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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211922/applying-phasor-approach-analysis-of-multiphoton-flim-measurements-to-probe-the-metabolic-activity-of-three-dimensional-in-vitro-cell-culture-models
#1
Pirmin H Lakner, Michael G Monaghan, Yvonne Möller, Monilola A Olayioye, Katja Schenke-Layland
Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can measure and discriminate endogenous fluorophores present in biological samples. This study seeks to identify FLIM as a suitable method to non-invasively detect a shift in cellular metabolic activity towards glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation in 3D Caco-2 models of colorectal carcinoma. These models were treated with potassium cyanide or hydrogen peroxide as controls, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a physiologically-relevant influencer of cell metabolic behaviour...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211124/in-planta-expression-searching-for-the-genuine-chromophores-of-cryptochrome-3-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#2
Wolfgang Gärtner
Göbel et al. present in this issue an exemplary study of identification of chromophores from Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome-3. Usually taken for granted, proteins and cofactors, respective chromophores, from heterologous expression are considered identical to material isolated from their genuine host. Cryptochromes carry two chromophores, an antenna cofactor and a functional flavin chromophore, both noncovalently embedded into the protein. In particular the antenna chromophore is loosely bound and often lost during protein purification...
January 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211114/magnesium-lithospermate-b-from-salvia-miltiorrhiza-bunge-ameliorates-aging-induced-renal-inflammation-and-senescence-via-nadph-oxidase-mediated-reactive-oxygen-generation
#3
Chan Hum Park, Sung Ho Shin, Eun Kyeong Lee, Dae Hyun Kim, Min-Jo Kim, Seong-Soo Roh, Takako Yokozawa, Hae Young Chung
The present study was conducted to examine whether magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae radix was renoprotective in pathways related to age-related oxidative stress in aged rats. Magnesium lithospermate B was orally administered at a dose of 2- or 8-mg/kg body weight for 16 consecutive days, and the effects were compared with those of vehicle in old and young rats. Magnesium lithospermate B administration to old rats ameliorated renal oxidative stress through reduction of reactive oxygen species...
February 16, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210753/puerarin-7-o-glucuronide-a-water-soluble-puerarin-metabolite-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy-by-reducing-oxidative-stress
#4
Ning Hou, Bin Cai, Cai-Wen Ou, Zhen-Hui Zhang, Xia-Wen Liu, Mu Yuan, Gan-Jian Zhao, Shi-Ming Liu, Long-Gen Xiong, Jian-Dong Luo, Cheng-Feng Luo, Min-Sheng Chen
This study aimed to investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-hypertrophic effects of puerarin-7-O-glucuronide, a water-soluble puerarin metabolite. The anti-oxidant effects of puerarin-7-O-glucuronide were assessed by measurement of intracellular superoxide levels, total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total anti-oxidant capacity, and glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) stimulated with the xanthine oxidase (XO)/xanthine (X) system or angiotensin II...
February 16, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209901/vitamin-b3-modulates-mitochondrial-vulnerability-and-prevents-glaucoma-in-aged-mice
#5
Pete A Williams, Jeffrey M Harder, Nicole E Foxworth, Kelly E Cochran, Vivek M Philip, Vittorio Porciatti, Oliver Smithies, Simon W M John
Glaucomas are neurodegenerative diseases that cause vision loss, especially in the elderly. The mechanisms initiating glaucoma and driving neuronal vulnerability during normal aging are unknown. Studying glaucoma-prone mice, we show that mitochondrial abnormalities are an early driver of neuronal dysfunction, occurring before detectable degeneration. Retinal levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+), a key molecule in energy and redox metabolism) decrease with age and render aging neurons vulnerable to disease-related insults...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209797/roles-of-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-nitric-oxide-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Ulrich Förstermann, Ning Xia, Huige Li
Major reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing systems in vascular wall include NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase, xanthine oxidase, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase. ROS at moderate concentrations have important signaling roles under physiological conditions. Excessive or sustained ROS production, however, when exceeding the available antioxidant defense systems, leads to oxidative stress. Animal studies have provided compelling evidence demonstrating the roles of vascular oxidative stress and NO in atherosclerosis...
