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Slim Fourati, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects approximately 240 million individuals worldwide. Recent advances in the virology, immunopathogenesis, and diagnosis of HBV infection are summarized in this review article. The identification of a hepatocyte-specific cellular receptor for HBV, the sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), made it possible to develop reliable cell culture systems and better understand the early steps of the viral lifecycle. Viral and host factors involved in covalently closed circular DNA synthesis, stability, and transcriptional regulation have also been identified and provide potential targets for new drugs...
2016: F1000Research
Carolin Cornelius, Katrin Schöneweis, Fanny Georgi, Milena Weber, Verena Niederberger, Petra Zieglmayer, Katarzyna Niespodziana, Michael Trauner, Harald Hofer, Stephan Urban, Rudolf Valenta
BACKGROUND: We have constructed and clinically evaluated a hypoallergenic vaccine for grass pollen allergy, BM32, which is based on fusion proteins consisting of peptides from the IgE binding sites of the major grass pollen allergens fused to preS (preS1+preS2), a domain of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) large envelope protein which mediates the viral attachment and entry. Aim of this study was the characterization of the HBV-specific immune response induced by vaccination of allergic patients with BM32 and the investigation of the vaccines' potential to protect against infection with HBV...
September 2016: EBioMedicine
Florian A Lempp, Yi Ni, Stephan Urban
Chronic hepatitis D is the most severe form of viral hepatitis, affecting ∼20 million HBV-infected people worldwide. The causative agent, hepatitis delta virus (HDV), is a unique human pathogen: it is the smallest known virus; it depends on HBV to disseminate its viroid-like RNA; it encodes only one protein (HDAg), which has both structural and regulatory functions; and it replicates using predominantly host proteins. The failure of HBV-specific nucleoside analogues to suppress the HBV helper function, and the limitations of experimental systems to study the HDV life cycle, have impeded the development of HDV-specific drugs...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Tomohisa Tanaka, Kaori Okuyama-Dobashi, Shuko Murakami, Wenjia Chen, Toru Okamoto, Keiji Ueda, Takamitsu Hosoya, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Akihide Ryo, Yasuhito Tanaka, Masatoshi Hagiwara, Kohji Moriishi
Current therapies for hepatitis B virus (HBV) cannot completely eliminate the HBV genome because of the stable population of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and so on. FIT-039, which is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 9 inhibitor, is known to suppress the replication of several DNA viruses including HSV, HPV and human adenovirus. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effect of FIT-039 on HBV infection. HepG2 cells expressing human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (HepG2/NTCP cells) were infected with HBV in the presence of FIT-039...
September 2016: Antiviral Research
Zhuo-Wei Shen, Meng-Yue Luo, Hai-Hong Hu, Hui Zhou, Hui-Di Jiang, Lu-Shan Yu, Su Zeng
NTCP is specifically expressed on the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes, participating in the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts, especially conjugated bile salts, to maintain bile salts homeostasis. In addition, recent studies have found that NTCP is a functional receptor of HBV and HDV. Therefore, it is important to study the interaction between drugs and NTCP and identify the inhibitors/substrates of NTCP. In the present study, a LLC-PK1 cell model stably expressing human NTCP was established, which was simple and suitable for high throughput screening, and utilized to screen and verify the potential inhibitors of NTCP from 102 herbal medicinal ingredients...
