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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547850/detection-of-contact-traces-of-powdery-substances
#1
Wojciech Pawłowski, Łukasz Matyjasek, Monika Karpińska
The current practice in securing the contact traces of chemical substances taken from clothes belonging to a person suspected of manual handling explosives is focused on pockets and cuffs. The outerwear worn by people who had contact with fluorescent powders that simulate explosives and drugs was the subject of this study. Clothes were first exposed to the test substance for a period of time and then analyzed by fluorescence methods to determine the location of the highest quantity of traces. The results obtained from the study confirm that the areas with the highest concentration of powdery traces are different from those suggested by current forensic practice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469009/heroes-of-the-engram
#2
Sheena A Josselyn, Stefan Köhler, Paul W Frankland
In 1904, Richard Semon introduced the term "engram" to describe the neural substrate responsible for (or at least important in) storing and recalling memories (i.e., a memory trace). The recent introduction of a vast array of powerful new tools to probe and manipulate memory function at the cell and neuronal circuit level has spurred an explosion of interest in studying the engram. However, the present "engram renaissance" was not borne in isolation but rather builds on a long tradition of memory research. We believe it is important to acknowledge the debts our current generation of scientists owes to those scientists who have offered key ideas, persevered through failed experiments and made important discoveries before us...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451678/a-novel-luminescent-pb-ii-organic-framework-exhibiting-a-rapid-and-selective-detection-of-trace-amounts-of-nacs-and-fe-3-with-excellent-recyclability
#3
Xuan Luo, Xiao Zhang, Yuanling Duan, Xiaolin Wang, Jiaming Zhao
A novel three-dimensional metal organic framework, Pb3O2L (1) (H2L = 4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenol), with a unique 3D network structure exhibits excellent luminescence and good stability in water and other organic solvents. 1 can act as a promising dual functional sensor for the detection and recognition of nitroaromatic explosives (NACs) and Fe(3+) ions via fluorescence quenching with high selectivity and sensitivity in an aqueous phase. Importantly, 1 as a fluorescent sensor of Fe(3+) can be simply and quickly regenerated, which represents a rare example of a reported luminescent sensor of Fe(3+) ions...
May 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448003/standardized-method-for-measuring-collection-efficiency-from-wipe-sampling-of-trace-explosives
#4
Jennifer R Verkouteren, Jeffrey A Lawrence, Matthew E Staymates, Edward Sisco
One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection of the sample. Wipe-sampling is the most common procedure for collecting traces of explosives, and standardized measurements of collection efficiency are needed to evaluate and optimize sampling protocols. The approach described here is designed to provide this measurement infrastructure, and controls most of the factors known to be relevant to wipe-sampling. Three critical factors (the applied force, travel distance, and travel speed) are controlled using an automated device...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425532/emerging-tellurium-nanostructures-controllable-synthesis-and-their-applications
#5
REVIEW
Zhen He, Yuan Yang, Jian-Wei Liu, Shu-Hong Yu
Tellurium (Te) is a rare element in trace amounts of about one part per billion, comparable to that of platinum and ranked 75th in the abundance of the elements in the earth crust. Te nanostructures, as narrow bandgap semiconductors, have numerous potential applications in the fabrication of many modern devices. The past decades have witnessed an explosion in new strategies for synthesizing diverse emerging Te nanostructures with controlled compositions, sizes, shapes, and structures. Their structure-determined nature makes functional Te nanomaterials an attractive candidate for modern applications...
