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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906156/biomimetic-sniffing-improves-the-detection-performance-of-a-3d-printed-nose-of-a-dog-and-a-commercial-trace-vapor-detector
#1
Matthew E Staymates, William A MacCrehan, Jessica L Staymates, Roderick R Kunz, Thomas Mendum, Ta-Hsuan Ong, Geoffrey Geurtsen, Greg J Gillen, Brent A Craven
Unlike current chemical trace detection technology, dogs actively sniff to acquire an odor sample. Flow visualization experiments with an anatomically-similar 3D printed dog's nose revealed the external aerodynamics during canine sniffing, where ventral-laterally expired air jets entrain odorant-laden air toward the nose, thereby extending the "aerodynamic reach" for inspiration of otherwise inaccessible odors. Chemical sampling and detection experiments quantified two modes of operation with the artificial nose-active sniffing and continuous inspiration-and demonstrated an increase in odorant detection by a factor of up to 18 for active sniffing...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895234/ultraviolet-raman-wide-field-hyperspectral-imaging-spectrometer-for-standoff-trace-explosive-detection
#2
Kyle T Hufziger, Sergei V Bykov, Sanford A Asher
We constructed the first deep ultraviolet (UV) Raman standoff wide-field imaging spectrometer. Our novel deep UV imaging spectrometer utilizes a photonic crystal to select Raman spectral regions for detection. The photonic crystal is composed of highly charged, monodisperse 35.5 ± 2.9 nm silica nanoparticles that self-assemble in solution to produce a face centered cubic crystalline colloidal array that Bragg diffracts a narrow ∼1.0 nm full width at half-maximum (FWHM) UV spectral region. We utilize this photonic crystal to select and image two different spectral regions containing resonance Raman bands of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and NH4NO3 (AN)...
November 28, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885730/artificial-olfactory-system-for-trace-identification-of-explosive-vapors-realized-by-optoelectronic-schottky-sensing
#3
Linjuan Guo, Zheng Yang, Xincun Dou
A rapid, ultrasensitive artificial olfactory system based on an individual optoelectronic Schottky junction is demonstrated for the discriminative detection of explosive vapors, including military explosives and improvised explosives.
November 25, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857289/use-of-photoacoustic-excitation-and-laser-vibrometry-to-remotely-detect-trace-explosives
#4
C M Wynn, R W Haupt, J H Doherty, R R Kunz, W Bai, G Diebold
In this paper, we examine a laser-based approach to remotely initiate, measure, and differentiate acoustic and vibrational emissions from trace quantities of explosive materials against their environment. Using a pulsed ultraviolet laser (266 nm), we induce a significant (>100  Pa) photoacoustic response from small quantities of military-grade explosives. The photoacoustic signal, with frequencies predominantly between 100 and 500 kHz, is detected remotely via a wideband laser Doppler vibrometer. This two-laser system can be used to rapidly detect and discriminate explosives from ordinary background materials, which have significantly weaker photoacoustic response...
November 10, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823672/fabrication-of-l-cysteine-capped-cdte-quantum-dots-based-ratiometric-fluorescence-nanosensor-for-onsite-visual-determination-of-trace-tnt-explosive
#5
Jing Qian, Mengjuan Hua, Chengquan Wang, Kan Wang, Qian Liu, Nan Hao, Kun Wang
New strategies for onsite determination of trace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives have become a research hotspot for homeland security needs against terrorism and environmental concerns. Herein, we designed a ratiometric fluorescence nanohybrid comprising 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped green-emitting CdTe quantum dots (gQDs) encapsulated into SiO2 sphere and l-cysteine (Lcys)-capped red-emitting CdTe QDs (rQDs) conjugated onto SiO2 surface. The surface Lcys can be used as not only the stabilizer of the rQDs but also the primary amine provider which can react with TNT to form Meisenheimer complexes...