July 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Xueqin Chen, Ying Wang, Xiaohua Chen, Kailiang Cheng, Jiaoyuan Li, Jiao Lou, Juntao Ke, Yang Yang, Yajie Gong, Ying Zhu, Li Wang, Rong Zhong
The Na/taurocholate cotransporter NTCP (encoded by SLC10A1) was identified as a cellular entry receptor for the human hepatitis B virus (HBV), advancing our understanding of the molecular mechanism of HBV infection. An alternative hypothesis was put forward that regulatory variants in SLC10A1 might play an important role in HBV susceptibility by potentially influencing expression levels of NTCP. The three regulatory SNPs (rs8011311, rs7154439, rs111409076) were genotyped in 1023 HBV-persistent carriers, 735 subjects with HBV natural clearance and 732 HBV marker-negative subjects in a Han Chinese population...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Wenhui He, Zhiliang Cao, Fengfeng Mao, Bijie Ren, Yunfei Li, Dan Li, Huiyu Li, Bo Peng, Huan Yan, Yonghe Qi, Yinyan Sun, Fengchao Wang, Jianhua Sui, Wenhui Li
UNLABELLED: Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) was identified as a functional receptor for hepatitis D virus (HDV) and its helper hepatitis B virus (HBV). In cultured cell lines, HDV infection through mouse NTCP is restricted by residues 84 to 87 of the receptor. This study shows that mice with these three amino acids altered their corresponding human residues (H84R, T86K, and S87N) in endogenous mouse NTCP support de novo HDV infection in vivo HDV infection was documented by the presence of replicative forms of HDV RNA and HDV proteins in liver cells at day 6 after viral inoculation...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Massimo Levrero, Barbara Testoni, Fabien Zoulim
Current HBV treatments control replication and liver disease progression in the vast majority of treated patients. However, HBV patients often require lifelong therapies due to the persistence of transcriptionally active viral cccDNA mini-chromosome in the nucleus, which is not directly targeted by current antiviral therapies. A true complete cure of HBV would require clearance of intranuclear cccDNA from all infected hepatocytes. An intermediate but still relevant step forward that would allow treatment cessation would be reaching a functional cure, equivalent to resolved acute infection, with a durable HBsAg loss±anti-HBs seroconversion, undetectable serum DNA and persistence of cccDNA in a transcriptionally inactive status...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Masaharu Somiya, Qiushi Liu, Nobuo Yoshimoto, Masumi Iijima, Kenji Tatematsu, Tadashi Nakai, Toshihide Okajima, Kazuyuki Kuroki, Keiji Ueda, Shun'ichi Kuroda
Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) was recently discovered as a hepatitis B virus (HBV) receptor, however, the detailed mechanism of HBV entry is not yet fully understood. We investigated the cellular entry pathway of HBV using recombinant HBV surface antigen L protein particles (bio-nanocapsules, BNCs). After the modification of L protein in BNCs with myristoyl group, myristoylated BNCs (Myr-BNCs) were found to bind to NTCP in vitro, and inhibit in vitro HBV infection competitively, suggesting that Myr-BNCs share NTCP-dependent infection machinery with HBV...
October 2016: Virology
Shun Kaneko, Sei Kakinuma, Yasuhiro Asahina, Akihide Kamiya, Masato Miyoshi, Tomoyuki Tsunoda, Sayuri Nitta, Yu Asano, Hiroko Nagata, Satoshi Otani, Fukiko Kawai-Kitahata, Miyako Murakawa, Yasuhiro Itsui, Mina Nakagawa, Seishin Azuma, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Hironori Nishitsuji, Saneyuki Ujino, Kunitada Shimotohno, Masashi Iwamoto, Koichi Watashi, Takaji Wakita, Mamoru Watanabe
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not eradicated by current antiviral therapies due to persistence of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in host cells, and thus development of novel culture models for productive HBV infection is urgently needed, which will allow the study of HBV cccDNA eradication. To meet this need, we developed culture models of HBV infection using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte lineages, including immature proliferating hepatic progenitor-like cell lines (iPS-HPCs) and differentiated hepatocyte-like cells (iPS-Heps)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jisu Li, Li Zong, Camille Sureau, Luke Barker, Jack R Wands, Shuping Tong
UNLABELLED: Cell culture (cc)-derived hepatitis B virus (HBV) can infect differentiated HepaRG cells, but efficient infection requires addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) during inoculation. Identification of sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) as an HBV receptor enabled ccHBV infection of NTCP reconstituted HepG2 cells, although very little hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is produced. We found infection by patient serum-derived HBV (sHBV), which required purification of viral particles through ultracentrifugation or PEG precipitation, was PEG independent and much more efficient in HepaRG cells than in HepG2/NTCP cells...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Jingting Kang, Jie Wang, Jin Cheng, Zhiliang Cao, Ran Chen, Huiyu Li, Shuang Liu, Xiangmei Chen, Jianhua Sui, Fengmin Lu
The sodium-dependent taurocholate cotransporter polypeptide (NTCP) has been identified as a liver specific functional receptor for the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Previous studies indicated that the expression of NTCP may be associated with the proliferation status of hepatocytes. However, the involvement of NTCP in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we confirmed that NTCP was down-regulated in HCC tumor tissues compared with that in the adjacent non-tumor tissues (P < 0...
June 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Shinji Takamatsu, Mayuka Shimomura, Yoshihiro Kamada, Haruka Maeda, Tomoaki Sobajima, Hayato Hikita, Masumi Iijima, Yuta Okamoto, Ryo Misaki, Kazuhito Fujiyama, Shushi Nagamori, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Tetsuo Takehara, Keiji Ueda, Shun'ichi Kuroda, Eiji Miyoshi
The functions of cell surface proteins, such as growth factor receptors and virus/bacteria-entry receptors, can be dynamically regulated by oligosaccharide modifications. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of glycosylation in hepatitis B virus (HBV) entry into hepatoma cells. Infection of oligosaccharide-remodeling hepatoma cells with a pseudo virus of HBV, bio-nanocapsule (BNC), was evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Among various experiments using several hepatoma cells, marked difference was observed between Huh6 cells and HB611 cells, which were established by HBV gene transfection into hepatoma cells...
