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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729940/propofol-induced-downregulation-of-nr2b-membrane-translocation-in-hippocampus-and-spatial-memory-deficits-of-neonatal-mice
#1
Yuzhu Wang, Song Han, Ruquan Han, Yue Su, Junfa Li
BACKGROUND: Thousands of infants and children are undergoing anesthesia around the world every day. But impacts of anesthetics on the developing neural system remain unclear yet. Previous evidence showed that anesthesia might affect the developing neural system. Thus, early-life anesthesia becomes a critical issue in clinical pediatric practice. Hence, propofol, a short-acting and widely applied intravenous anesthetic, has been gaining focus upon neonatal anesthesia. METHODS: Fifty-four male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into following three groups: group D6 intraperitoneally (i...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726262/double-aortic-arch-anomalies-in-children-a-systematic-20-year-single-center-study
#2
M Kaldararova, I Simkova, I Varga, P Tittel, M Kardos, M Ondriska, V Vrsanska, J Masura
INTRODUCTION: Aortic arch anomalies underlie numerous congenital disorders. Effectively diagnosing and treating them requires close understanding of cardiovascular embryology. As our Center serves the entire pediatric population of our country, we performed a comprehensive retrospective analysis of all aortic arch anomalies diagnosed at our Center over the past 20 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 40 children with aortic arch anomalies, distinguishing two defect types: Group 1 displayed ring-forming anomalies, and Group 2 other types of aortic arch anomalies that did not form a vascular ring...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723883/the-2014-american-college-of-critical-care-medicine-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-hemodynamic-support-of-pediatric-and-neonatal-septic-shock-executive-summary
#3
Alan L Davis, Joseph A Carcillo, Rajesh K Aneja, Andreas J Deymann, John C Lin, Trung C Nguyen, Regina S Okhuysen-Cawley, Monica S Relvas, Ranna A Rozenfeld, Peter W Skippen, Bonnie J Stojadinovic, Eric A Williams, Tim S Yeh, Fran Balamuth, Joe Brierley, Allan R de Caen, Ira M Cheifetz, Karen Choong, Edward Conway, Timothy Cornell, Allan Doctor, Marc-Andre Dugas, Jonathan D Feldman, Julie C Fitzgerald, Heidi R Flori, James D Fortenberry, Ana Lia Graciano, Bruce M Greenwald, Mark W Hall, Yong Yun Han, Lynn J Hernan, Jose E Irazuzta, Elizabeth Iselin, Elise W van der Jagt, Howard E Jeffries, Saraswati Kache, Chhavi Katyal, Niranjan Tex Kissoon, Alexander A Kon, Martha C Kutko, Graeme Maclaren, Timothy Maul, Renuka Mehta, Fola Odetola, Kristine Parbuoni, Raina Paul, Mark J Peters, Suchitra Ranjit, Karin E Reuter-Rice, Eduardo J Schnitzler, Halden F Scott, Adalberto Torres, Jacki Weingarten-Abrams, Scott L Weiss, Jerry J Zimmerman, Aaron L Zuckerberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721596/central-adrenal-insufficiency-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-missed-diagnosis-in-the-critically-injured
#4
Eileen Fan, Peter W Skippen, Michael A Sargent, David D Cochrane, Jean-Pierre Chanoine
BACKGROUND: High-dose steroid administration is no longer recommended in the treatment of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) as it failed to prove beneficial in improving patients' outcome. However, a masked benefit of steroid administration in TBI management was that it provided corticosteroid replacement therapy in patients with TBI-related central adrenal insufficiency. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who suffered a severe TBI from a motor vehicle accident that resulted in complete deficiency of anterior pituitary function...
July 18, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721285/ureteroscopy-for-stone-disease-expanding-roles-in-the-modern-era
#5
REVIEW
Adrian Ho, Piyush Sarmah, Ewa Bres-Niewada, Bhaskar K Somani
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of urolithiasis is increasing worldwide and is causing significant morbidity and cost to the healthcare systems. While ureteroscopy (URS) has been established as a treatment option, our review highlights the expanding role of URS for the management of more complex stones and patients in the modern era. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ureteroscopy has shown to have good outcomes with stone free rates (SFR) comparable to other treatment modalities...