November 23, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774785/fluorescence-detection-of-a-broad-class-of-explosives-with-one-zinc-ii-coordination-nanofiber
#6
Wei Xiong, Xiaoling Liu, Tie Wang, Yifan Zhang, Yanke Che, Jin-Cai Zhao
In this work, we report the development of one fluorescent carbazole-based oligomer 1-Zinc (II) coordination nanofiber which enabled the detection of five classes of explosives, i.e., nitroaromatics (dinitrotoluene, DNT and trinitrotoluene, TNT), aliphatic nitro-organics (2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane, DMNB), nitramines (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, RDX), nitro-esters (pentaerythritol tetranitrate, PETN), and black powder (sulfur). We demonstrate that the coordination of Zinc ion with a carbazole-based oligomer 1 allows the formation of the Lewis acid-base complex between explosives and the nanofiber that enhances the electron-accepting ability of the nitro-based explosives and the binding interactions between the sensing nanofibers and explosives...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769399/progressing-the-analysis-of-improvised-explosive-devices-comparative-study-for-trace-detection-of-explosive-residues-in-handprints-by-raman-spectroscopy-and-liquid-chromatography
#7
Félix Zapata, Mª Ángeles Fernández de la Ossa, Elizabeth Gilchrist, Leon Barron, Carmen García-Ruiz
Concerning the dreadful global threat of terrorist attacks, the detection of explosive residues in biological traces and marks is a current need in both forensics and homeland security. This study examines the potential of Raman microscopy in comparison to liquid chromatography (ion chromatography (IC) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)) to detect, identify and quantify residues in human handmarks of explosives and energetic salts commonly used to manufacture Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) including dynamite, ammonium nitrate, single- and double-smokeless gunpowders and black powder...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761535/detection-of-an-explosive-simulant-via-electrical-impedance-spectroscopy-utilizing-the-uio-66-nh2-metal-organic-framework
#8
G W Peterson, M McEntee, C R Harris, A D Klevitch, A W Fountain, J R Soliz, A Balboa, A J Hauser
Electrical impedance spectroscopy, in conjunction with the metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66-NH2, is used to detect trace levels of the explosive simulant 2,6-dinitrotoluene. The combination of porosity and functionality of the MOF provides an effective dielectric structure, resulting in changes of impedance magnitude and phase angle. The promising data indicate that MOFs may be used in low-cost, robust explosive detection devices.
October 20, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737506/rapid-screening-of-explosives-in-ambient-environment-by-aerodynamic-assisted-thermo-desorption-mass-spectrometry
#9
Qiang Zhao, Jianli Liu, Bo Wang, Xiaohua Zhang, Guangyan Huang, Wei Xu
Rapid, direct and trace detection of explosives in an open environment is of particular need in homeland and/or transportation security. In this work, an aerodynamic assisted thermo desorption mass spectrometry method was developed for the direct quantitative analyses of explosives from a distance. Remote non-volatile explosive sensing was achieved for 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), trinitrohexahydro-1, 3, 5-triazine (RDX), 8701 (main ingredient: RDX 98.5%) and C4 (a type of plastic explosive) with a distance of 0...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721477/the-1257-samalas-eruption-lombok-indonesia-the-single-greatest-stratospheric-gas-release-of-the-common-era
#10
Céline M Vidal, Nicole Métrich, Jean-Christophe Komorowski, Indyo Pratomo, Agnès Michel, Nugraha Kartadinata, Vincent Robert, Franck Lavigne
Large explosive eruptions inject volcanic gases and fine ash to stratospheric altitudes, contributing to global cooling at the Earth's surface and occasionally to ozone depletion. The modelling of the climate response to these strong injections of volatiles commonly relies on ice-core records of volcanic sulphate aerosols. Here we use an independent geochemical approach which demonstrates that the great 1257 eruption of Samalas (Lombok, Indonesia) released enough sulphur and halogen gases into the stratosphere to produce the reported global cooling during the second half of the 13th century, as well as potential substantial ozone destruction...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702447/a-method-for-rapid-sampling-and-characterization-of-smokeless-powder-using-sorbent-coated-wire-mesh-and-direct-analysis-in-real-time-mass-spectrometry-dart-ms
#11
Frederick Li, Joseph Tice, Brian D Musselman, Adam B Hall
Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are often used by terrorists and criminals to create public panic and destruction, necessitating rapid investigative information. However, backlogs in many forensic laboratories resulting in part from time-consuming GC-MS and LC-MS techniques prevent prompt analytical information. Direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS) is a promising analytical technique that can address this challenge in the forensic science community by permitting rapid trace analysis of energetic materials...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659174/-photosystem-ii-the-water-splitting-enzyme-of-photosynthesis-and-the-origin-of-oxygen-in-our-atmosphere
#12
James Barber
About 3 billion years ago an enzyme emerged which would dramatically change the chemical composition of our planet and set in motion an unprecedented explosion in biological activity. This enzyme used solar energy to power the thermodynamically and chemically demanding reaction of water splitting. In so doing it provided biology with an unlimited supply of reducing equivalents needed to convert carbon dioxide into the organic molecules of life while at the same time produced oxygen to transform our planetary atmosphere from an anaerobic to an aerobic state...
January 2016: Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620399/torque-onset-determination-unintended-consequences-of-the-threshold-method
#13
Raffy Dotan, Glenn Jenkins, Thomas D O'Brien, Steve Hansen, Bareket Falk
BACKGROUND: Compared with visual torque-onset-detection (TOD), threshold-based TOD produces onset bias, which increases with lower torques or rates of torque development (RTD). PURPOSE: To compare the effects of differential TOD-bias on common contractile parameters in two torque-disparate groups. METHODS: Fifteen boys and 12 men performed maximal, explosive, isometric knee-extensions. Torque and EMG were recorded for each contraction. Best contractions were selected by peak torque (MVC) and peak RTD...