June 21, 2016: Glycobiology
Tasuku Nakabori, Hayato Hikita, Kazuhiro Murai, Yasutoshi Nozaki, Yugo Kai, Yuki Makino, Yoshinobu Saito, Satoshi Tanaka, Hiroshi Wada, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Takeshi Takahashi, Hiroshi Suemizu, Ryotaro Sakamori, Naoki Hiramatsu, Tomohide Tatsumi, Tetsuo Takehara
Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is a recently discovered hepatitis B virus (HBV) receptor. In the present study, we used TK-NOG mice with a humanized liver to examine the impact of endogenous NTCP expression on HBV infection. Upon inoculation with HBV, these mice exhibited clear viremia in 2 weeks, and serum HBV DNA levels gradually increased. The frequency of HBsAg-positive hepatocytes in the liver was 5.1 ± 0.6% at 2 weeks and increased with increasing HBV DNA levels, reaching 92...
2016: Scientific Reports
Florence Defresne, Etienne Sokal
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HBV-related hepatitis in children remains an unmet medical need, as current treatments are only partially effective, and only in a limited number of affected children. So-called "immunotolerant" children have not shown increased serological responses to available treatments. In cases involving more active disease, serological response has only been obtained in approximately one-third of patients when using interferon, whilst other cases exhibited virological response solely under continuous treatment with nucleoside analogues...
June 4, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Pauline Radreau, Marine Porcherot, Christophe Ramière, Karim Mouzannar, Vincent Lotteau, Patrice André
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and bile salt metabolism seem tightly connected. HBV enters hepatocytes by binding to sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), the genome of which contains 2 active farnesoid X receptor (FXR) α response elements that participate in HBV transcriptional activity. We investigated in differentiated HepaRG cells and in primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) effects of FXR activation on HBV replication and of infection on the FXR pathway. In HepaRG cells, FXR agonists (6-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid and GW4064), but no antagonist, and an FXR-unrelated bile salt inhibited viral mRNA, DNA, and protein production (IC50, 0...
September 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Zhenfeng Zhang, Benno Zehnder, Christine Damrau, Stephan Urban
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen, responsible for chronic infections of ca. 240 million people worldwide. Until recently, the entry pathway of HBV into hepatocytes was only partially understood. The identification of human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) as a bona fide receptor of HBV has provided us with new tools to investigate this pathway in more details. Combined with advances in virus visualization techniques, approaches to directly visualize HBV cell attachment, NTCP interaction, virion internalization and intracellular transport are now becoming feasible...
July 2016: FEBS Letters
Wenhui Li, Stephan Urban
For almost three decades following the discovery of the human Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) the early events of virus infection (attachment to hepatocytes, specific binding to a receptor on hepatocytes) remained enigmatic. The gradual improvement of tissue culture systems for HBV has enabled the identification of viral determinants for viral infectivity and facilitated the discovery of the human sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (hNTCP) as a liver specific receptor of HBV and its satellite, the human Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV)...
April 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Zhenzhen Su, Yi Li, Yun Liao, Bei Cai, Jie Chen, Junlong Zhang, Lixin Li, Binwu Ying, Chuanmin Tao, Min Zhao, Zhu Ba, Zhaoxia Zhang, Lanlan Wang
An association between polymorphisms in the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and the natural course of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the Chinese Han population has been noted. However, it is not known whether these polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing chronic HBV infection in other racial or ethnic populations. Accordingly, we conducted a candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association study in Tibetan and Uygur HBV-infected patients. A total of 1302 subjects including 871 Tibetans and 431 Uygurs were recruited...
July 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jingmin Yang, Yuan Yang, Mingying Xia, Lianghui Wang, Weiping Zhou, Yajun Yang, Yueming Jiang, Hongyang Wang, Ji Qian, Li Jin, Xiaofeng Wang
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether genetic variants of the HBV receptor gene NTCP are associated with HBV infection in the Han Chinese population. METHODS: We sequenced the entire 23 kb NTCP gene from 111 HBeAg-positive HBsAg carriers (PSE group), 110 HBeAg-negative HBsAg carriers (PS group), and 110 control subjects. Then, we performed association analyses of suggestively significant SNPs with HBV infection in 1075 controls, 1936 PSs and 639 PSEs. RESULTS: In total, 109 rare variants (74 novel) and 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, one novel) were screened...
2016: BMC Cancer
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