June 30, 2017: Central European Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720036/procalcitonin-to-detect-bacterial-infections-in-critically-ill-pediatric-patients
#6
David M Jacobs, Maya Holsen, Shirley Chen, Nicholas M Fusco, Amanda B Hassinger
The diagnostic power of procalcitonin (PCT) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is uncertain. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic ability of PCT to detect serious bacterial infections (SBI) in a heterogeneous PICU population. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients on whom a PCT level was obtained within 48 hours of admission to a PICU from 2013 to 2015. Discriminatory ability of PCT to predict SBI was examined by test and receiver operating characteristics (AUC [area under the curve]-ROC)...
August 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719133/critical-elements-in-pediatric-allograft-selection
#7
George V Mazariegos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715976/astrovirus-biology-and-pathogenesis
#8
Valerie Cortez, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Erik A Karlsson, Virginia Hargest, Cydney Johnson, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Astroviruses are nonenveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that cause gastrointestinal illness. Although a leading cause of pediatric diarrhea, human astroviruses are among the least characterized enteric RNA viruses. However, by using in vitro methods and animal models to characterize virus-host interactions, researchers have discovered several important properties of astroviruses, including the ability of astrovirus capsid to act as an enterotoxin, disrupting the gut epithelial barrier. Improved animal models are needed to study this phenomenon, along with the pathogenesis of astroviruses, particularly in those strains that can cause extraintestinal disease...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713799/the-use-of-ambulatory-blood-pressure-monitoring-as-standard-of-care-in-pediatrics
#9
REVIEW
Caitlin G Peterson, Yosuke Miyashita
Hypertension (HTN) is a significant global health problem, responsible for 7.5 million deaths each year worldwide. The prevalence of HTN is increasing in the pediatric population likely attributed to the increase in childhood obesity. Recent work has also shown that blood pressure (BP) tends to track from childhood to adulthood including BP-related target organ damage. In the last 25-30 years, pediatric use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has been expanding mainly in the setting of initial elevated BP measurement evaluation, HTN therapy efficacy follow-up, and renal disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712906/a-comparison-of-pharmacologic-therapeutic-agents-used-for-the-reduction-of-intracranial-pressure-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
REVIEW
Ahmed M Alnemari, Brianna M Krafcik, Tarek R Mansour, Daniel Gaudin
OBJECTIVE: In neurotrauma care, a better understanding of treatments following traumatic brain injury (TBI) has led to a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality in this population. TBI represents a significant medical problem, and complications following TBI are associated with the initial injury and post-event intracranial processes such as elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain edema. Consequently, appropriate therapeutic interventions are required to reduce brain tissue damage and improve cerebral perfusion...
July 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711963/transfer-of-neonates-with-critical-congenital-heart-disease-within-a-regionalized-network
#11
Michael F Swartz, Jill M Cholette, Jennifer M Orie, Marshall L Jacobs, Jeffrey P Jacobs, George M Alfieris
Regionalization of pediatric cardiac surgical care varies between and within states. In most geographic regions, at least some neonates with critical heart disease are transferred from their birth hospital to a different hospital for surgery. The impact of neonatal transfer for surgery, particularly over a considerable distance (>10 miles), has been largely unexplored. We sought to examine the impact of transferring neonates for cardiac surgery. We queried the New York State Cardiac Surgery database (2005-2014) from a single institution to identify neonates born within the cardiac surgery center and those transferred for surgery...
July 15, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709161/roles-of-medication-responsibility-executive-and-adaptive-functioning-in-adherence-for-children-and-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv
#12
Patricia A Garvie, Sean S Brummel, Susannah M Allison, Kathleen M Malee, Claude A Mellins, Megan L Wilkins, Lynnette L Harris, E Doyle Patton, Miriam C Chernoff, Richard M Rutstein, Mary E Paul, Sharon L Nichols
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence is a critical but challenging developmental task for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV). Understanding how medication responsibility, executive functions (EFs) and adaptive functioning (AF) influence adherence may help prepare adolescents for transition to adulthood. METHODS: Participants included PHIV children and adolescents 7-16 years of age enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study Adolescent Master Protocol, who were prescribed antiretroviral medications...
August 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708677/repeated-critical-illness-and-unplanned-readmissions-within-1-year-to-picus
#13
Jeffrey D Edwards, Adam R Lucas, W John Boscardin, R Adams Dudley
OBJECTIVES: To determine the occurrence rate of unplanned readmissions to PICUs within 1 year and examine risk factors associated with repeated readmission. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Seventy-six North American PICUs that participated in the Virtual Pediatric Systems, LLC (VPS, LLC, Los Angeles, CA). PATIENTS: Ninety-three thousand three hundred seventy-nine PICU patients discharged between 2009 and 2010...
