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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906156/biomimetic-sniffing-improves-the-detection-performance-of-a-3d-printed-nose-of-a-dog-and-a-commercial-trace-vapor-detector
#1
Matthew E Staymates, William A MacCrehan, Jessica L Staymates, Roderick R Kunz, Thomas Mendum, Ta-Hsuan Ong, Geoffrey Geurtsen, Greg J Gillen, Brent A Craven
Unlike current chemical trace detection technology, dogs actively sniff to acquire an odor sample. Flow visualization experiments with an anatomically-similar 3D printed dog's nose revealed the external aerodynamics during canine sniffing, where ventral-laterally expired air jets entrain odorant-laden air toward the nose, thereby extending the "aerodynamic reach" for inspiration of otherwise inaccessible odors. Chemical sampling and detection experiments quantified two modes of operation with the artificial nose-active sniffing and continuous inspiration-and demonstrated an increase in odorant detection by a factor of up to 18 for active sniffing...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743655/origin-toxicological-and-narcotic-potential-of-sedimentary-pahs-and-remarkable-even-odd-n-alkane-predominance-in-bushehr-peninsula-the-persian-gulf
#2
Vahid Aghadadashi, Ali Mehdinia, Saeideh Molaei
Surface sediments (n=17) were collected from 6 sites located in the coasts of the Bushehr Peninsula. ∑16PAH concentrations were in the range of 285.9-1288ngg(-1) dw and the sediments were moderately polluted. Py, Ph, B(a)A and Flu showed >70% of the detected values in order of the mentioned rank. 4-ring PAHs were the dominant compounds and the molecular ratios presented the dominant pyrolytic source. The toxicity of PAHs for sediment dwelling life was averagely equivalent to occurrence of 0.08ngg(-1) of Dioxin in dw of the examined sediments...
October 12, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358666/no-end-in-sight-the-abuse-of-prescription-narcotics
#3
Theodore J Cicero
From teenagers dying from heroin overdoses to crime tied to Vicodin and OxyContin addiction to road fatalities in which sedatives and muscle relaxants are involved, 20,000 deaths in the United States in 2014 were attributed to problems associated with narcotics and prescription drug use. Our author, whose research involves the neurobiological basis of drug addiction, traces the history and evolution of narcotics and leans on his clinical experience to discuss why certain drugs are powerful, addicting-and dangerous...
September 2015: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206280/ion-mobility-spectrometry-nuisance-alarm-threshold-analysis-for-illicit-narcotics-based-on-environmental-background-and-a-roc-curve-approach
#4
Thomas P Forbes, Marcela Najarro
The discriminative potential of an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for trace detection of illicit narcotics relative to environmental background was investigated with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve framework. The IMS response of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and Δ(9)-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC) was evaluated against environmental background levels derived from the screening of incoming delivery vehicles at a federal facility. Over 20 000 samples were collected over a multiyear period under two distinct sets of instrument operating conditions, a baseline mode and an increased desorption/drift tube temperature and sampling time mode...
July 21, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26931437/large-area-uniform-and-low-cost-dual-mode-plasmonic-naked-eye-colorimetry-and-sers-sensor-with-handheld-raman-spectrometer
#5
Zhida Xu, Jing Jiang, Xinhao Wang, Kevin Han, Abid Ameen, Ibrahim Khan, Te-Wei Chang, Gang Logan Liu
We demonstrated a highly-sensitive, wafer-scale, highly-uniform plasmonic nano-mushroom substrate based on plastic for naked-eye plasmonic colorimetry and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). We gave it the name FlexBrite. The dual-mode functionality of FlexBrite allows for label-free qualitative analysis by SERS with an enhancement factor (EF) of 10(8) and label-free quantitative analysis by naked-eye colorimetry with a sensitivity of 611 nm RIU(-1). The SERS EF of FlexBrite in the wet state was found to be 4...
March 21, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26610515/particle-fabrication-using-inkjet-printing-onto-hydrophobic-surfaces-for-optimization-and-calibration-of-trace-contraband-detection-sensors
#6
Greg Gillen, Marcela Najarro, Scott Wight, Marlon Walker, Jennifer Verkouteren, Eric Windsor, Tim Barr, Matthew Staymates, Aaron Urbas
A method has been developed to fabricate patterned arrays of micrometer-sized monodisperse solid particles of ammonium nitrate on hydrophobic silicon surfaces using inkjet printing. The method relies on dispensing one or more microdrops of a concentrated aqueous ammonium nitrate solution from a drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printer at specific locations on a silicon substrate rendered hydrophobic by a perfluorodecytrichlorosilane monolayer coating. The deposited liquid droplets form into the shape of a spherical shaped cap; during the evaporation process, a deposited liquid droplet maintains this geometry until it forms a solid micrometer sized particle...
