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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927251/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-past-present-and-future-perspectives
#1
Stefano Bibbò, Gianluca Ianiro, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Cammarota
Gut microbiota is known to play a main role in regulating both health and disease in humans. Strategies for the therapeutic modulation of gut microbiota are therefore expected to give a relevant contribution in the management of disorders associated with its impairment. Among these options, one of the most renowned is fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). A growing body of evidence showed clearly that FMT is an effective treatment against recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Moreover, it was shown to be a promising therapy for the management of several noncommunicable disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases and metabolic disorders...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927240/temporal-dynamics-of-hippocampal-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-interactions-during-the-delay-period-of-a-working-memory-guided-foraging-task
#2
Maxym Myroshnychenko, Jeremy K Seamans, Anthony G Phillips, Christopher C Lapish
Connections between the hippocampus (HC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are critical for working memory; however, the precise contribution of this pathway is a matter of debate. One suggestion is that it may stabilize retrospective memories of recently encountered task-relevant information. Alternatively, it may be involved in encoding prospective memories, or the internal representation of future goals. To explore these possibilities, simultaneous extracellular recordings were made from mPFC and HC of rats performing the delayed spatial win-shift on a radial maze...
September 12, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927166/experimental-evaluation-of-respirable-dust-and-crystalline-silica-controls-during-simulated-performance-of-stone-countertop-fabrication-tasks-with-powered-hand-tools
#3
David L Johnson, Margaret L Phillips, Chaolong Qi, Anthony T Van, Danielle A Hawley
Objectives: Workers who fabricate stone countertops using hand tools are at risk of silicosis from overexposure to respirable crystalline silica. This study explored the efficacy of simple engineering controls that can be used for dust suppression during use of hand tools by stone countertop fabricators. Methods: Controlled experiments were conducted to measure whether wet methods and on-tool local exhaust ventilation (LEV) reduced respirable dust (RD) exposures during use of various powered hand tools on quartz-rich engineered stone...
July 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927062/anticancer-activity-and-antioxidant-potential-of-aponogeton-undulatus-against-ehrlich-ascites-carcinoma-cells-in-swiss-albino-mice
#4
Mohammad Saifur Rahman, Mohammad Badrul Alam, Yun Hee Choi, Jin Cheol Yoo
The in vivo anticancer and in vitro antioxidant effects of the crude methanol extract of Aponogeton undulatus, in addition to its various organic fractions, were investigated. Various assay methods, including the total antioxidant capacity assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous reducing power assessment were used to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the crude extract and its organic fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAU) demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity (175...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927019/worst-case-energy-efficiency-maximization-in-a-5g-massive-mimo-noma-system
#5
Sunil Chinnadurai, Poongundran Selvaprabhu, Yongchae Jeong, Xueqin Jiang, Moon Ho Lee
In this paper, we examine the robust beamforming design to tackle the energy efficiency (EE) maximization problem in a 5G massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) downlink system with imperfect channel state information (CSI) at the base station. A novel joint user pairing and dynamic power allocation (JUPDPA) algorithm is proposed to minimize the inter user interference and also to enhance the fairness between the users. This work assumes imperfect CSI by adding uncertainties to channel matrices with worst-case model, i...
September 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926982/ormac-a-hybrid-mac-protocol-using-orthogonal-codes-for-channel-access-in-m2m-networks
#6
Ethungshan Shitiri, In-Seop Park, Ho-Shin Cho
This paper proposes a hybrid medium access protocol named orthogonal coded medium access control (OrMAC), which extends the principle of distributed queuing collision avoidance protocol (DQCA) of wireless local area network (WLAN) to delay-sensitive machine-to-machine (M2M) networks. OrMAC pre-assigns orthogonal codes, which serve as the channel contention signals, to the nodes entering the network. The "pre-assignment" eliminates contention collisions since it guarantees that no two nodes share the same contention code...
September 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926930/modeling-of-bn-lifetime-prediction-of-a-system-based-on-integrated-multi-level-information
#7
Jingbin Wang, Xiaohong Wang, Lizhi Wang
Predicting system lifetime is important to ensure safe and reliable operation of products, which requires integrated modeling based on multi-level, multi-sensor information. However, lifetime characteristics of equipment in a system are different and failure mechanisms are inter-coupled, which leads to complex logical correlations and the lack of a uniform lifetime measure. Based on a Bayesian network (BN), a lifetime prediction method for systems that combine multi-level sensor information is proposed. The method considers the correlation between accidental failures and degradation failure mechanisms, and achieves system modeling and lifetime prediction under complex logic correlations...
