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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731944/cancer-immunotherapy-in-older-patients
#1
Kristen A Marrone, Patrick M Forde
Advancing age remains one of the most significant risk factors for cancer development. Changes in the immune system occur with aging, and likely play a role in the increased incidence of malignancy in older patients. With the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors, and their use in a variety of malignancies, there has been an explosion of clinical trials evaluating their use. Unfortunately, these trials have not shown consistent results in elderly patients, nor have age-specific outcomes been consistently reported...
July 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731620/solvent-free-off-on-detection-of-the-improvised-explosive-triacetone-triperoxide-tatp-with-fluorogenic-materials
#2
Tomas Torroba, Patricia Calvo-Gredilla, Jose Garcia-Calvo, Jose V Cuevas, Jesus-Luis Pablos, Felix C Garcia, Jose-Miguel Garcia, Nathalie Zink-Lorre, Enrique Font-Sanchis, Angela Sastre-Santos, Fernando Fernandez-Lazaro
We have developed a fluorogenic perylenediimide functionalized polyacrylate capable to generate color and fluorescence changes in the presence of triacetone triperoxide, TATP, an improvised explosive used in terrorist attacks, under solvent-free, solid state conditions. The material works by accumulating the volatile TATP until it reaches a threshold, therefore triggering colorimetric and fluorescent responses.
July 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731341/a-2d-coordination-network-that-detects-nitro-explosives-in-water-catalyzes-baylis-hillman-reactions-and-undergoes-unusual-2d%C3%A2-3d-single-crystal-to-single-crystal-transformation
#3
Vivekanand Sharma, Dinesh De, Sanchari Pal, Prithwidip Saha, Parimal K Bharadwaj
The solvothermal reaction of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and a linear dicarboxylate ligand H2L, in the presence of urotropine in N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF), gives rise to a new porous two-dimensional (2D) coordination network, {[Zn3(L)3(urotropine)2]·2DMF·3H2O}n (1), with hxl topology. Interestingly, framework 1 exhibits excellent emission properties owing to the presence of naphthalene moiety in the linker H2L, that can be efficiently suppressed by subtle quantity of nitro explosives in aqueous medium. Furthermore, presence of urotropine molecules bound to the metal centers, 1 is found to be an excellent heterogeneous catalyst meant for atom-economical C-C bond-forming Baylis-Hillman reactions...
July 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731218/explosives-in-the-cage-metal-organic-frameworks-for-high-energy-materials-sensing-and-desensitization
#4
REVIEW
Shan Wang, Qianyou Wang, Xiao Feng, Bo Wang, Li Yang
An overview of the current status of coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) pertaining to the field of energetic materials is provided. The explosive applications of MOFs are discussed from two aspects: one for detection of explosives, and the other for explosive desensitization. By virtue of their adjustable pore/cage sizes, high surface area, tunable functional sites, and rich host-guest chemistry, MOFs have emerged as promising candidates for both explosive sensing and desensitization...
July 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731098/a-reaction-model-on-the-self-assembly-process-of-octahedron-shaped-coordination-capsules
#5
Yoshihiro Matsumura, Shuichi Hiraoka, Hirofumi Sato
Herein, the self-assembly process of an octahedron-shaped coordination capsule was analyzed based on a master equation approach using a reaction network model. This model was found to adequately reproduce the overall experimentally observed time evolutions and enabled us to trace the real-time evolution of transient intermediates, ranging from milli-second to hours. The time evolution of the distribution of individual intermediates species was obtained; a few linear-oligomers located near the reactant were produced at first, followed by an explosive increase in several types of intermediates...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729025/following-micrornas-through-the-cancer-metastatic-cascade
#6
Eleonora Grisard, Milena S Nicoloso
Approximately a decade ago the first MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) participating in cancer metastasis were identified and metastmiRs were initially only a handful. Since those first reports, MiRNA research has explosively thrived, mainly due to their revolutionary mechanism of action and the hope of having at hand a novel tool to control cancer aggressiveness. This has ultimately led to delineate an almost impenetrable regulatory network: hundreds of MiRNAs transversally dominating every aspect of normal and cancer biology, each MiRNA having hundreds of targets and context-dependent activity...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728979/ploc-mvirus-predict-subcellular-localization-of-multi-location-virus-proteins-via-incorporating-the-optimal-go-information-into-general-pseaac
#7
Xiang Cheng, Xuan Xiao, Kuo-Chen Chou
Knowledge of subcellular locations of proteins is crucially important for in-depth understanding their functions in a cell. With the explosive growth of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic age, it is highly demanded to develop computational tools for timely annotating their subcellular locations based on the sequence information alone. The current study is focused on virus proteins. Although considerable efforts have been made in this regard, the problem is far from being solved yet. Most existing methods can be used to deal with single-location proteins only...