February 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208255/effect-of-probe-probe-distance-on-the-stability-of-dna-hybrids-on-surfaces
#7
Lucyano J A Macedo, Erin N Miller, Aric Opdahl
We have used temperature gradient surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements to quantitatively evaluate how the stability of different types of hybrids formed with DNA probes on surfaces is affected by probe spacing. SPR sensors with different average surface densities of probes were prepared by coadsorbing probes with lateral spacers strands comprised of phosphorothioated adenine nucleotides (A15*). Increasing the fraction of A15* spacers in the immobilization solution results in larger distances between probes on the sensor, determined here using a combination of SPR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207859/differential-effects-of-silencing-crustacean-hyperglycemic-hormone-gene-expression-on-the-metabolic-profiles-of-the-muscle-and-hepatopancreas-in-the-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii
#8
Wenfeng Li, Kuo-Hsun Chiu, Yi-Chun Tien, Shih-Fu Tsai, Li-Jane Shih, Chien-Hsun Lee, Jean-Yves Toullec, Chi-Ying Lee
In order to functionally characterize the metabolic roles of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), gene expression of CHH in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) was knocked down by in vivo injection of CHH double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), followed by metabolomic analysis of 2 CHH target tissues (the muscle and hepatopancreas) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Compared to the levels in untreated and saline-injected (SAI) animals, levels of CHH transcript, but not those of molt-inhibiting hormone (a CHH-family peptide), in the eyestalk ganglia of CHH dsRNA-injected (DSI) animals were significantly decreased at 24, 48, and 72 hour post injection (hpi), with concomitant changes in levels of CHH peptide in the sinus gland (a neurohemal organ) and hemolymph...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206858/genetic-polymorphism-of-aedes-albopictus-population-inferred-from-nd5-gene-variabilities-in-subang-jaya-malaysia
#9
Nurul Adilah-Amrannudin, Mayamin Hamsidi, Nurul-Ain Ismail, Rodziah Ismail, Nazri Che Dom, Abu Hassan Ahmad, Mohd Fahmi Mastuki, Tengku Shahrul Anuar Tengku Ahmad Basri, Adira Khalid, Mohammad Muslim, Nurul Amalina Ahmad Daud, Siti Nazrina Camalxaman
This study was performed to establish the genetic variability of Aedes albopictus within Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia, by using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 5 subunit (ND5) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker. A total of 90 samples were collected from 9 localities within an area of the Subang Jaya Municipality. Genetic variability was determined through the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the ND5 gene. Eight distinct mtDNA haplotypes were identified. The evolutionary relationship of the local haplotypes alongside 28 reference strains was used to construct a phylogram, the analysis of which revealed low genetic differentiation in terms of both nucleotide and haplotype diversity...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205519/mitochondrial-atp-transporter-depletion-protects-mice-against-liver-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#10
Joonseok Cho, Yujian Zhang, Shi-Young Park, Anna-Maria Joseph, Chul Han, Hyo-Jin Park, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Sung-Kook Chun, Drake Morgan, Jae-Sung Kim, Shinichi Someya, Clayton E Mathews, Young Jae Lee, Stephanie E Wohlgemuth, Nishanth E Sunny, Hui-Young Lee, Cheol Soo Choi, Takayuki Shiratsuchi, S Paul Oh, Naohiro Terada
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disorder in obese individuals. Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) exchanges ADP/ATP through the mitochondrial inner membrane, and Ant2 is the predominant isoform expressed in the liver. Here we demonstrate that targeted disruption of Ant2 in mouse liver enhances uncoupled respiration without damaging mitochondrial integrity and liver functions. Interestingly, liver specific Ant2 knockout mice are leaner and resistant to hepatic steatosis, obesity and insulin resistance under a lipogenic diet...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205498/cognitive-control-learning-and-clinical-motor-ratings-are-most-highly-associated-with-basal-ganglia-brain-volumes-in-the-premanifest-huntington-s-disease-phenotype
#11
Maria B Misiura, Spencer Lourens, Vince D Calhoun, Jeffrey Long, Jeremy Bockholt, Hans Johnson, Ying Zhang, Jane S Paulsen, Jessica A Turner, Jingyu Liu, Betul Kara, Elizabeth Fall