September 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926797/experimental-study-of-radiation-dose-rate-at-different-strategic-points-of-the-baec-triga-research-reactor
#8
M Ajijul Hoq, M A Malek Soner, M A Salam, M M Haque, Salma Khanom, S M Fahad
The 3MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been under operation for about thirty years since its commissioning at 1986. In accordance with the demand of fundamental nuclear research works, the reactor has to operate at different power levels by utilizing a number of experimental facilities. Regarding the enquiry for safety of reactor operating personnel and radiation workers, it is necessary to know the radiation level at different strategic points of the reactor where they are often worked...
September 9, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926792/u-isotopes-distribution-in-the-lower-rhone-river-and-its-implication-on-radionuclides-disequilibrium-within-the-decay-series
#9
REVIEW
Mathilde Zebracki, Xavier Cagnat, Stéphanie Gairoard, Nicolas Cariou, Frédérique Eyrolle-Boyer, Béatrice Boulet, Christelle Antonelli
The large rivers are main pathways for the delivery of suspended sediments into coastal environments, affecting the biogeochemical fluxes and the ecosystem functioning. The radionuclides from (238)U and (232)Th-series can be used to understand the dynamic processes affecting both catchment soil erosion and sediment delivery to oceans. Based on annual water discharge the Rhone River represents the largest river of the Mediterranean Sea. The Rhone valley also represents the largest concentration in nuclear power plants in Europe...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926765/texture-and-art-with-deep-neural-networks
#10
REVIEW
Leon A Gatys, Alexander S Ecker, Matthias Bethge
Although the study of biological vision and computer vision attempt to understand powerful visual information processing from different angles, they have a long history of informing each other. Recent advances in texture synthesis that were motivated by visual neuroscience have led to a substantial advance in image synthesis and manipulation in computer vision using convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Here, we review these recent advances and discuss how they can in turn inspire new research in visual perception and computational neuroscience...
September 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926762/progesterone-for-smoking-relapse-prevention-following-delivery-a-pilot-randomized-double-blind-study
#11
Ariadna Forray, Kathryn Gilstad-Hayden, Cristine Suppies, Debra Bogen, Mehmet Sofuoglu, Kimberly A Yonkers
INTRODUCTION: Close to half of women who were smokers prior to conception quit smoking in pregnancy, when endogenous progesterone levels are high. However, at least half resume pre-pregnancy smoking levels within weeks after delivery and when progesterone levels drop. The current pilot study tested the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of postpartum progesterone replacement in preventing relapse to smoking in postpartum women with a history of pre-pregnancy smoking. METHODS: This was an 8-week, double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of 41 women with a history of pre-pregnancy smoking who achieved abstinence by 32 weeks of gestation...
September 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926723/porous-wo3-graphene-polyester-textile-electrode-materials-with-enhanced-electrochemical-performance-for-flexible-solid-state-supercapacitors
#12
Li-Na Jin, Ping Liu, Chun Jin, Jia-Nan Zhang, Shao-Wei Bian
In this work, a flexible and porous WO3/grapheme/polyester (WO3/G/PT) textile electrode was successfully prepared by in situ growing WO3 on the fiber surface inside G/PT composite fabrics. The unique electrode structure facilitates to enhance the energy storage performance because the 3D conductive network constructed by the G/PT increase the electron transportation rate, nanotructured WO3 exposed enhanced electrochemically active surface area and the hierarchically porous structure improved the electrolyte ion diffusion rate...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926694/self-powered-electrospinning-system-driven-by-triboelectric-nanogenerator
#13
Congju Li, Yingying Yin, Bin Wang, Tao Zhou, Jiaona Wang, Jianjun Luo, Wei Tang, Ran Cao, Zuqing Yuan, Nianwu Li, Xinyu Du, Chunru Wang, Shuyu Zhao, Yuebo Liu, Zhong Lin Wang
Broadening the application area of the triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) is one of the research emphases in the study of the TENGs, whose unique output characteristic is high voltage with low current. Here we design a self-powered electrospinning system, which is composed of a rotating-disk TENG (R-TENG), a voltage doubling rectifying circuit (VDRC) and a simple spinneret. The R-TENG can generate an alternating voltage up to 1400 V. By using a voltage doubling rectifying circuit, a maximum constant direct voltage of 8...
September 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926687/advanced-nanostructured-anode-materials-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#14
REVIEW
Qidi Wang, Chenglong Zhao, Yaxiang Lu, Yunming Li, Yuheng Zheng, Yuruo Qi, Xiaohui Rong, Liwei Jiang, Xinguo Qi, Yuanjun Shao, Du Pan, Baohua Li, Yong-Sheng Hu, Liquan Chen
Sodium-ion batteries (NIBs), due to the advantages of low cost and relatively high safety, have attracted widespread attention all over the world, making them a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage systems. However, the inherent lower energy density to lithium-ion batteries is the issue that should be further investigated and optimized. Toward the grid-level energy storage applications, designing and discovering appropriate anode materials for NIBs are of great concern. Although many efforts on the improvements and innovations are achieved, several challenges still limit the current requirements of the large-scale application, including low energy/power densities, moderate cycle performance, and the low initial Coulombic efficiency...
