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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231608/quantitative-analysis-of-malondialdehyde-guanine-adducts-in-genomic-dna-samples-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
S A Yates, N M Dempster, M F Murphy, S A Moore
RATIONALE: The lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde forms M1 dG adducts with guanine bases in genomic DNA. The analysis of these adducts is important as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and inflammation which may be linked to disease risk or exposure to a range of chemicals. METHODS: Genomic DNA samples were subjected to acid hydrolysis to release the adducts in the base form (M1 G) alongside the other purines. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was optimised for the quantitation of the M1 G adducts in genomic DNA samples using product ion and multiple reaction mode scans...
February 23, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230976/interrogation-of-base-pairing-of-the-spiroiminodihydantoin-diastereomers-using-the-%C3%AE-hemolysin-latch
#2
Tao Zeng, Aaron M Fleming, Yun Ding, Henry S White, Cynthia J Burrows
Spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) is a hyperoxidized form of guanine (G) resulting from oxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The lesion is highly mutagenic, and the stereocenter renders the two isomers with distinct behaviors in chemical, spectroscopic, enzymatic, and computational studies. In this work, the α-hemolysin (αHL) latch sensing zone was employed to investigate the base pairing properties of the Sp diastereomers embedded in a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Duplexes containing (S)-Sp consistently gave deeper current blockage, and a baseline resolution of ~0...
February 23, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230857/protein-phosphatase-4-coordinates-glial-membrane-recruitment-and-phagocytic-clearance-of-degenerating-axons-in-drosophila
#3
Lilly M Winfree, Sean D Speese, Mary A Logan
Neuronal damage induced by injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative disease elicits swift immune responses from glial cells, including altered gene expression, directed migration to injury sites, and glial clearance of damaged neurons through phagocytic engulfment. Collectively, these responses hinder further cellular damage, but the mechanisms that underlie these important protective glial reactions are still unclear. Here, we show that the evolutionarily conserved trimeric protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) serine/threonine phosphatase complex is a novel set of factors required for proper glial responses to nerve injury in the adult Drosophila brain...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230808/genome-sequence-of-rhodoferax-antarcticus-ant-br-t-a-psychrophilic-purple-nonsulfur-bacterium-from-an-antarctic-microbial-mat
#4
Jennifer M Baker, Carli J Riester, Blair M Skinner, Austin W Newell, Wesley D Swingley, Michael T Madigan, Deborah O Jung, Marie Asao, Min Chen, Patrick C Loughlin, Hao Pan, Yuankui Lin, Yaqiong Li, Jacob Shaw, Mindy Prado, Chris Sherman, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang Tang, Robert E Blankenship, Tingting Zhao, Jeffrey W Touchman, W Matthew Sattley
Rhodoferax antarcticus is an Antarctic purple nonsulfur bacterium and the only characterized anoxygenic phototroph that grows best below 20 °C. We present here a high-quality draft genome of Rfx. antarcticus strain ANT.BR(T), isolated from an Antarctic microbial mat. The circular chromosome (3.8 Mbp) of Rfx. antarcticus has a 59.1% guanine + cytosine (GC) content and contains 4036 open reading frames. In addition, the bacterium contains a sizable plasmid (198.6 kbp, 48.4% GC with 226 open reading frames) that comprises about 5% of the total genetic content...
February 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229964/csfv-proliferation-is-associated-with-gbf1-and-rab2
#5
Wulong Liang, Minping Zheng, Changlei Bao, Yanming Zhang
The Golgi apparatus and its resident proteins are utilized and regulated by viruses to facilitate their proliferation. In this study, we investigated Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) proliferation when the function of the Golgi was disturbed. Golgi function was disturbed using chemical inhibitors, namely, brefeldin A (BFA) and golgicide A (GCA), and RNA interfering targets, such as the Golgi-specific BFA-resistance guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF1) and Rab2 GTPases. CSFV proliferation was significantly inhibited during RNA replication and viral particle generation after BFA and GCA treatment...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229372/measuring-inhibition-and-cognitive-flexibility-in-friedreich-ataxia
#6
Louise A Corben, Felicity Klopper, Monique Stagnitti, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, John L Bradshaw, Gary Rance, Martin B Delatycki
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with subtle impact on cognition. Inhibitory processes and cognitive flexibility were examined in FRDA by assessing the ability to suppress a predictable verbal response. We administered the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), the Trail Making Test, and the Stroop Test to 43 individuals with FRDA and 42 gender- and age-matched control participants. There were no significant group differences in performance on the Stroop or Trail Making Test whereas significant impairment in cognitive flexibility including the ability to predict and inhibit a pre-potent response as measured in the HSCT was evident in individuals with FRDA...