July 17, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727003/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-ruminants-and-pigs-a-transcriptomics-perspective
#8
B P Dalrymple, B Guo
The genomics era has led to an explosion in the study of gene expression in production animals. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content (both high and low) and composition are major quality attributes of meat, and more than 90 transcriptomic studies of IMF deposition have been undertaken in the ruminants and pigs since 2001, with the majority since 2008. The studies have implicated many genes involved in the control of adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and deposition of IMF, but there is relatively little consistency between the different studies...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726571/primary-blast-causes-delayed-effects-without-cell-death-in-shell-encased-brain-cell-aggregates
#9
Thomas Sawyer, Yushan Wang, David V Ritzel, Tyson Josey, Mercy Villanueva, Cory Vair, Yanfeng Song, Yimin Shei, Steven Parks, Peggy Nelson, Grant Hennes, Lori McLaws, Changyan Fan
Previous work used underwater explosive exposures to isolate the effects of shock-induced principle stress without shear on rat brain aggregate cultures. This current study has utilized simulated air blast to expose aggregates in suspension and enclosed within a spherical shell, enabling the examination of a much more complex biomechanical insult. Culture medium-filled spheres were exposed to single pulse overpressures of 15-30 psi (6-7 msec duration) and measurements within the sphere at defined sites showed complex and spatially dependent pressure changes...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725554/successful-surgical-management-of-new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-norse-presenting-with-gelastic-seizures-in-a-3%C3%A2-year-old-girl
#10
Ahmad Marashly, Sean Lew, Jennifer Koop
Gelastic seizures (GS) are typically associated with hypothalamic hamartomas and present during childhood. However it is now known that GS can be found in focal epilepsies arising from other regions in the brain, including mesial and neocortical frontal, temporal and parietal regions. GS have rarely been described as the presenting manifestation of New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE). In this article we describe a previously healthy 3-year-old who presented with an explosive onset of GS that were refractory to multiple anti-seizure medications...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723138/hand-held-femtogram-detection-of-hazardous-picric-acid-with-hydrophobic-ag-nanopillar-sers-substrates-and-mechanism-of-elasto-capillarity
#11
Aron Hakonen, FengChao Wang, Per Ola Andersson, Håkan Wingfors, Tomas Rindzevicius, Michael Stenbæk Schmidt, Venugopal Rao Soma, Shicai Xu, YingQi Li, Anja Boisen, HengAn Wu
Picric acid (PA) is a severe environmental and security risk due to its unstable, toxic, and explosive properties. It is also challenging to detect in trace amounts and in situ because of its highly acidic and anionic character. Here, we assess sensing of PA under nonlaboratory conditions using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) silver nanopillar substrates and hand-held Raman spectroscopy equipment. The advancing elasto-capillarity effects are explained by molecular dynamics simulations. We obtain a SERS PA detection limit on the order of 20 ppt, corresponding attomole amounts, which together with the simple analysis methodology demonstrates that the presented approach is highly competitive for ultrasensitive analysis in the field...
February 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721718/sensitive-analysis-of-nitroguanidine-in-aqueous-and-soil-matrices-by-lc-ms
#12
Anna Voloshenko Rossin, Sergey Sladkevich, Guy Gasser, Artem Melman, Ovadia Lev
Nitroguanidine, a widely used nitramine explosive is an environmental contaminant that is refractory, persistent, highly mobile in soils and aquifers and yet under-researched. Nitroguanidine determination in water and soil poses an analytical challenge due its high hydrophilicity, low volatility, charge neutrality over a wide pH range, and low proton affinity which results in low ESI-MS sensitivity. A sensitive method for the determination of nitroguanidine in aqueous and soil matrices was developed. The method is based on reduction by zinc in acidic solution, hydrophobization by derivatization, preconcentration on C18 cartridge and LC-MS quantification...
July 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720828/universal-mechanism-for-hybrid-percolation-transitions
#13
Deokjae Lee, Wonjun Choi, J Kertész, B Kahng
Hybrid percolation transitions (HPTs) induced by cascading processes have been observed in diverse complex systems such as k-core percolation, breakdown on interdependent networks and cooperative epidemic spreading models. Here we present the microscopic universal mechanism underlying those HPTs. We show that the discontinuity in the order parameter results from two steps: a durable critical branching (CB) and an explosive, supercritical (SC) process, the latter resulting from large loops inevitably present in finite size samples...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720330/generation-of-hazardous-methyl-azide-and-its-application-to-synthesis-of-a-key-intermediate-of-picarbutrazox-a-new-potent-pesticide-in-flow
#14
Daisuke Ichinari, Aiichiro Nagaki, Jun-Ichi Yoshida
Generation and reactions of methyl azide (MeN3) were successfully performed by using a flow reactor system, demonstrating that the flow method serves as a safe method for handling hazardous explosive methyl azide. The reaction of NaN3 and Me2SO4 in a flow reactor gave a MeN3 solution, which was used for Huisgen reaction with benzoyl cyanide in a flow reactor after minimal washing. The resulting 1-methyl-5-benzoyltetrazole serves as a key intermediate of picarbutrazox (IX), a new potent pesticide.
