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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145453/the-antiviral-drug-tenofovir-an-inhibitor-of-pannexin-1-mediated-atp-release-prevents-liver-and-skin-fibrosis-by-downregulating-adenosine-levels-in-the-liver-and-skin
#1
Jessica L Feig, Aranzazu Mediero, Carmen Corciulo, Hailing Liu, Jin Zhang, Miguel Perez-Aso, Laura Picard, Tuere Wilder, Bruce Cronstein
BACKGROUND: Fibrosing diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, therefore, there is a need for safe and effective antifibrotic therapies. Adenosine, generated extracellularly by the dephosphorylation of adenine nucleotides, ligates specific receptors which play a critical role in development of hepatic and dermal fibrosis. Results of recent clinical trials indicate that tenofovir, a widely used antiviral agent, reverses hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144820/pheochromocytoma-a-genetic-and-diagnostic-update
#2
Leilani B Mercado-Asis, Katherine I Wolf, Ivana Jochmanova, David Taïeb
OBJECTIVE: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors derived from adrenal or extra-adrenal locations, respectively. Upon suspicion of PPGL, specific metabolomic, molecular, biochemical, imaging, and histopathological studies are performed to prove, localize, treat, and monitor disease progression. Recently, improved diagnostic tools allow physicians to accurately diagnose PPGL, even in patients presenting with small (less than 1 cm) or biochemically silent tumors, which previously delayed proper detection and treatment...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142413/antiurolithiatic-potential-of-neeri-against-calcium-oxalate-stones-by-crystallization-inhibition-free-radicals-scavenging-and-nrk-52e-cell-protection-from-oxalate-injury
#3
Parveen Kumar Goyal, Santosh Kumar Verma, Anil Kumar Sharma
Background: Neeri is a well-established polyherbal formulation prescribed for renal stones by the physicians but has not been experimentally evaluated for its antiurolithiatic potential using cell-lines. Objective: This study is aimed to scientifically substantiate the antiurolithiatic effect of Neeri extract (NRE) through calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization inhibition, scavenging of free radicals, and protection of renal tubular epithelial NRK-52E cells from oxalate-induced injury...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142401/phytochemical-compositions-and-in-vitro-assessments-of-antioxidant-and-antidiabetic-potentials-of-fractions-from-ehretia-cymosa-thonn
#4
Akintayo Ogundajo, Anofi Tom Ashafa
Background: Ehretia cymosa Thonn. is a popular medicinal plant used in different parts of West Africa for the treatment of various ailments including diabetes mellitus. Objective: The current study investigates bioactive constituents and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials of fractions from extract of E. cymosa. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical investigation and antioxidant assays were carried out using standard procedures...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137280/ppar%C3%AE-sumoylation-mediated-lipid-accumulation-in-lung-cancer
#5
Ai N H Phan, Vu T A Vo, Tuyen N M Hua, Min-Kyu Kim, Se-Young Jo, Jong-Whan Choi, Hyun-Won Kim, Jaekyoung Son, Young-Ah Suh, Yangsik Jeong
Metabolic reprogramming as a crucial emerging hallmark of cancer is critical for tumor cells to maintain cellular bioenergetics, biosynthesis and reduction/oxidation (REDOX) balance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor regulating transcription of diverse gene sets involved in inflammation, metabolism, and suppressing tumor growth. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), as selective PPARγ ligands, are insulin-sensitizing drugs widely prescribed for type 2 diabetic patients in the clinic...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136546/multi-component-hybrid-soft-ionogels-for-photoluminescence-tuning-and-sensing-organic-solvent-vapors
#6
Jing Ma, Bing Yan
This paper tries to prepare soft ionogels through the carboxyl ion liquid (IM(+)Br(-)) as double chemical linker connecting both Bio-MOF-1 (Zn8(ad)4(BPDC)6O·2Me2NH2, BPDC=biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate, Ad = adeninate) and lanthanide complexes. Among anionic Bio-MOF-1 interacts with IM(+)Br(-) through cation exchange (IM(+)) to form BMOF-IM and lanthanide ions are further introduced through the coordination to the carboxylic group of IM(+) together with Phen (1,10-phenanthroline) as assistant ligand for Ln(3+) (Ln = Eu, Tb or Eu/Tb)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136199/site-specific-dual-color-labeling-of-long-rnas-for-single-molecule-spectroscopy
#7
Meng Zhao, Fabio D Steffen, Richard Börner, Michelle F Schaffer, Roland K O Sigel, Eva Freisinger
Labeling of long RNA molecules in a site-specific yet generally applicable manner is integral to many spectroscopic applications. Here we present a novel covalent labeling approach that is site-specific and scalable to long intricately folded RNAs. In this approach, a custom-designed DNA strand that hybridizes to the RNA guides a reactive group to target a preselected adenine residue. The functionalized nucleotide along with the concomitantly oxidized 3'-terminus can subsequently be conjugated to two different fluorophores via bio-orthogonal chemistry...
