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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324113/microrna-expression-patterns-involved-in-amyloid-beta-induced-retinal-degeneration
#1
Peirong Huang, Junran Sun, Fenghua Wang, Xueting Luo, Jingyang Feng, Qing Gu, Te Liu, Xiaodong Sun
Purpose: Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by the accumulation of drusen under Bruch's membrane, and amyloid beta (Aβ) is speculated to be one of the key pathologic factors. While the detrimental effects of Aβ on retinas have been widely explored, Aβ-induced epigenetic regulatory changes have yet to be fully investigated. We therefore aimed to identify the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in an Aβ-induced mouse model of retinal degeneration. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were intravitreally injected with Aβ1-40 or PBS and the eye tissues were collected for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, apoptosis immunofluorescence staining, and miRNA profiling...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315462/implications-of-cerebrovascular-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-g1-abcg1-and-apolipoprotein-m-in-cholesterol-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#2
Alexandra Carmen Kober, Anil Paul Chirackal Manavalan, Carmen Tam-Amersdorfer, Andreas Holmér, Ahmed Saeed, Elham Fanaee Danesh, Martina Zandl, Nicole Maria Albrecher, Ingemar Björkhem, Gerhard M Kostner, Björn Dahlbäck, Ute Panzenboeck
Impaired cholesterol/lipoprotein metabolism is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cerebral cholesterol homeostasis is maintained by the highly efficient blood-brain barrier (BBB) and flux of the oxysterols 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol, potent liver-X-receptor (LXR) activators. HDL and their apolipoproteins are crucial for cerebral lipid transfer, and loss of ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC)G1 and G4 results in toxic accumulation of oxysterols in the brain...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315324/nucleolin-protects-macrophages-from-oxldl-induced-foam-cell-formation-through-up-regulating-abca1-expression
#3
Yuanbin Li, Bimei Jiang, Pengfei Liang, Zhongyi Tong, Meidong Liu, Qinglan Lv, Yanjuan Liu, Xuanyou Liu, Yuting Tang, Xianzhong Xiao
Our recent studies have indicated that nucleolin, as a multifunctional RNA-binding protein, exerts protective effects in the myocardial cells and endothelial cells under the condition of oxidative stress. However, the function of nucleolin and its potential mechanism in macrophage-derived foam cell formation remain largely unexplored. ApoE-/- mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10-24 weeks. Protein expression was measured by western blotting or immunofluorescence, and gene expression at the mRNA level was detected by qRT-PCR...
March 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301372/news-on-the-molecular-regulation-and-function-of-hepatic-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-and-ldlr-related-protein-1
#4
Bart van de Sluis, Melinde Wijers, Joachim Herz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clearing of atherogenic lipoprotein particles by the liver requires hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1). This review highlights recent studies that have expanded our understanding of the molecular regulation and metabolic functions of LDLR and LRP1 in the liver. RECENT FINDINGS: Various proteins orchestrate the intracellular trafficking of LDLR and LRP1. After internalization, the receptors are redirected via recycling endosomes to the cell surface...
March 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296196/sirt6-reduces-macrophage-foam-cell-formation-by-inducing-autophagy-and-cholesterol-efflux-under-ox-ldl-condition
#5
Jiangping He, Guangya Zhang, Qi Pang, Cong Yu, Jie Xiong, Jing Zhu, Fengling Chen
SIRT6 is a pivotal regulator of lipid metabolism. It is also closely connected to cardiovascular diseases, which are the main cause of death in diabetic patients. We observed a decrease in the expression of SIRT6 and key autophagy effectors (ATG5, LC3B, and LAMP1) in ox-LDL-induced foam cells, a special form of lipid-laden macrophages. In these cells, SIRT6 WT but not SIRT6 H133Y overexpression markedly reduced foam cell formation, as shown by Oil Red O staining, while inducing autophagy flux, as determined by both mRFP-GFP-LC3 labeling and transmission electron microscopy...