April 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409445/ion-mobility-spectrometry-high-resolution-ltq-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry-for-analysis-of-homemade-explosives
#6
Nathan Hagan, Ilana Goldberg, Adam Graichen, Amanda St Jean, Ching Wu, David Lawrence, Plamen Demirev
The detailed chemical characterization of homemade explosives (HMEs) and other chemicals that can mimic or mask the presence of explosives is important for understanding and improving the performance of commercial instrumentation used for explosive detection. To that end, an atmospheric-pressure drift tube ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) instrument has been successfully coupled to a commercial tandem mass spectrometry (MS) system. The tandem MS system is comprised of a linear ion trap and a high resolution Orbitrap analyzer...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381055/eye-safe-near-infrared-trace-explosives-detection-and-imaging
#7
Gennady Rasskazov, Anton Ryabtsev, Marcos Dantus
We report the development of a non-contact no-reagents system operating in the eye-safe 1560-1800 nm wavelength range for standoff trace detection of explosives and high-speed imaging. Experimental results are provided for a number of chemicals including explosives on a variety of surfaces at sub-microgram per cm<sup>2</sup> concentration. Chemically specific images were collected at 0.06 ms per pixel. Results from this effort indicate that the combination of modern industrial fiber lasers and nonlinear optical spectroscopy can address next generation eye-safe trace detection of chemicals including explosives...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372430/trace-explosives-sensor-testbed-testbed
#8
Greg E Collins, Michael P Malito, Cy R Tamanaha, Mark H Hammond, Braden C Giordano, Adam L Lubrano, Christopher R Field, Duane A Rogers, Russell A Jeffries, Richard J Colton, Susan L Rose-Pehrsson
A novel vapor delivery testbed, referred to as the Trace Explosives Sensor Testbed, or TESTbed, is demonstrated that is amenable to both high- and low-volatility explosives vapors including nitromethane, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, triacetone triperoxide, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. The TESTbed incorporates a six-port dual-line manifold system allowing for rapid actuation between a dedicated clean air source and a trace explosives vapor source...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349688/portable-and-reliable-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-silicon-chip-for-signal-on-detection-of-trace-trinitrotoluene-explosive-in-real-systems
#9
Na Chen, Pan Ding, Yu Shi, Tengyu Jin, Yuanyuan Su, Houyu Wang, Yao He
There is an increasing interest in the development of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors for rapid and accurate on-site detection of hidden explosives. However, portable SERS methods for trace explosive detection in real systems remain scarce, mainly due to their relatively poor reliability and portability. Herein, we present the first demonstration of a portable silicon-based SERS analytical platform for signal-on detection of trace trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives, which is made of silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-decorated silicon wafer chip (0...
April 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340788/rapid-identification-and-desorption-mechanisms-of-nitrogen-based-explosives-by-ambient-micro-fabricated-glow-discharge-plasma-desorption-ionization-mfgdp-mass-spectrometry
#10
CaiYan Tian, JinWei Yin, ZhongJun Zhao, Yinchenxi Zhang, YiXiang Duan
A novel technique of micro-fabricated glow discharge plasma desorption/ionization mass spectrometry was investigated for the first time in negative ion mode in this study. Negative ion micro-fabricated glow discharge plasma desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (NI-MFGDP-MS) was successfully applied to identify trace explosives in open air. Six explosives and explosives-related compounds were directly analyzed in seconds with this ion source. The ions of [M-H](-) were predominant for 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (trinitrotoluene, TNT) and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid), and [M+NO3](-) were dominant ions for 1,3,5-trinitro-perhydro-1,3,5-triazine (cyclonite, RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (octogen, HMX), 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane (nitroglycerin, NG), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324768/analysis-of-different-materials-subjected-to-open-air-explosions-in-search-of-explosive-traces-by-raman-microscopy
#11
Félix Zapata, Carmen García-Ruiz
Post-explosion scenes offer such chaos and destruction that evidence recovery and detection of post-blast residues from the explosive in the surrounding materials is highly challenging and difficult. The suitability of materials to retain explosives residues and their subsequent analysis has been scarcely investigated. Particularly, the use of explosive mixtures containing inorganic oxidizing salts to make improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a current security concern due to their wide availability and lax control...
March 16, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319855/microbial-bioreporters-of-trace-explosives
#12
REVIEW
Benjamin Shemer, Ori Koshet, Sharon Yagur-Kroll, Shimshon Belkin
Since its introduction as an explosive in the late 19th century, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), along with other explosive compounds, has left numerous environmental marks. One of these is widespread soil and water pollution by trace explosives in military proving grounds, manufacturing facilities, or actual battlefields. Another dramatic impact is that exerted by the millions of landmines and other explosive devices buried in large parts of the world, causing extensive loss of life, injuries, and economical damage...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292727/analysis-of-dna-from-post-blast-pipe-bomb-fragments-for-identification-and-determination-of-ancestry
#13
Esiri Tasker, Bobby LaRue, Charity Beherec, David Gangitano, Sheree Hughes-Stamm
Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) such as pipe bombs are weapons used to detrimentally affect people and communities. A readily accessible brand of exploding targets called Tannerite® has been identified as a potential material for abuse as an explosive in pipe bombs. The ability to recover and genotype DNA from such weapons may be vital in the effort to identify suspects associated with these devices. While it is possible to recover DNA from post-blast fragments using short tandem repeat markers (STRs), genotyping success can be negatively affected by low quantities of DNA, degradation, and/or PCR inhibitors...
March 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284543/aquatic-environmental-changes-and-anthropogenic-activities-reflected-by-the-sedimentary-records-of-the-shima-river-southern-china
#14
Lei Gao, Zhuowei Wang, Jiju Shan, Jianyao Chen, Changyuan Tang, Ming Yi
Reconstructing historical sedimentary records is essential for better understanding the effects of anthropogenic activities on river environments. We used lead-210 to date riverine sediment core from the Shima River in China. We obtained a sedimentary history of 34 years (1982-2015) for core S2, which had a length of 34 cm. The sedimentation rate of 0.304-2.04 cm y(-1) was controlled by both flood events and anthropogenic activities. The conservative element content depth profiles remained relatively constant, suggestive of a relatively stable sediment provenance; therefore, the increase in the sedimentation rate over time was mainly the result of domestic and industrial wastewater effluent and the construction of a rubber dam at the middle and lower reach of the Shima River...