OBJECTIVES: Huntington's disease (HD) is a debilitating genetic disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities associated with neuropathological decline. HD pathology is the result of an extended chain of CAG (cytosine, adenine, guanine) trinucleotide repetitions in the HTT gene. Clinical diagnosis of HD requires the presence of an otherwise unexplained extrapyramidal movement disorder in a participant at risk for HD. Over the past 15 years, evidence has shown that cognitive, psychiatric, and subtle motor dysfunction is evident decades before traditional motor diagnosis...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204976/variation-in-whole-dna-methylation-in-red-maple-acer-rubrum-populations-from-a-mining-region-association-with-metal-contamination-and-cation-exchange-capacity-cec-in-podzolic-soils
#12
K N Kalubi, M Mehes-Smith, G Spiers, A Omri
Although a number of publications have provided convincing evidence that abiotic stresses such as drought and high salinity are involved in DNA methylation reports on the effects of metal contamination, pH, and cation exchange on DNA modifications are limited. The main objective of the present study is to determine the relationship between metal contamination and Cation exchange capacity (CEC) on whole DNA modifications. Metal analysis confirms that nickel and copper are the main contaminants in sampled sites within the Greater Sudbury Region (Ontario, Canada) and liming has increased soil pH significantly even after 30 years following dolomitic limestone applications...
February 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204648/ligand-modulated-folding-of-the-full-length-adenine-riboswitch-probed-by-nmr-and-single-molecule-fret-spectroscopy
#13
Sven Warhaut, Klara Rebecca Mertinkus, Philipp Höllthaler, Boris Fürtig, Mike Heilemann, Martin Hengesbach, Harald Schwalbe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202838/role-of-ad4-binding-protein-steroidogenic-factor-1-in-regulating-nadph-production-in-adrenocortical-y-1-cells
#14
Bing Li, Takashi Baba, Kanako Miyabayashi, Tetsuya Sato, Yuichi Shima, Tomomi Ichinose, Daisuke Miura, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Mikita Suyama, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi
Ad4-binding protein/steroidogenic factor 1 (Ad4BP/SF-1), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is expressed in steroidogenic cells and regulates all steroidogenic gene expression. We recently employed mRNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequence (ChIP-seq) to demonstrate that Ad4BP/SF-1 directly regulates the expression of nearly all glycolytic genes. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) contributes to the production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Although the expression of PPP genes and intracellular NADPH were decreased by Ad4BP/SF-1 knockdown, these genes were not the direct targets of Ad4BP/SF-1...
February 14, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202305/enzymatic-synthesis-of-2-o-methylribonucleosides-with-a-nucleoside-hydrolase-family-enzyme-from-lactobacillus-buchneri-lbk78
#15
Yuuki Mitsukawa, Makoto Hibi, Narihiro Matsutani, Nobuyuki Horinouchi, Satomi Takahashi, Jun Ogawa
2'-O-Methylribonucleosides (2'-OMe-NRs) are promising raw materials for the production of nucleic acid drugs. We previously reported that LbNH, a nucleoside hydrolase from Lactobacillus buchneri LBK78 (NITE P-01581), was the first enzyme found to act on 2'-OMe-NRs. In the present study, we determined that LbNH also has the transribosylation activity between 2'-OMe-NRs and nucleobases, in addition to the hydrolyzing activity towards 2'-OMe-NRs. When 2'-O-methyluridine (2'-OMe-UR) and adenine were reacted with LbNH, 2'-O-methyladenosine (2'-OMe-AR) was produced...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202288/tiam1-vav2-rac1-axis-a-tug-of-war-between-islet-function-and-dysfunction
#16
REVIEW
Anjaneyulu Kowluru
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS] from the islet β-cell involves a well-orchestrated interplay between metabolic and cationic events. It is well established that intracellular generation of adenine and guanine nucleotide triphosphates [e.g., ATP and GTP] represents one of the requisite signaling steps in GSIS. The small molecular mass GTP-binding proteins [G-proteins; e.g., Rac1 and Cdc42] have been shown to regulate islet β-cell function including actin cytoskeletal remodeling and fusion of insulin granules with the plasma membrane for GSIS to occur...