February 22, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229167/mutation-in-a-highly-conserved-glycine-residue-in-strand-5b-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-causes-polymerisation
#7
Takayuki Iwaki, Kotomi Nagahashi, Katsuhiro Takano, Katsue Suzuki-Inoue, Naohiro Kanayama, Kazuo Umemura, Tetsumei Urano
Serpinopathy is characterised as abnormal accumulation of serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs) in cells and results in clinical symptoms owing to lack of SERPIN function or excessive accumulation of abnormal SERPIN. We recently identified a patient with functional deficiency of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a member of the SERPIN superfamily. The patient exhibited life-threatening bleeding tendencies, which have also been observed in patients with a complete deficiency in PAI-1. Sequence analysis revealed a homozygous single-nucleotide substitution from guanine to cytosine at exon 9, which changed amino acid residue 397 from glycine to arginine (c...
February 23, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228587/prophylactic-herpes-simplex-virus-2-hsv-2-vaccines-adjuvanted-with-stable-emulsion-and-toll-like-receptor-9-agonist-induce-a-robust-hsv-2-specific-cell-mediated-immune-response-protect-against-symptomatic-disease-and-reduce-the-latent-viral-reservoir
#8
Michael T Hensel, Jason D Marshall, Michael R Dorwart, Darren S Heeke, Eileen Rao, Padmaja Tummala, Li Yu, Gary H Cohen, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Derek D Sloan
Several prophylactic vaccines targeting HSV-2 have failed in the clinic to demonstrate a sustained depression in viral shedding or protection from recurrences. Although these vaccines have generated high titers of neutralizing antibodies, their induction of robust CD8 T cells has largely been unreported, even though evidence for the importance of HSV-2 antigen-specific CD8 T cells is mounting in animal models and in translational studies involving subjects with active HSV-2-specific immune responses. We developed a subunit vaccine composed of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) targets gD and gB, the novel T cell antigen and tegument protein UL40, and we compared this to a whole-inactivated virus vaccine (FI-HSV-2)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228250/stratum-a-homolog-of-the-human-gef-mss4-partnered-with-rab8-controls-the-basal-restriction-of-basement-membrane-proteins-in-epithelial-cells
#9
Olivier Devergne, Gina H Sun, Trudi Schüpbach
The basement membrane (BM), a sheet of extracellular matrix lining the basal side of epithelia, is essential for epithelial cell function and integrity, yet the mechanisms that control the basal restriction of BM proteins are poorly understood. In epithelial cells, a specialized pathway is dedicated to restrict the deposition of BM proteins basally. Here, we report the identification of a factor in this pathway, a homolog of the mammalian guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Mss4, which we have named Stratum...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225208/weak-supramolecular-interactions-governing-parallel-and-antiparallel-dna-quadruplexes-insights-from-large-scale-qm-analysis-of-experimentally-derived-models
#10
Yevgen P Yurenko, Jan Novotný, Radek Marek
The topology and energetics of guanine (G) quadruplexes is governed by supramolecular interactions within their strands. In this work, we performed an extensive QM study of supramolecular interactions shaping the stems of (4+0) parallel (P) and (2+2) antiparallel (AP) systems. The large-scale (~ 400 atoms) models of P and AP were constructed from high-quality experimental structures. The results evidence that each of the P and AP structures is shaped by a distinct network of supramolecular interactions. The analysis of electron topological characteristics of H-bonds in P and AP systems indicates that the P model benefits from the stronger intra-tetrad H-bonding...