March 9, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278274/human-paraoxonase-1-overexpression-in-mice-stimulates-hdl-cholesterol-efflux-and-reverse-cholesterol-transport
#6
Souade Ikhlef, Hicham Berrougui, Olivier Kamtchueng Simo, Echarki Zerif, Abdelouahed Khalil
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of human PON1 overexpression in mice on cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport. PON1 overexpression in PON1-Tg mice induced a significant 3-fold (p<0.0001) increase in plasma paraoxonase activity and a significant ~30% (p<0.0001) increase in the capacity of HDL to mediate cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages compared to wild-type mice. It also caused a significant 4-fold increase (p<0.0001) in the capacity of macrophages to transfer cholesterol to apoA-1, a significant 2-fold (p<0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274624/the-apolipoprotein-a-i-mimetic-peptide-d-4f-alleviates-ox-ldl-induced-oxidative-stress-and-promotes-endothelial-repair-through-the-enos-ho-1-pathway
#7
Donghui Liu, Zhenzhen Ding, Mengzhang Wu, Wenqi Xu, Mingming Qian, Qian Du, Le Zhang, Ye Cui, Jianlan Zheng, He Chang, Caihua Huang, Donghai Lin, Yan Wang
Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptide exerts many anti-atherogenic properties. However, the underlying mechanisms related to the endothelial protective effects remain elusive. In this study, the apoA-I mimetic peptide, D-4F, was used. Proliferation assay, wound healing, and transwell migration experiments showed that D-4F improved the impaired endothelial proliferation and migration resulting from ox-LDL. Endothelial adhesion molecules expression and monocyte adhesion assay demonstrated that D-4F inhibited endothelial inflammation...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273782/active-liver-x-receptor-signaling-in-phagocytes-in-multiple-sclerosis-lesions
#8
Jo Mailleux, Tim Vanmierlo, Jeroen Fj Bogie, Elien Wouters, Dieter Lütjohann, Jerome Ja Hendriks, Jack van Horssen
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the liver X receptor (LXR) ligands present in human macrophages after myelin phagocytosis and whether LXRs are activated in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. METHODS: We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry to determine expression of LXRs and their response genes in human phagocytes after myelin phagocytosis and in active MS lesions. We used gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis to determine LXR-activating oxysterols and cholesterol precursors present and formed in myelin and myelin-incubated cells, respectively...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266648/the-trisaccharide-raffinose-modulates-epidermal-differentiation-through-activation-of-liver-x-receptor
#9
Tae-Young Na, Gyeong-Hwan Kim, Hyeon-Jeong Oh, Min-Ho Lee, Yong-Hyun Han, Ki Taek Kim, Ji-Su Kim, Dae-Duk Kim, Mi-Ock Lee
The epidermal barrier function requires optimal keratinocyte differentiation and epidermal lipid synthesis. Liver X receptor (LXR) α and β, are important transcriptional regulators of the epidermal gene expression. Here, we show that raffinose, a ubiquitously present trisaccharide in plants, activated the transcriptional activity of LXRα/β, which led to the induction of genes required for keratinocyte differentiation such as involucrin and filaggrin, and genes involved in lipid metabolism and transport including SCD1 and ABCA1 in both HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241820/examining-the-role-of-abc-lipid-transporters-in-pulmonary-lipid-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
Amanda B Chai, Alaina J Ammit, Ingrid C Gelissen
Respiratory diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterised by excessive and persistent inflammation. Current treatments are often inadequate for symptom and disease control, and hence new therapies are warranted. Recent emerging research has implicated dyslipidaemia in pulmonary inflammation. Three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are found in the mammalian lung - ABCA1, ABCG1 and ABCA3 - that are involved in movement of cholesterol and phospholipids from lung cells...
