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Microbiome bioinformatics

Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
John Chu, Xavier Vila-Farres, Daigo Inoyama, Melinda Ternei, Louis J Cohen, Emma A Gordon, Boojala Vijay B Reddy, Zachary Charlop-Powers, Henry A Zebroski, Ricardo Gallardo-Macias, Mark Jaskowski, Shruthi Satish, Steven Park, David S Perlin, Joel S Freundlich, Sean F Brady
Here we present a natural product discovery approach, whereby structures are bioinformatically predicted from primary sequence and produced by chemical synthesis (synthetic-bioinformatic natural products, syn-BNPs), circumventing the need for bacterial culture and gene expression. When we applied the approach to nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters from human-associated bacteria, we identified the humimycins. These antibiotics inhibit lipid II flippase and potentiate β-lactam activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in mice, potentially providing a new treatment regimen...
October 17, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Lizi Bensoussan, Sarah Moraïs, Bareket Dassa, Nir Friedman, Bernard Henrissat, Vincent Lombard, Edward A Bayer, Itzhak Mizrahi
The cellulosome is an extracellular multi-enzyme complex that is considered one of the most efficient plant cell wall-degrading strategies devised by nature. Its unique modular architecture, achieved by high affinity and specific interaction between protein modules (cohesins and dockerins) enables formation of various enzyme combinations. Extensive research has been dedicated to the mechanistic nature of the cellulosome complex. Nevertheless, little is known regarding its distribution and abundance among microbes in natural plant fiber-rich environments...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Elisabeth M Bik
Recent developments in sequencing methods and bioinformatics analysis tools have greatly enabled the culture-independent analysis of complex microbial communities associated with environmental samples, plants, and animals. This has led to a spectacular increase in the number of studies on both membership and functionalities of these hitherto invisible worlds, in particular those of the human microbiome. The wide variety in available microbiome tools and platforms can be overwhelming, and making sound conclusions from scientific research can be challenging...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Ji-Hoi Moon, Jae-Hyung Lee
Human oral cavity contains a highly personalized microbiome that is essential to maintaining health but capable of causing oral and systemic diseases. Thus, an in-depth definition of "healthy oral microbiome" is critical to understanding variations in disease states from preclinical conditions and disease onset through progressive states of disease. With rapid advances in DNA sequencing and analytical technologies, population-based studies have documented the ranges and diversity of both taxonomic compositions and functional potentials observed in the oral microbiome in healthy individuals...
September 29, 2016: BMB Reports
Robert Häsler, Raheleh Sheibani-Tezerji, Anupam Sinha, Matthias Barann, Ateequr Rehman, Daniela Esser, Konrad Aden, Carolin Knecht, Berenice Brandt, Susanna Nikolaus, Sascha Schäuble, Christoph Kaleta, Andre Franke, Christoph Fretter, Werner Müller, Marc-Thorsten Hütt, Michael Krawczak, Stefan Schreiber, Philip Rosenstiel
OBJECTIVE: An inadequate host response to the intestinal microbiota likely contributes to the manifestation and progression of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, molecular approaches to unravelling the nature of the defective crosstalk and its consequences for intestinal metabolic and immunological networks are lacking. We assessed the mucosal transcript levels, splicing architecture and mucosa-attached microbial communities of patients with IBD to obtain a comprehensive view of the underlying, hitherto poorly characterised interactions, and how these are altered in IBD...
September 30, 2016: Gut
Samuel T Westreich, Ian Korf, David A Mills, Danielle G Lemay
BACKGROUND: Although metatranscriptomics-the study of diverse microbial population activity based on RNA-seq data-is rapidly growing in popularity, there are limited options for biologists to analyze this type of data. Current approaches for processing metatranscriptomes rely on restricted databases and a dedicated computing cluster, or metagenome-based approaches that have not been fully evaluated for processing metatranscriptomic datasets. We created a new bioinformatics pipeline, designed specifically for metatranscriptome dataset analysis, which runs in conjunction with Metagenome-RAST (MG-RAST) servers...
September 29, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
M Altenbuchinger, T Rehberg, H U Zacharias, F Stämmler, K Dettmer, D Weber, A Hiergeist, A Gessner, E Holler, P J Oefner, R Spang
MOTIVATION: In biomedicine, every molecular measurement is relative to a reference point, like a fixed aliquot of RNA extracted from a tissue, a defined number of blood cells, or a defined volume of biofluid. Reference points are often chosen for practical reasons. For example, we might want to assess the metabolome of a diseased organ but can only measure metabolites in blood or urine. In this case the observable data only indirectly reflects the disease state. The statistical implications of these discrepancies in reference points have not yet been discussed...