November 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135921/nox-reactive-oxygen-species-and-regulation-of-vascular-cell-fate
#8
REVIEW
Denise Burtenshaw, Roya Hakimjavadi, Eileen M Redmond, Paul A Cahill
The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an imbalance of antioxidant defence mechanisms can result in oxidative stress. Several pro-atherogenic stimuli that promote intimal-medial thickening (IMT) and early arteriosclerotic disease progression share oxidative stress as a common regulatory pathway dictating vascular cell fate. The major source of ROS generated within the vascular system is the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family of enzymes (Nox), of which seven members have been characterized...
November 14, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132391/nadph-oxidases-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Karim Belarbi, Elodie Cuvelier, Alain Destée, Bernard Gressier, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive movement neurodegenerative disease associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Oxidative stress, a condition that occurs due to imbalance in oxidant and antioxidant status, is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are multi-subunit enzymatic complexes that generate reactive oxygen species as their primary function. Increased immunoreactivities for the NADPH oxidases catalytic subunits Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 have been reported in the brain of PD patients...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131013/a-new-baltic-population-specific-human-genetic-marker-in-the-pmca4-gene
#10
Janis Stavusis, Inna Inashkina, Baiba Lace, Dita Pelnena, Svetlana Limborska, Andrey Khrunin, Vaidutis Kucinskas, Astrida Krumina, Linda Piekuse, Branko Zorn, Violeta Fodina, Margus Punab, Juris Erenpreiss
OBJECTIVES: The PMCA gene family consists of 4 genes and at least 21 splice variants; among these, the Ca2+ ATPase 4 (PMCA4) gene encodes a plasma membrane protein abundantly expressed in several tissues, including the kidney, heart, and sperm. Knockout of PMCA4 causes infertility due to immotile sperm in mouse models. We therefore investigated variants in this gene for potential association with infertility in groups of Estonian (n = 191) and Latvian (n = 92) men with reduced sperm motility...
November 2, 2017: Human Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130305/tuning-the-sensing-performance-of-multilayer-plasmonic-core-satellite-assemblies-for-rapid-detection-of-targets-from-lysed-cells
#11
Nguyen Hoang Le, Bach Kim Nguyen, Gang Ye, Chun Peng, Jennifer I L Chen
Optical sensors based on discrete plasmonic nanostructures are invaluable for probing biomolecular interactions when applied as plasmonic rulers or reconfigurable multi-nanoparticle assemblies. However, their adaptation as a versatile sensing platform is limited by the research-grade instrumentation required for single-nanostructure imaging and/or spectroscopy and complex data fitting and analysis. Additionally, the dynamic range is often too narrow for the quantitative analysis of targets of interest in biodiagnostics, food safety or environmental monitoring...
November 13, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129681/decreased-sirtuin-deacetylase-activity-in-lrrk2-g2019s-ipsc-derived-dopaminergic-neurons
#12
Andrew J Schwab, Samantha L Sison, Michael R Meade, Katarzyna A Broniowska, John A Corbett, Allison D Ebert
Mitochondrial changes have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The glycine to serine mutation (G2019S) in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the most common genetic cause for PD and has been shown to impair mitochondrial function and morphology in multiple model systems. We analyzed mitochondrial function in LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons to determine whether the G2019S mutation elicits similar mitochondrial deficits among central and peripheral nervous system neuron subtypes...
October 31, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129662/review-of-nad-p-h-dependent-oxidoreductases-properties-engineering-and-application
#13
REVIEW
Lara Sellés Vidal, Ciarán L Kelly, Paweł M Mordaka, John T Heap
NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases catalyze the reduction or oxidation of a substrate coupled to the oxidation or reduction, respectively, of a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor NAD(P)H or NAD(P)(+). NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases catalyze a large variety of reactions and play a pivotal role in many central metabolic pathways. Due to the high activity, regiospecificity and stereospecificity with which they catalyze redox reactions, they have been used as key components in a wide range of applications, including substrate utilisation, the synthesis of chemicals, biodegradation and detoxification...