August 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704284/evaluation-of-a-simpler-tool-to-assess-nontechnical-skills-during-simulated-critical-events
#14
Scott C Watkins, David A Roberts, John R Boulet, Matthew D McEvoy, Matthew B Weinger
INTRODUCTION: Management of critical events requires teams to employ nontechnical skills (NTS), such as teamwork, communication, decision making, and vigilance. We sought to estimate the reliability and provide evidence for the validity of the ratings gathered using a new tool for assessing the NTS of anesthesia providers, the behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS), and compare its scores with those of an established NTS tool, the Anaesthetists' Nontechnical Skills (ANTS) scale. METHODS: Six previously trained raters (4 novices and 2 experts) reviewed and scored 18 recorded simulated pediatric crisis management scenarios using a modified ANTS and a BARS tool...
April 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700727/longitudinal-increases-of-brain-metabolite-levels-in-5-10-year-old-children
#15
Martha J Holmes, Frances C Robertson, Francesca Little, Steven R Randall, Mark F Cotton, Andre J W van der Kouwe, Barbara Laughton, Ernesta M Meintjes
Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies reveal significant changes in brain structure and structural networks that occur together with cognitive and behavioral maturation in childhood. However, the underlying cellular changes accompanying brain maturation are less understood. Examining regional age-related changes in metabolite levels provides insight into the physiology of neurodevelopment. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures localize brain metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700523/dried-blood-spots-combined-with-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-for-the-quantification-of-the-antipsychotics-risperidone-aripiprazole-pipamperone-and-their-major-metabolites
#16
Camille Tron, Sanne M Kloosterboer, Bart C H van der Nagel, Rixt A Wijma, Bram Dierckx, Gwen C Dieleman, Teun van Gelder, Birgit C P Koch
BACKGROUND: Risperidone, aripiprazole, and pipamperone are antipsychotic drugs frequently prescribed for the treatment of comorbid behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorders. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) could be useful to decrease side effects and to improve patient outcome. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection seems to be an attractive technique to develop TDM of these drugs in a pediatric population. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a DBS assay suitable for TDM and home sampling...
August 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699492/adverse-drug-reactions-in-critical-care-setting-a-systematic-review
#17
Joshua Lisha, Velu Annalakshmi, Jose Maria, Devi Padmini
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is reported to be high in critical care units. We conducted a systematic review to study the prevalence, drugs implicated, preventability, predictability, severity and determinants of ADRs in critical care settings. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PROQUEST and OVID (January 1995 to June 2015) using pre-specified appropriate medical subject heading (MeSH) terms. Of 1552 studies, 34 studies were included for data extraction and synthesis...
July 10, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697170/critically-ill-children-with-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-a-case-series-of-14-patients
#18
Esther Huimin Leow, Shui Yen Soh, Ah Moy Tan, Yee Hui Mok, Mei Yoke Chan, Jan Hau Lee
Children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) are at an increased risk of critical illness. In this study, we described the clinical characteristics of critically ill children with HLH and identify factors associated with poor clinical outcomes. Children who were diagnosed with HLH with emergent admission to Children's Intensive Care Unit (CICU) between January 1, 2000 and October 31, 2015 were included. The primary outcome was CICU mortality. Over the 15-year period, there were 14 critically ill patients with HLH with 23 CICU admissions...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696880/performance-of-pediatric-risk-of-mortality-score-among-critically-ill-children-with-heart-disease
#19
Rebecca A Russell, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Nancy Brundage, Howard E Jeffries, Punkaj Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the Pediatric Risk of Mortality 3 (PRISM-3) score in critically ill children with heart disease. METHODS: Patients <18 years of age admitted with cardiac diagnoses (cardiac medical and cardiac surgical) to one of the participating pediatric intensive care units in the Virtual Pediatric Systems, LLC, database were included. Performance of PRISM-3 was evaluated with discrimination and calibration measures among both cardiac surgical and cardiac medical patients...
July 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694568/the-role-of-routine-measurement-of-intra-abdominal-pressure-in-preventing-abdominal-compartment-syndrome
#20
G Raghavendra Prasad, J V Subba Rao, Amtul Aziz, T M Rashmi
INTRODUCTION: Abdomen, a closed compartment, is prone to raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in the postoperative period. After a critical value of ≥ 15 cm of water, IAP produces abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). ACS leads to reduced venous return, reduced cardiac output, and domino effect of organ dysfunction, leading to death. Hence, it is the need of hour to monitor IAP to pick up intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and ACS. This routine facilitates early institution of treatment measures...
July 2017: Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
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