łokas, R Anczkiewicz, R Kierepko, J W Mietelski
Although the polar regions have not been industrialised, numerous contaminants originating from human activity are detectable in the Arctic environment. This study reports evidence of (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratios in the tundra and initial soils from different parts of west and central Spitsbergen and recognizes possible environmental inputs of non-global fallout Pu. The average atomic ratio of (240)Pu/(239)Pu equal to 0.179 (ranging between 0.129 and 0.201) in tundra soils are comparable to the characteristic ratio for global fallout (0...
March 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324827/anaerobic-treatment-of-hydrothermally-solubilised-sugarcane-bagasse-and-its-kinetic-modelling
#15
Bing Liu, Van Anh Ngo, Mitsuharu Terashima, Hidenari Yasui
The aim of this study was the evaluation of anaerobic treatment for the soluble organics generated from a steam-explosion pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse. The batch analysis revealed that about 50% of the organics was possible to be degraded into methane whilst the rest was biologically inert and composed of mostly lignin. Based on the experiment a kinetic model composed of 14 kinds of soluble substances and 5 kinds of anaerobic microorganisms was developed. The model was used to simulate the process performance of a continuous anaerobic bioreactor with MLSS concentration at 2500-15,000mg/L...
March 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324768/analysis-of-different-materials-subjected-to-open-air-explosions-in-search-of-explosive-traces-by-raman-microscopy
#16
Félix Zapata, Carmen García-Ruiz
Post-explosion scenes offer such chaos and destruction that evidence recovery and detection of post-blast residues from the explosive in the surrounding materials is highly challenging and difficult. The suitability of materials to retain explosives residues and their subsequent analysis has been scarcely investigated. Particularly, the use of explosive mixtures containing inorganic oxidizing salts to make improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a current security concern due to their wide availability and lax control...
March 16, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324677/intermittent-explosive-disorder-and-eating-disorders-analysis-of-national-comorbidity-and-research-samples
#17
Karen M Jennings, Jennifer E Wildes, Emil F Coccaro
OBJECTIVE: Clinical studies suggest comorbidity between eating disorders and aggressive behaviors. This study examined the pattern of comorbidity between intermittent explosive disorder (IED) and eating disorders (ED). METHODS: Data were analyzed from both the adult and adolescent samples of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (n = 19,430) and a clinical research sample (n = 1,642). RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence of Any ED was elevated in IED vs...
March 2, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324610/designing-image-analysis-pipelines-in-light-microscopy-a-rational-approach
#18
Ignacio Arganda-Carreras, Philippe Andrey
With the progress of microscopy techniques and the rapidly growing amounts of acquired imaging data, there is an increased need for automated image processing and analysis solutions in biological studies. Each new application requires the design of a specific image analysis pipeline, by assembling a series of image processing operations. Many commercial or free bioimage analysis software are now available and several textbooks and reviews have presented the mathematical and computational fundamentals of image processing and analysis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323550/birthweight-as-a-measure-of-holiday-stress
#19
Kitae Sohn
Young wives in South Korea often dread New Year's Day and Thanksgiving Day because they assume the burden of cooking, cleaning, and other household chores. We used their offspring's birthweight as an indicator of their stress levels. We included all Korean singletons born in hospitals during 1997-2014 (N = 8,589,426) and regressed birthweight on in utero holiday experience by trimester, along with covariates. Babies who experienced New Year's Day in the first trimester were 9.4 grams lighter than those who did not; the amount is equivalent to 120% of the reduced birthweight associated with experiencing landmine explosions during the first trimester in Colombia...
March 21, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323481/the-emergence-of-life-as-a-first-order-phase-transition
#20
Cole Mathis, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Sara Imari Walker
It is well known that life on Earth alters its environment over evolutionary and geological timescales. An important open question is whether this is a result of evolutionary optimization or a universal feature of life. In the latter case, the origin of life would be coincident with a shift in environmental conditions. Here we present a model for the emergence of life in which replicators are explicitly coupled to their environment through the recycling of a finite supply of resources. The model exhibits a dynamic, first-order phase transition from nonlife to life, where the life phase is distinguished by selection on replicators...
March 2017: Astrobiology
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