May 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284444/investigating-tnt-loss-between-sample-collection-and-analysis
#15
Niamh Nic Daeid, Holly A Yu, Matthew S Beardah
Explosives residues are often collected from explosion scenes, and from surfaces suspected of being in contact with explosives, by swabbing with solvent-wetted cotton swabs. It is vital that any explosives traces present on the swabs are successfully extracted and detected when received in a laboratory. However, a 2007 proficiency test initiated by the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) Expert Working Group on Explosives involving TNT-spiked cotton swabs highlighted that explosives may not always be detected from such samples...
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253619/determination-of-peroxide-explosive-tatp-and-related-compounds-by-dielectric-barrier-discharge-ionization-mass-spectrometry-dbdi-ms
#16
Sebastian Hagenhoff, Joachim Franzke, Heiko Hayen
Dielectric barrier discharge ionization-mass spectrometry (DBDI-MS), which is based on the use of a low temperature helium plasma as ionization source, is used for the determination of trace amounts of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and its homologue diacetone diperoxide (DADP) from surfaces. TATP is observed as [M+NH4](+) adduct, whereas DADP is observed as [M+O+NH4](+). Measurement of DADP with varying deuteration degrees (DADP, DADP-d6, and DADP-d12) indicates that DADP undergoes oxidation when ionized by DBDI...
March 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239970/atmospheric-pressure-chemical-ionization-of-explosives-induced-by-soft-x-radiation-in-ion-mobility-spectrometry-mass-spectrometric-investigation-of-the-ionization-reactions-of-drift-gasses-dopants-and-alkyl-nitrates
#17
Daniel Riebe, Alexander Erler, Thomas Ritschel, Toralf Beitz, Hans-Gerd Löhmannsröben, Andreas Beil, Michael Blaschke, Thomas Ludwig
A promising replacement for the radioactive sources commonly encountered in ion mobility spectrometers is a miniaturized, energy-efficient photoionization source that produce the reactant ions via soft X-radiation (2.8 keV). In order to successfully apply the photoionization source, it is imperative to know the spectrum of reactant ions and the subsequent ionization reactions leading to the detection of analytes. To that end, an ionization chamber based on the photoionization source that reproduces the ionization processes in the ion mobility spectrometer and facilitates efficient transfer of the product ions into a mass spectrometer was developed...
August 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157878/multiplex-coherent-anti-stokes-raman-scattering-spectroscopy-for-trace-chemical-detection
#18
Sherrie B Pilkington, Stephen D Roberson, Paul M Pellegrino
Trace chemical detection is a particularly challenging problem of significant Army interest. Optical diagnostic techniques offer rapid, accurate, sensitive, and highly selective detection of hazardous materials in a variety of systems. Multiplex coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (MCARS) spectroscopy generates a complete Raman spectrum from the material of interest using a combination of a supercontinuum pulse, which drives multiple molecular vibrations simultaneously, and a narrowband probe pulse. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of MCARS to detect trace amounts of both explosive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants with limits of detection below 0...
January 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153227/quantifying-the-stability-of-trace-explosives-under-different-environmental-conditions-using-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#19
Edward Sisco, Marcela Najarro, Daniel Samarov, Jeffrey Lawrence
This work investigates the stability of trace (tens of nanograms) deposits of six explosives: erythritol tetranitrate (ETN), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl) to determine environmental stabilities and lifetimes of trace level materials. Explosives were inkjet printed directly onto substrates and exposed to one of seven environmental conditions (Laboratory, -4°C, 30°C, 47°C, 90% relative humidity, UV light, and ozone) up to 42 days...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119193/suspect-screening-and-quantification-of-trace-organic-explosives-in-wastewater-using-solid-phase-extraction-and-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-accurate-mass-spectrometry
#20
Helena Rapp-Wright, Gillian McEneff, Bronagh Murphy, Sally Gamble, Ruth Morgan, Matthew Beardah, Leon Barron
The first comprehensive assessment of 34 solid phase extraction sorbents is presented for organic explosive residues in wastewater prior to analysis with liquid chromatography-high resolution accurate mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). A total of 18 explosives were selected including nitramines, nitrate esters, nitroaromatics and organic peroxides. Three polymeric divinylbenzene-based sorbents were found to be most suitable and one co-polymerised with n-vinyl pyrrolidone offered satisfactory recoveries for 14 compounds in fortified wastewater (77-124%)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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