November 24, 2015: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26224206/augmenting-the-deliberative-method-for-ranking-risks
#7
Irving Susel, Trace Lasley, Mark Montezemolo, Joel Piper
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them...
January 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25981311/the-interest-in-eight-new-psychoactive-substances-before-and-after-scheduling
#8
Anders Ledberg
BACKGROUND: In recent years the recreational use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has increased. NPS are considered a threat to public health and the main response to this threat is to make the selling and buying of these substances illegal. In Sweden, during the last 5 years, 62 new substances have been classified as narcotics but little is known of the effects of making a particular substance illegal. The aim of this work is to study how legal status influences the interest in NPS in Sweden...
July 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25631510/nano-liposomes-of-entrapment-lidocaine-hydrochloride-on-in-vitro-permeability-of-narcotic
#9
Nenghong Sun, Yanyan Zhu, Lei Yuan, Bao Lang
In order to explore two kinds of nano-liposomes in lidocaine hydrochloride nano-liposomes on in vitro permeability of drug, and conduct comparison and analysis, this paper investigates cumulative infiltration situation of lidocaine hydrochloride flexible nano-liposomes and ordinary nano-liposomes by using modified Franz diffusion pool on mice vitro skin. Cumulative osmotic quantity of lidocaine hydrochloride flexible nano-liposomes for 9h was higher than ordinary nano-liposomes. (t)max(Maximum osmotic quantity time) of lidocaine hydrochloride flexible nano-liposomes and ordinary nano-liposomes in mice skin was 5 and 60min, the former (C)max (maximum dosage time) was 1...
January 2015: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25275183/-changes-in-the-biochemical-chemical-and-toxicological-characteristics-of-pericardial-fluid-in-the-case-of-fatal-narcotic-intoxication
#10
A Zh Altaeva, S S Zhunisov, A Sh Aĭdarkulov, N V Selivokhina, R R Kidraliev, B U Darikulova, A A Zagumennikova
This article describes the biochemical and chemical-toxicological investigations into the properties of the pericardial fluid designed to improve the effectiveness of forensic medical examination of the cases of fatal drug poisoning. The objectives of the study were the detection and determination of the type of narcotic substances in the pericardial fluid, evaluation of the quantitative changes in enzyme activities (AST, ALT and CPK) in the pericardial fluid, and the development of the criteria for the forensic medical diagnostics of fatal drug poisoning...
January 2014: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25264919/cadaver-dogs-unscientific-myth-or-reliable-biological-devices
#11
Irene Riezzo, Margherita Neri, Marcello Rendine, Alessandro Bellifemina, Santina Cantatore, Carmela Fiore, Emanuela Turillazzi
Dogs are commonly used to detect explosives, narcotics, and other illegal materials. In the forensic setting, cadaver dogs are trained to detect and locate concealed human remains or fluids due to the high sensitivity and selectivity of the canine olfactory system and the relative ease with which dogs can be trained and handled. The need for international and scientifically validated standards has long been outlined by the literature. It is important, therefore, to establish the reliability of the handler/dog team...
November 2014: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25217553/fatal-intoxications-associated-with-the-designer-opioid-ah-7921
#12
R Kronstrand, G Thelander, D Lindstedt, M Roman, F C Kugelberg
AH-7921 (3,4-dichloro-N-[(1-dimethylamino)cyclohexylmethyl]benzamide) is a designer opioid with ∼80% of morphine's µ-agonist activity. Over a 6-month period, we encountered nine deaths where AH-7921 was involved and detected in blood from the deceased. Shortly after the last death, on August 1 2013, AH-7921 was scheduled as a narcotic and largely disappeared from the illicit market in Sweden. AH-7921 was measured by a selective liquid chromatography-MS-MS method and the concentrations of AH-7921 ranged from 0...
October 2014: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24672899/-on-the-history-of-opium
#13
REVIEW
Małgorzata Kłys, Martyna Maciów-Głab, Sebastian Rojek
Most likely, opium was the first narcotic substance discovered at the dawn of humankind. The history of drug addiction is immensely rich and allows for tracing the long way humankind had to travel to reach the contemporary level of consciousness with respect to narcotic substances. A retrospective view of drug addiction that takes into consideration the historical context, while extending our knowledge, also allows for a better understanding of today's problems. The report presents elements of a retrospective view of problems associated with addiction to opium, morphine and heroin over the centuries, what is a subject of scientific interest in contemporary toxicology...