February 12, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198851/interrogation-of-metabolic-and-oxygen-states-of-tumors-with-fiber-based-luminescence-lifetime-spectroscopy
#17
Maria Lukina, Anna Orlova, Marina Shirmanova, Daniil Shirokov, Anton Pavlikov, Antje Neubauer, Hauke Studier, Wolfgang Becker, Elena Zagaynova, Toshitada Yoshihara, Seiji Tobita, Vladislav Shcheslavskiy
The study of metabolic and oxygen states of cells in a tumor in vivo is crucial for understanding of the mechanisms responsible for tumor development and provides background for the relevant tumor's treatment. Here, we show that a specially designed implantable fiber-optic probe provides a promising tool for optical interrogation of metabolic and oxygen states of a tumor in vivo. In our experiments, the excitation light from a ps diode laser source is delivered to the sample through an exchangeable tip via a multimode fiber, and the emission light is transferred to the detector by another multimode fiber...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197299/sirtuins-expression-and-their-role-in-retinal-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Sankarathi Balaiya, Khaled K Abu-Amero, Altaf A Kondkar, Kakarla V Chalam
Sirtuins have received considerable attention since the discovery that silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) extends the lifespan of yeast. Sir2, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- (NAD-) dependent histone deacetylase, serves as both a transcriptional effector and energy sensor. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative eye diseases. Sirtuins confer protection against oxidative stress and retinal degeneration. In mammals, the sirtuin (SIRT) family consists of seven proteins (SIRT1-SIRT7)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196963/genetic-predisposition-to-acquire-a-polybasic-cleavage-site-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin
#19
Naganori Nao, Junya Yamagishi, Hiroko Miyamoto, Manabu Igarashi, Rashid Manzoor, Aiko Ohnuma, Yoshimi Tsuda, Wakako Furuyama, Asako Shigeno, Masahiro Kajihara, Noriko Kishida, Reiko Yoshida, Ayato Takada
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes evolve from low-pathogenic precursors through the acquisition of multiple basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site. Although this mechanism has been observed to occur naturally only in these HA subtypes, little is known about the genetic basis for the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site. Here we show that consecutive adenine residues and a stem-loop structure, which are frequently found in the viral RNA region encoding amino acids around the cleavage site of low-pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses isolated from waterfowl reservoirs, are important for nucleotide insertions into this RNA region...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195550/novel-germline-mutation-leu512met-in-the-thyrotropin-receptor-gene-tshr-leading-to-sporadic-non-autoimmune-hyperthyroidism
#20
Stephanie A Roberts, Jennifer E Moon, Andrew Dauber, Jessica R Smith
BACKGROUND: Primary nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism is a rare cause of neonatal hyperthyroidism. This results from an activating mutation in the thyrotropin-receptor (TSHR). It can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner or occur sporadically as a de novo mutation. Affected individuals display a wide phenotype from severe neonatal to mild subclinical hyperthyroidism. We describe a 6-month-old boy with a de novo mutation in the TSHR gene who presented with accelerated growth, enlarging head circumference, tremor and thyrotoxicosis...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
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