February 22, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225080/dna-g-quadruplexes-in-the-human-genome-detection-functions-and-therapeutic-potential
#11
REVIEW
Robert Hänsel-Hertsch, Marco Di Antonio, Shankar Balasubramanian
Single-stranded guanine-rich DNA sequences can fold into four-stranded DNA structures called G-quadruplexes (G4s) that arise from the self-stacking of two or more guanine quartets. There has been considerable recent progress in the detection and mapping of G4 structures in the human genome and in biologically relevant contexts. These advancements, many of which align with predictions made previously in computational studies, provide important new insights into the functions of G4 structures in, for example, the regulation of transcription and genome stability, and uncover their potential relevance for cancer therapy...
February 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223697/dynamic-regulation-of-gdp-binding-to-g-proteins-revealed-by-magnetic-field-dependent-nmr-relaxation-analyses
#12
Yuki Toyama, Hanaho Kano, Yoko Mase, Mariko Yokogawa, Masanori Osawa, Ichio Shimada
Heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signalling pathways, by coupling the activation of cell surface receptors to intracellular responses. Mutations in the G protein α-subunit (Gα) that accelerate guanosine diphosphate (GDP) dissociation cause hyperactivation of the downstream effector proteins, leading to oncogenesis. However, the structural mechanism of the accelerated GDP dissociation has remained unclear. Here, we use magnetic field-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analyses to investigate the structural and dynamic properties of GDP bound Gα on a microsecond timescale...
February 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219480/de-repression-of-the-rac-activator-elmo1-in-cancer-stem-cells-drives-progression-of-tgf%C3%AE-deficient-squamous-cell-carcinoma-from-transition-zones
#13
Heather A McCauley, Véronique Chevrier, Daniel Birnbaum, Géraldine Guasch
Squamous cell carcinomas occurring at transition zones are highly malignant tumors with poor prognosis. The identity of the cell population and the signaling pathways involved in the progression of transition zone squamous cell carcinoma are poorly understood, hence representing limited options for targeted therapies. Here, we identify a highly tumorigenic cancer stem cell population in a mouse model of transitional epithelial carcinoma and uncover a novel mechanism by which loss of TGFβ receptor II (Tgfbr2) mediates invasion and metastasis through de-repression of ELMO1, a RAC-activating guanine exchange factor, specifically in cancer stem cells of transition zone tumors...
February 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218725/treating-cancer-by-targeting-telomeres-and-telomerase
#14
REVIEW
Marko Ivancich, Zachary Schrank, Luke Wojdyla, Brandon Leviskas, Adijan Kuckovic, Ankita Sanjali, Neelu Puri
Telomerase is expressed in more than 85% of cancer cells. Tumor cells with metastatic potential may have a high telomerase activity, allowing cells to escape from the inhibition of cell proliferation due to shortened telomeres. Human telomerase primarily consists of two main components: hTERT, a catalytic subunit, and hTR, an RNA template whose sequence is complimentary to the telomeric 5'-dTTAGGG-3' repeat. In humans, telomerase activity is typically restricted to renewing tissues, such as germ cells and stem cells, and is generally absent in normal cells...