July 2013: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24566545/chemical-imaging-of-artificial-fingerprints-by-desorption-electro-flow-focusing-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#14
Thomas P Forbes, Edward Sisco
Desorption electro-flow focusing ionization (DEFFI) mass spectrometry was used to image chemical distributions of endogenous, e.g., fatty acids, and trace exogenous compounds, e.g., explosives, narcotics and lotions, in deposited and lifted artificial fingerprints, directly from forensic lift tape. An artificial fingerprint mold and synthetic fingerprint material were incorporated for the controlled deposition of material for technique demonstration and evaluation.
June 21, 2014: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24565316/a-review-of-alcohol-and-other-drug-control-policy-research
#15
REVIEW
Andrew J Treno, Miesha Marzell, Paul J Gruenewald, Harold Holder
OBJECTIVE: This article provides a historical review of alcohol and other drug policy research and its impact on public health over the past 75 years. We begin our summary with the state of the field circa 1940 and trace the development across the subsequent decades. We summarize current thinking and suggest possible future directions the field of alcohol and other drug policy may take. Specific topics discussed include the minimum legal drinking age, pricing and taxation, hours and days of sale, outlet density, and privatization effects...
2014: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24447454/recovery-and-identification-of-bacterial-dna-from-illicit-drugs
#16
Kaymann T Cho, Michelle M Richardson, K Paul Kirkbride, Dennis McNevin, Michelle Nelson, Dennis Pianca, Paul Roffey, Michelle E Gahan
Bacterial infections, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), are a common risk associated with illicit drug use, particularly among injecting drug users. There is, therefore, an urgent need to survey illicit drugs used for injection for the presence of bacteria and provide valuable information to health and forensic authorities. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for the extraction of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs and conduct a metagenomic survey of heroin and methamphetamine seized in the Australian Capital Territory during 2002-2011 for the presence of pathogens...
February 2014: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24350947/the-alzheimer-pandemic-is-paracetamol-to-blame
#17
Günther Robert Norman Jones
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: The clinical recognition of a form of dementia closely resembling Alzheimer's disease dates from around 1800. The role of analgesics derived from coal-tar in the spread of the pandemic is traced in terms of the introduction of phenacetin (PN) in 1887; its nephrotoxicity; the observation of lesions characteristic of the disease by Fischer and Alzheimer; the discovery of paracetamol (PA) as the major metabolite of PN; the linking of kidney injury and dementia with high PN usage; and the failure of PN replacement by PA to halt and reverse the exponential, inexorable rise in the incidence of Alzheimer-type dementia...
February 2014: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24307198/mechanism-of-herg-channel-block-by-the-psychoactive-indole-alkaloid-ibogaine
#18
Patrick Thurner, Anna Stary-Weinzinger, Hend Gafar, Vaibhavkumar S Gawali, Oliver Kudlacek, Juergen Zezula, Karlheinz Hilber, Stefan Boehm, Walter Sandtner, Xaver Koenig
Ibogaine is a psychoactive indole alkaloid. Its use as an antiaddictive agent has been accompanied by QT prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias, which are most likely caused by human ether a go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel inhibition. Therefore, we studied in detail the interaction of ibogaine with hERG channels heterologously expressed in mammalian kidney tsA-201 cells. Currents through hERG channels were blocked regardless of whether ibogaine was applied via the extracellular or intracellular solution...
February 2014: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24148523/a-combined-liquid-three-phase-micro-extraction-and-differential-pulse-voltammetric-method-for-preconcentration-and-detection-of-ultra-trace-amounts-of-buprenorphine-using-a-modified-pencil-electrode
#19
Ali A Ensafi, Elaheh Khoddami, B Rezaei
A combination of polytetrafluorethylene membrane-based liquid three-phase micro-extraction and voltammetry was used for the micro-separation and determination of buprenorphine. Type of the organic solvent used, pH levels of the donor and acceptor phases, salt concentration, extraction time, stirring rate, and electrochemical parameters as the essential factors affecting the liquid three-phase micro-extraction of buprenorphine were investigated. Differential pulse voltammetry exhibited two linear dynamic ranges of 1...
November 15, 2013: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24003604/nitrous-oxide-and-oxygen-sedation-an-update
#20
Ann Brunick, Morris S Clark
This course will teach the desirable characteristics of nitrous oxide, indications and contraindications for N2O/O2 use, as well as facts and myths surrounding chronic exposure to nitrous oxide, the biologic effects associated with high levels of the gas, and ways to assess and minimize trace gas contamination in an outpatient setting.
July 2013: Dental Assistant: Journal of the American Dental Assistants Association
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