February 28, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241068/liver-x-receptor-agonist-treatment-significantly-affects-phenotype-and-transcriptome-of-apoe3-and-apoe4-abca1-haplo-deficient-mice
#11
Alexis Y Carter, Florent Letronne, Nicholas F Fitz, Anais Mounier, Cody M Wolfe, Kyong Nyon Nam, Valerie L Reeves, Hafsa Kamboh, Iliya Lefterov, Radosveta Koldamova
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) controls cholesterol and phospholipid efflux to lipid-poor apolipoprotein E (APOE) and is transcriptionally controlled by Liver X receptors (LXRs) and Retinoic X Receptors (RXRs). In APP transgenic mice, lack of Abca1 increased Aβ deposition and cognitive deficits. Abca1 haplo-deficiency in mice expressing human APOE isoforms, increased level of Aβ oligomers and worsened memory deficits, preferentially in APOE4 mice. In contrast upregulation of Abca1 by LXR/RXR agonists significantly ameliorated pathological phenotype of those mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238797/in%C3%A2-vitro-modeling-of-blood-brain-barrier-with-human-ipsc-derived-endothelial-cells-pericytes-neurons-and-astrocytes-via-notch-signaling
#12
Kohei Yamamizu, Mio Iwasaki, Hitomi Takakubo, Takumi Sakamoto, Takeshi Ikuno, Mami Miyoshi, Takayuki Kondo, Yoichi Nakao, Masato Nakagawa, Haruhisa Inoue, Jun K Yamashita
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of four cell populations, brain endothelial cells (BECs), pericytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Its role is to precisely regulate the microenvironment of the brain through selective substance crossing. Here we generated an in vitro model of the BBB by differentiating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into all four populations. When the four hiPSC-derived populations were co-cultured, endothelial cells (ECs) were endowed with features consistent with BECs, including a high expression of nutrient transporters (CAT3, MFSD2A) and efflux transporters (ABCA1, BCRP, PGP, MRP5), and strong barrier function based on tight junctions...
March 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235645/modification-of-the-fatty-acid-composition-of-an-obesogenic-diet-improves-the-maternal-and-placental-metabolic-environment-in-obese-pregnant-mice
#13
Martina Gimpfl, Jan Rozman, Maik Dahlhoff, Raphaela Kübeck, Andreas Blutke, Birgit Rathkolb, Martin Klingenspor, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Soner Öner-Sieben, Annette Seibt, Adelbert A Roscher, Eckhard Wolf, Regina Ensenauer
Peri-conceptional exposure to maternal obesogenic nutrition is associated with in utero programming of later-life overweight and metabolic disease in the offspring. We aimed to investigate whether dietary intervention with a modified fatty acid quality in an obesogenic high-calorie (HC) diet during the preconception and gestational phases can improve unfavourable effects of an adipogenic maternal environment. In NMRI mice, peri-conceptional and gestational obesity was induced by feeding a HC diet (controls), and they were compared with dams on a fat-modified (Fat-mod) HC diet of the same energy content but enriched with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and adjusted to a decreased ratio of n-6 to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs)...