December 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594772/trace-analysis-of-surfactants-in-corexit-oil-dispersant-formulations-and-seawater
#14
Benjamin J Place, Matt J Perkins, Ewan Sinclair, Adam L Barsamian, Paul R Blakemore, Jennifer A Field
After the April 2010 explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, and subsequent release of millions of barrels of oil, two Corexit oil dispersant formulations were used in unprecedented quantities both on the surface and sub-surface of the Gulf of Mexico. Although the dispersant formulations contain four classes of surfactants, current studies to date focus on the anionic surfactant, bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (DOSS). Factors affecting the integrity of environmental and laboratory samples for Corexit analysis have not been systematically investigated...
July 2016: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573799/analysis-of-ammonium-nitrate-urea-nitrate-with-crown-ethers-and-sugars-as-modifiers-by-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-and-ion-mobility-spectrometry
#15
Chia-Wei Tsai, Anthony Midey, Ching Wu, Richard A Yost
Ammonium nitrate (AN) and urea nitrate (UN) are commonly used materials in improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Detection by mass spectrometry (MS) and/or ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is traditionally difficult. The major challenges of detecting these species arise from their ionic nature and their low mass (for MS detection) and size (for IMS detection). Although AN and UN both produce characteristic higher mass (and size) cluster ions when ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI), detection of AN/UN using cluster ions poses difficulty at trace levels because their formation is concentration-dependent...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557194/photo-vibrational-spectroscopy-of-solid-and-liquid-chemicals-using-laser-doppler-vibrometer
#16
Qi Hu, Jacob Song Kiat Lim, Huan Liu, Yu Fu
Photoacoustic/photothermal spectroscopy is an established technique for trace detection of chemicals and explosives. However, prior sample preparation is required and the analysis is conducted in a sealed space with a high-sensitivity microphone or a piezo sensor coupled with a lock-in amplifier, limiting the technique to applications in a laboratory environment. Due to the aforementioned requirements, traditionally this technique may not be suitable for defense and security applications where the detection of explosives or hazardous chemicals is required in an open environment at a safe standoff distance...
August 22, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533036/the-awakening-of-a-classical-nova-from-hibernation
#17
Przemek Mróz, Andrzej Udalski, Paweł Pietrukowicz, Michał K Szymański, Igor Soszyński, Łukasz Wyrzykowski, Radosław Poleski, Szymon Kozłowski, Jan Skowron, Krzysztof Ulaczyk, Dorota Skowron, Michał Pawlak
Cataclysmic variable stars-novae, dwarf novae, and nova-likes-are close binary systems consisting of a white dwarf star (the primary) that is accreting matter from a low-mass companion star (the secondary). From time to time such systems undergo large-amplitude brightenings. The most spectacular eruptions, with a ten-thousandfold increase in brightness, occur in classical novae and are caused by a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of the white dwarf. Such eruptions are thought to recur on timescales of ten thousand to a million years...
August 17, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491948/prenatal-metal-exposure-in-the-middle-east-imprint-of-war-in-deciduous-teeth-of-children
#18
M Savabieasfahani, S Sadik Ali, R Bacho, O Savabi, M Alsabbak
In war zones, the explosion of bombs, bullets, and other ammunition releases multiple neurotoxicants into the environment. The Middle East is currently the site of heavy environmental disruption by massive bombardments. A very large number of US military bases, which release highly toxic environmental contaminants, have also been erected since 2003. Current knowledge supports the hypothesis that war-created pollution is a major cause of rising birth defects and cancers in Iraq. We created elemental bio-imaging of trace elements in deciduous teeth of children with birth defects from Iraq...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476664/high-pressure-effects-in-high-field-asymmetric-waveform-ion-mobility-spectrometry
#19
Yonghuan Wang, Xiaozhi Wang, Lingfen Li, Chilai Chen, Tianbai Xu, Tao Wang, Jikui Luo
RATIONALE: High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) is an analytical technique based on the principle of non-linear electric field dependence of coefficient of mobility of ions for separation that was originally conceived in the Soviet Union in the early 1980s. Being well developed over the past decades, FAIMS has become an efficient method for the separation and characterization of gas-phase ions at ambient pressure, often in air, to detect trace amounts of chemical species including explosives, toxic chemicals, chemical warfare agents and other compounds...
August 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473700/epr-dosimetry-study-for-population-residing-in-the-vicinity-of-fallout-trace-for-nuclear-test-on-7-august-1962
#20
K Zhumadilov, Alexander Ivannikov, Valeriy Stepanenko, Shin Toyoda, Valeriy Skvortsov, Masaharu Hoshi
The method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry using extracted teeth has been applied to human tooth enamel to obtain individual absorbed doses of residents of settlements in the vicinity of the central axis of radioactive fallout trace from the contaminating surface nuclear test on 7 August 1962. Most of the settlements (Kurchatov, Akzhar, Begen, Buras, Grachi, Mayskoe, Semenovka) are located from 70 to 120  km to the North-East from the epicenter of the explosion at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS)...
July 29, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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