February 19, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216673/mechanistic-investigation-on-ros-resistance-of-phosphorothioated-dna
#15
Tingting Wu, Qiang Huang, Xiao-Lei Wang, Ting Shi, Linquan Bai, Jingdan Liang, Zhijun Wang, Zixin Deng, Yi-Lei Zhao
Phosphorothioated DNA (PT-DNA) exhibits a mild anti-oxidant property both in vivo and in vitro. It was found that 8-OHdG and ROS levels were significantly lower in dnd+ (i.e. S(+)) E. coli., compared to a dnd- (i.e. S(-)) strain. Furthermore, different from traditional antioxidants, phosphorothioate compound presents an unexpectedly high capacity to quench hydroxyl radical. Oxidative product analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantum mechanistic computation supported its unique anti-oxidant characteristic of the hydroxyl selectivity: phosphorothioate donates an electron to either hydroxyl radical or guanine radical derived from hydroxyl radical, leading to a PS(•) radical; a complex of PS(•) radical and OH(-) (i...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215869/a-novel-assembly-pheromone-trap-for-tick-control-in-dog-kennels
#16
R K Anish, Bhaskaran Ravi Latha, Giriprasath Ramanathan, Uma Tirichurapalli Sivagnanam, C Sreekumar, V Leela
A novel ecofriendly sticky tick trap device for the control of dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus using gold nanoparticle assembly pheromone complex as a bait was developed. Assembly pheromones comprising of guanine, xanthine and adenine in the ratio of 25:1:1 was encapsulated in gold nanoparticle. The response of the different stages of unfed R. sanguineus ticks was evaluated using petridish bioassay. Statistical analysis was done using chi-square test. Petridish bioassay with unfed stages of R. sanguineus revealed that 100% of the larvae, nymph and adults were attracted to assembly pheromone nanogold complex within 24h...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214347/involvement-of-the-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-vav3-in-central-nervous-system-development-and-plasticity
#17
Annika Ulc, Christine Gottschling, Ina Schäfer, David Wegrzyn, Simon van Leeuwen, Veronika Luft, Jacqueline Reinhard, Andreas Faissner
Small GTP-hydrolysing enzymes (GTPases) of the RhoA family play manifold roles in cell biology and are regulated by upstream guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we focus on the GEFs of the Vav subfamily. Vav1 was originally described as a protooncogene of the hematopoietic lineage. The GEFs Vav2 and Vav3 are more broadly expressed in various tissues. In particular, the GEF Vav3 may play important roles in the developing nervous system during the differentiation of neural stem cells into the major lineages, namely neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes...
February 18, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213625/8-nitro-cgmp-a-novel-protein-reactive-cnmp-and-its-emerging-roles-in-autophagy
#18
Hirokazu Arimoto, Daiki Takahashi
Nitric oxide (NO) raises the intracellular 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) level through the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and, in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reacts with biomolecules to produce nitrated cGMP derivatives. 8-Nitro-cGMP was the first endogenous cGMP derivative discovered in mammalian cells (2007) and was later found in plant cells. Among the six nitrogen atoms in this molecule, the one in the nitro group (NO2) comes from NO. This chapter asserts that this newly found cGMP is undoubtedly one of the major physiological cNMPs...
February 18, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213390/epigenetic-patterns-in-blood-associated-with-lipid-traits-predict-incident-coronary-heart-disease-events-and-are-enriched-for-results-from-genome-wide-association-studies
#19
Åsa K Hedman, Michael M Mendelson, Riccardo E Marioni, Stefan Gustafsson, Roby Joehanes, Marguerite R Irvin, Degui Zhi, Johanna K Sandling, Chen Yao, Chunyu Liu, Liming Liang, Tianxiao Huan, Allan F McRae, Serkalem Demissie, Sonia Shah, John M Starr, L Adrienne Cupples, Panos Deloukas, Timothy D Spector, Johan Sundström, Ronald M Krauss, Donna K Arnett, Ian J Deary, Lars Lind, Daniel Levy, Erik Ingelsson
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified loci influencing circulating lipid concentrations in humans; further information on novel contributing genes, pathways, and biology may be gained through studies of epigenetic modifications. METHODS AND RESULTS: To identify epigenetic changes associated with lipid concentrations, we assayed genome-wide DNA methylation at cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) in whole blood from 2306 individuals from 2 population-based cohorts, with replication of findings in 2025 additional individuals...
January 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213234/dna-wrapped-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-modified-electrochemical-biosensor-for-the-detection-of-escherichia-coli-from-real-samples
#20
Dilsat Ozkan-Ariksoysal, Yasin Ugur Kayran, Fethiye Ferda Yilmaz, Anton Alexandru Ciucu, Iulia Gabriela David, Vasile David, Mine Hosgor-Limoncu, Mehmet Ozsoz
This paper introduces DNA-wrapped multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified genosensor for the detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) from polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified real samples while Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was used to investigate the selectivity of the biosensor. The capture probe specifically recognizing E. coli DNA and it was firstly interacted with MWCNTs for wrapping of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) onto the nanomaterial. DNA-wrapped MWCNTs were then immobilised on the surface of disposable pencil graphite electrode (PGE) for the detection of DNA hybridization...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
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