February 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210221/pharmacogenomic-characterization-and-isobologram-analysis-of-the-combination-of-ascorbic-acid-and-curcumin-two-main-metabolites-of-curcuma-longa-in-cancer-cells
#14
Edna Ooko, Onat Kadioglu, Henry J Greten, Thomas Efferth
Curcuma longa has long been used in China and India as anti-inflammatory agent to treat a wide variety of conditions and also as a spice for varied curry preparations. The chemoprofile of the Curcuma species exhibits the presence of varied phytochemicals with curcumin being present in all three species but AA only being shown in C. longa. This study explored the effect of a curcumin/AA combination on human cancer cell lines. The curcumin/AA combination was assessed by isobologram analysis using the Loewe additivity drug interaction model...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205181/abc-transporter-mediated-sterol-export-from-cells-using-radiolabeled-sterols
#15
Alryel Yang, Ingrid C Gelissen
Cholesterol export from cells to extracellular acceptors represents the first step of the reverse cholesterol transport process and is an essential part of the multifaceted pathway for cells to control their cholesterol levels. Malfunction of this pathway leads to cholesterol accumulation in cells such as macrophages, which can form the basis of conditions like atherosclerosis. A number of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, namely ABCA1, ABCA7, ABCG1, and ABCG4, play an essential role in this process...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205180/methods-for-monitoring-abca1-dependent-sterol-release
#16
Yoshio Yamauchi, Shinji Yokoyama, Ta-Yuan Chang
Releasing sterols to the extracellular milieu is an important part of sterol homeostasis in cells and in the body. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays an essential role in cellular phospholipid and sterol release to lipid-free or lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major apolipoprotein in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and constitutes the first step in the formation of nascent HDL. Loss-of-function mutations in the ABCA1 gene lead to a rare disease known as Tangier disease that causes severe deficiency in plasma HDL level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196336/regression-of-atherosclerosis-with-apple-procyanidins-by-activating-the-atp-binding-cassette-subfamily-a-member-1-in-a-rabbit-model
#17
Liang Wang, Toshio Fumoto, Saeko Masumoto, Toshihiko Shoji, Tomisato Miura, Masato Naraoka, Naoya Matsuda, Tadaatsu Imaizumi, Hiroki Ohkuma
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Apple polyphenol contains abundant procyanidins, which have been associated with an anti-atherosclerosis and cholesterol-lowering effect. The aim of this study was to investigate whether apple procyanidins (APCs) feature therapeutic efficacy in terms of regressing atherosclerosis and whether this efficacy is due to mechanisms other than a cholesterol-lowering effect. METHODS: After eight weeks on an atherogenic diet, rabbits were given a normal diet for another eight weeks to normalize the increased serum lipids level...
March 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167099/27-hydroxycholesterol-regulates-cholesterol-synthesis-and-transport-in-c6-glioma-cells
#18
Yu An, Dan-Di Zhang, Huan-Ling Yu, Wei-Wei Ma, Yan-Hui Lu, Quan-Ri Liu, Rong Xiao
The oxysterol 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) is a major cholesterol metabolite that can cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) from peripheral circulation to the brain. Currently, the role of 27-OHC on cholesterol homeostasis in astrocytes and the underlying mechanisms are not defined. Since all brain cholesterol is essentially synthesized in brain itself and astrocytes as net producers of cholesterol are essential for normal brain function, here we investigated the effects of 27-OHC on cholesterol synthesis and transport in C6 glioma cells...
February 3, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164591/association-of-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-abc-gene-polymorphisms-with-viral-load-in-patients-with-genotype-1-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#19
Long Chen, Huiying Rao, Wei Zhang, Feng Liu, Dong Jiang, Lai Wei
BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC) gene polymorphisms are associated with various biological functions, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study aims to explore the impact of ABC transporters polymorphisms on HCV viral load in chronic treatment-naïve hepatitis C patients. METHODS: We recruited 347 Chinese Han patients chronically infected with genotype 1 HCV in this study. Ten single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in ABCA1, ABCB5, ABCB11, ABCG2, ABCG5, ABCG10 were analyzed by custom chip from Illumina...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164196/preventive-effect-of-silibinin-in-combination-with-pu-erh-tea-extract-on-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-ob-ob-mice
#20
Wen-Yi Hu, Xiao-Hui Ma, Wang-Yi Zhou, Xin-Xin Li, Ting-Ting Sun, He Sun
There are presently no miracle drugs for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study investigates the synergistic effect of Silibinin combined with Pu-erh tea extract (PTE) against NAFLD and explores the suggested mechanism of action. Ob/ob mice were fed a high fat diet along with the oral administration of Silibinin (86 mg per kg per day), PTE (250 mg per kg per day) or their combination for 6 weeks. Their lean littermates who were fed with standard chow diet were used as the control group. The blood biochemical index and histopathological evaluation were analyzed...
February 6, 2017: Food & Function
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