July 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720187/experiences-with-regional-anesthesia-for-analgesia-during-prolonged-aeromedical-evacuation
#15
Jeffrey M Carness, Melissa A Wilson, Mark J Lenart, Danny E Smith, Susan F Dukes
INTRODUCTION: There is much debate regarding the appropriate analgesic management of patients undergoing medical evacuation following combat trauma. Our primary objective was to review the utility of regional anesthetic techniques in patients undergoing aeromedical evacuation following surgical limb amputation as treatment for combat trauma. METHODS: This study was conducted as an observational retrospective cohort whereby acutely injured amputee patients were identified via the U...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717994/modeling-and-investigation-of-new-explosive-materials-based-on-n-3-5-dimethyl-2-4-6-trinitrophenyl-1h-1-2-4-triazol-3-amine
#16
Jelena Tamuliene, Jonas Sarlauskas, Svajone Bekesiene
This study presents an investigation of the effects of adding extra nitro group substituents to N-(3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-amine (HEM-II) on its thermal and chemical stability as well as its explosive performance. An analysis of the thermal stabilities of HEM-II and HEM-II-based molecules based on an investigation of the binding energy per atom for each molecule was performed. The values of the gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) as well as those of the chemical hardness and softness for HEM-II and the HEM-II-based molecules were studied to determine the chemical stabilities of these molecules...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717134/ash-production-by-attrition-in-volcanic-conduits-and-plumes
#17
T J Jones, J K Russell
Tephra deposits result from explosive volcanic eruption and serve as indirect probes into fragmentation processes operating in subsurface volcanic conduits. Primary magmatic fragmentation creates a population of pyroclasts through volatile-driven decompression during conduit ascent. In this study, we explore the role that secondary fragmentation, specifically attrition, has in transforming primary pyroclasts upon transport in volcanic conduits and plumes. We utilize total grain size distributions from a suite of natural and experimentally produced tephra to show that attrition is likely to occur in all explosive volcanic eruptions...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717108/isoflurane-is-a-suitable-alternative-to-ether-for-anesthetizing-rats-prior-to-euthanasia-for-gene-expression-analysis
#18
Noriyuki Nakatsu, Yoshinobu Igarashi, Taiki Aoshi, Isao Hamaguchi, Masumichi Saito, Takuo Mizukami, Haruka Momose, Ken J Ishii, Hiroshi Yamada
Diethyl ether (ether) had been widely used in Japan for anesthesia, despite its explosive properties and toxicity to both humans and animals. We also had used ether as an anesthetic for euthanizing rats for research in the Toxicogenomics Project (TGP). Because the use of ether for these purposes will likely cease, it is required to select an alternative anesthetic which is validated for consistency with existing TGP data acquired under ether anesthesia. We therefore compared two alternative anesthetic candidates, isoflurane and pentobarbital, with ether in terms of hematological findings, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expressions...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716473/characteristics-of-mandibular-injuries-caused-by-bullets-and-improvised-explosive-devices-a-comparative-study
#19
S Y H Bede, W K Ismael, D Al-Assaf
The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in mandibular trauma caused by two mechanisms for the delivery of missile injuries: firearms and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The data investigated included sex, age, mechanism of injury, and other clinical and radiographic manifestations. Seventy consecutive patients, predominantly male, with a mean age of 28.6±14 years (range 2-60 years) were enrolled: 38 patients (54.3%) sustained mandibular fractures caused by bullet injuries and 32 patients (45...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715546/sensitivity-to-audiovisual-temporal-asynchrony-in-children-with-a-history-of-specific-language-impairment-and-their-peers-with-typical-development-a-replication-and-follow-up-study
#20
Natalya Kaganovich
Purpose: Earlier, my colleagues and I showed that children with a history of specific language impairment (H-SLI) are significantly less able to detect audiovisual asynchrony compared with children with typical development (TD; Kaganovich & Schumaker, 2014). Here, I first replicate this finding in a new group of children with H-SLI and TD and then examine a relationship among audiovisual function, attention skills, and language in a combined pool of children. Method: The stimuli were a pure tone and an explosion-shaped figure...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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