November 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128917/heterologous-expression-of-mitochondrial-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-transporter-ndt1-from-aspergillus-fumigatus-rescues-impaired-growth-in-%C3%AE-ndt1%C3%AE-ndt2-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strain
#14
Laís de Lourdes de Lima Balico, Emerson de Souza Santos, Silveli Suzuki-Hatano, Lucas Oliveira Sousa, Ana Elisa Caleiro Seixas Azzolini, Yara Maria Lucisano-Valim, Taisa Magnani Dinamarco, Vinicius Kannen, Sérgio Akira Uyemura
Our understanding of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide mitochondrial transporter 1 (Ndt1A) in Aspergillus fumigatus remains poor. Thus, we investigated whether Ndt1A could alter fungi survival. To this end, we engineered the expression of an Ndt1A-encoding region in a Δndt1Δndt2 yeast strain. The resulting cloned Ndt1A protein promoted the mitochondrial uptake of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), generating a large mitochondrial membrane potential. The NAD(+) carrier utilized the electrochemical proton gradient to drive NAD(+) entrance into mitochondria when the mitochondrial membrane potential was sustained by succinate...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126300/deproteinization-is-necessary-for-the-accurate-determination-of-ammonia-levels-by-glutamate-dehydrogenase-assay-in-blood-plasma-from-subjects-with-liver-injury
#15
Melita Vodenicarovova, Hana Skalska, Milan Holecek
Objective: To determine the effect of presence of high concentrations of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)- and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-consuming enzymes on the accuracy of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) assay for ammonia. Methods: We measured ammonia concentrations using GLDH and NADH or NADPH in blood-plasma specimens and specimens deproteinized by sulfosalicylic acid from CCl4-treated or control rats. The nonspecific oxidation of NADH and NADPH was measured in mixtures without GLDH...
November 8, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125988/quantification-of-nitrogenous-bases-dna-and-collagen-type-i-for-the-estimation-of-the-postmortem-interval-in-bone-remains
#16
Cristina Pérez-Martínez, María D Pérez-Cárceles, Isabel Legaz, Gemma Prieto-Bonete, Aurelio Luna
Estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) is an important goal in forensic medicine and continues to be one of the most difficult tasks of the forensic investigator. Few accurate methods exist to determine the time since death of skeletonized human remains due to the great number of intrinsic and external factors that may alter the normal course of postmortem change. The purpose of this research was to assess the usefulness of various biochemical parameters, such as nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, purines, cytosine, thymine, pyrimidines, hypoxanthine and xanthine), DNA and Collagen Type I peptides to estimate PMI...
November 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125227/pichia-pastoris-alcohol-oxidase-1-aox1-core-promoter-engineering-by-high-resolution-systematic-mutagenesis
#17
Rui M C Portela, Thomas Vogl, Katharina Ebner, Rui Oliveira, Anton Glieder
Unravelling the core promoter sequence-function relationship is fundamental for engineering transcription initiation and thereby a feasible 'tuning knob' for fine-tuning expression in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications. Here a systematic replacement studies of the core promoter and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the exceptionally strong and tightly methanol regulated Komagataella phaffii (syn. Pichia pastoris) alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter at unprecedented resolution was performed...
November 10, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124970/a-review-on-the-nucleic-acid-constituents-in-mushrooms-nucleobases-nucleosides-and-nucleotides
#18
Chia-Wei Phan, Joon-Keong Wang, Shiau-Chuen Cheah, Murali Naidu, Pamela David, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Mushrooms have become increasingly important as a reliable food source. They have also been recognized as an important source of bioactive compounds of high nutritional and medicinal values. The nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides found in mushrooms play important roles in the regulation of various physiological processes in the human body via the purinergic and/or pyrimidine receptors. Cordycepin, a 3'-deoxyadenosine found in Cordyceps sinensis has received much attention as it possesses many medicinal values including anticancer properties...
November 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122970/a-novel-form-of-rna-double-helix-based-on-g%C3%A2-u-and-c%C3%A2-a-wobble-base-pairing
#19
Ankur Garg, Udo Heinemann
Wobble base pairs are critical in various physiological functions and have been linked to local structural perturbations in double helical structures of nucleic acids. We report a 1.38-Å resolution crystal structure of an antiparallel octadecamer RNA double helix in overall A conformation, which includes a unique, central stretch of six consecutive wobble base pairs (W helix) with two G·U and four rare C·A(+) wobble pairs. Four adenines within the W helix are N1-protonated and wobble-base-paired with the opposing cytosine through two regular hydrogen bonds...
November 9, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122935/in-vivo-measurements-of-interindividual-differences-in-dna-glycosylases-and-ape1-activities
#20
Isaac A Chaim, Zachary D Nagel, Jennifer J Jordan, Patrizia Mazzucato, Le P Ngo, Leona D Samson
The integrity of our DNA is challenged with at least 100,000 lesions per cell on a daily basis. Failure to repair DNA damage efficiently can lead to cancer, immunodeficiency, and neurodegenerative disease. Base excision repair (BER) recognizes and repairs minimally helix-distorting DNA base lesions induced by both endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. Levels of BER-initiating DNA glycosylases can vary between individuals, suggesting that quantitating and understanding interindividual differences in DNA repair capacity (DRC) may enable us to predict and prevent disease in a personalized manner...
November 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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