September 19, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926685/nir-absorbing-metal-free-organic-porphyrin-and-phthalocyanine-dyes-for-panchromatic-dscs
#15
Phillip Brogdon, Hammad Cheema, Jared Heath Delcamp
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are a promising source of renewable energy. However, power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices has been limited largely by the difficulty of producing electricity using photons from the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region. Metal-free organic sensitizers frequently employ strong electron donating or withdrawing moieties to tune the optical band gap to allow the absorption of lower energy wavelengths in charge transfer systems while porphyrins and phthalocyanines use substituents to shift the Soret and Q bands toward lower energy absorption...
September 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926681/self-powered-ultraviolet-photodetectors-driven-by-built-in-electric-field
#16
REVIEW
Longxing Su, Wei Yang, Jian Cai, Hongyu Chen, Xiaosheng Fang
Self-powered ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors, which have vast applications in the military and for civilian purposes, have become particularly attractive in recent years due to their advantages of high sensitivity, ultrasmall size, and low power consumption. In particular, self-powered UV photodetectors driven by a built-in electric field cannot only detect UV signals but also be powered by the incident signals instead of external power. In this concept, the key issues and most recent developments on photovoltaic type UV photodetectors driven by p-n homojunction, heterojunction, and Schottky junction are surveyed...
September 19, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926628/application-of-raman-spectroscopy-in-type-2-diabetes-screening-in-blood-using-leucine-and-isoleucine-amino-acids-as-biomarkers-and-in-comparative-anti-diabetic-drugs-efficacy-studies
#17
Zephania Birech, Peter Waweru Mwangi, Fredrick Bukachi, Keith Makori Mandela
Diabetes is an irreversible condition characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Currently, there are no predictive biomarkers for this disease and the existing ones such as hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose are used only when diabetes symptoms are noticed. The objective of this work was first to explore the potential of leucine and isoleucine amino acids as diabetes type 2 biomarkers using their Raman spectroscopic signatures. Secondly, we wanted to explore whether Raman spectroscopy can be applied in comparative efficacy studies between commercially available anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone and the locally used anti-diabetic herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926613/human-in-the-loop-bayesian-optimization-of-wearable-device-parameters
#18
Myunghee Kim, Ye Ding, Philippe Malcolm, Jozefien Speeckaert, Christoper J Siviy, Conor J Walsh, Scott Kuindersma
The increasing capabilities of exoskeletons and powered prosthetics for walking assistance have paved the way for more sophisticated and individualized control strategies. In response to this opportunity, recent work on human-in-the-loop optimization has considered the problem of automatically tuning control parameters based on realtime physiological measurements. However, the common use of metabolic cost as a performance metric creates significant experimental challenges due to its long measurement times and low signal-to-noise ratio...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926593/target-directed-motor-imagery-of-the-lower-limb-enhances-event-related-desynchronization
#19
Kosuke Kitahara, Yoshikatsu Hayashi, Shiro Yano, Toshiyuki Kondo
Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/S) is an electroencephalogram (EEG) feature widely used as control signals for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs). Nevertheless, the underlying neural mechanisms and functions of ERD/S are largely unknown, thus investigating them is crucial to improve the reliability of ERD/S-based BCIs. This study aimed to identify Motor Imagery (MI) conditions that enhance ERD/S. We investigated following three questions: 1) whether target-directed MI affects ERD/S, 2) whether MI with sound imagery affects ERD/S, and 3) whether ERD/S has a body part dependency of MI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926567/critical-developmental-windows-for-morphology-and-hematology-revealed-by-intermittent-and-continuous-hypoxic-incubation-in-embryos-of-quail-coturnix-coturnix
#20
Warren W Burggren, Nourhan A Elmonoufy
Hypoxia during embryonic growth in embryos is frequently a powerful determinant of development, but at least in avian embryos the effects appear to show considerable intra- and inter-specific variation. We hypothesized that some of this variation may arise from different protocols that may or may not result in exposure during the embryo's critical window for hypoxic effects. To test this hypothesis, quail embryos (Coturnix coturnix) in the intact egg were exposed to hypoxia (~15% O2) during "early" (Day 0 through Day 5, abbreviated as D0-D5), "middle" (D6-D10) or "late" (D11-D15) incubation or for their entire 16-18 day incubation ("continuous hypoxia") to determine critical windows for viability and growth...
2017: PloS One
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