September 15, 2016: Bioinformatics
Elizabeth Stulberg, Deborah Fravel, Lita M Proctor, David M Murray, Jonathan LoTempio, Linda Chrisey, Jay Garland, Kelly Goodwin, Joseph Graber, M Camille Harris, Scott Jackson, Michael Mishkind, D Marshall Porterfield, Angela Records
Genome-enabled technologies have supported a dramatic increase in our ability to study microbial communities in environments and hosts. Taking stock of previously funded microbiome research can help to identify common themes, under-represented areas and research priorities to consider moving forward. To assess the status of US microbiome research, a team of government scientists conducted an analysis of federally funded microbiome research. Microbiomes were defined as host-, ecosystem- or habitat-associated communities of microorganisms, and microbiome research was defined as those studies that emphasize community-level analyses using 'omics technologies...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Ana P Graça, Rita Calisto, Olga M Lage
Marine environments are a fruitful source of bioactive compounds some of which are the newest leading drugs in medicinal therapeutics. Of particular importance are organisms like sponges and macroalgae and their associated microbiome. Planctomycetes, abundant in macroalgae biofilms, are promising producers of bioactive compounds since they share characteristics, like large genomes and complex life cycles, with the most bioactive bacteria, the Actinobacteria. Furthermore, genome mining revealed the presence of secondary metabolite pathway genes or clusters in 13 analyzed Planctomycetes genomes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexander V Alekseyenko
MOTIVATION: Permutational non-Euclidean analysis of variance, PERMANOVA, is routinely used in exploratory analysis of multivariate datasets to draw conclusions about the significance of patterns visualized through dimension reduction. This method recognizes that pairwise distance matrix between observations is sufficient to compute within and between group sums of squares necessary to form the (pseudo) F statistic. Moreover, not only Euclidean, but arbitrary distances can be used. This method, however, suffers from loss of power and type I error inflation in the presence of heteroscedasticity and sample size imbalances...
August 11, 2016: Bioinformatics
Maryam Goudarzi, Tytus D Mak, Jonathan P Jacobs, Bo-Hyun Moon, Steven J Strawn, Jonathan Braun, David J Brenner, Albert J Fornace, Heng-Hong Li
Medical responders to radiological and nuclear disasters currently lack sufficient high-throughput and minimally invasive biodosimetry tools to assess exposure and injury in the affected populations. For this reason, we have focused on developing robust radiation exposure biomarkers in easily accessible biofluids such as urine, serum and feces. While we have previously reported on urine and serum biomarkers, here we assessed perturbations in the fecal metabolome resulting from exposure to external X radiation in vivo...
September 2016: Radiation Research
Cuicui Xiao, Shujun Ran, Zhengwei Huang, Jingping Liang
Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700) clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity), representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yi Wang, Ling Xu, Yong Q Gu, Devin Coleman-Derr
MOTIVATION: A key component of the analysis of microbiome datasets is the identification of OTUs shared between multiple experimental conditions, commonly referred to as the core microbiome. RESULTS: We present a web platform named MetaCoMET that enables the discovery and visualization of the core microbiome and provides a comparison of the relative abundance and diversity patterns between subsets of samples within a microbiome dataset. MetaCoMET provides an efficient and interactive graphical interface for analyzing each subset defined by the union or disjunction of groups within the Venn diagram, and includes a graphical taxonomy summary, alpha diversity metrics, Principal Coordinate analysis, abundance-based heatmaps, and a chart indicating the geographic distribution of each sample...
August 2, 2016: Bioinformatics
Mark J Pallen
Microbial bioinformatics in 2020 will remain a vibrant, creative discipline, adding value to the ever-growing flood of new sequence data, while embracing novel technologies and fresh approaches. Databases and search strategies will struggle to cope and manual curation will not be sustainable during the scale-up to the million-microbial-genome era. Microbial taxonomy will have to adapt to a situation in which most microorganisms are discovered and characterised through the analysis of sequences. Genome sequencing will become a routine approach in clinical and research laboratories, with fresh demands for interpretable user-friendly outputs...
September 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Sagar M Utturkar, W Nathan Cude, Michael S Robeson, Zamin K Yang, Dawn M Klingeman, Miriam L Land, Steve L Allman, Tse-Yuan S Lu, Steven D Brown, Christopher W Schadt, Mircea Podar, Mitchel J Doktycz, Dale A Pelletier
UNLABELLED: Bacterial endophytes that colonize Populus trees contribute to nutrient acquisition, prime immunity responses, and directly or indirectly increase both above- and below-ground biomasses. Endophytes are embedded within plant material, so physical separation and isolation are difficult tasks. Application of culture-independent methods, such as metagenome or bacterial transcriptome sequencing, has been limited due to the predominance of DNA from the plant biomass. Here, we describe a modified differential and density gradient centrifugation-based protocol for the separation of endophytic bacteria from Populus roots...
September 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Isabel Moreno-Indias, Marta Torres, Lidia Sanchez-Alcoholado, Fernando Cardona, Isaac Almendros, David Gozal, Josep M Montserrat, Maria I Queipo-Ortuño, Ramon Farré
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) significantly modifies gut microbiota in mice. However, whether these IH-induced gut microbiome changes are reversible after restoring normal oxygenation (the equivalent of effective OSA therapy) is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate gut microbiota composition and circulating endotoxemia after a post-IH normoxic period in a mouse model of OSA. METHODS: Ten mice were subjected to IH (40 sec 21% O2-20 sec 5% O2) for 6 h/day for 6 w and 10 mice breathing normoxic air (NM) were used as controls...
July 1, 2016: Sleep
Yvonne J Huang, John R Erb-Downward, Robert Dickson, Jeffrey L Curtis, Gary B Huffnagle, MeiLan K Han
In the past several years, advances in sequencing platforms and bioinformatics have transformed our understanding of the relationship between microbial ecology and human health. Both the normal and diseased lung are host to hundreds of bacterial genera, blurring the lines between "colonization" and "infection". However, whereas in health the respiratory microbiome is determined primarily by the dynamic balance of immigration and elimination, in chronic disease conditions become much more favorable for the reproduction of resident bacteria...
June 23, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Sutichot Nimkulrat, Heewook Lee, Thomas G Doak, Yuzhen Ye
Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are genetic cassettes that can produce massive protein sequence variation in prokaryotes. Presumably DGRs confer selective advantages to their hosts (bacteria or viruses) by generating variants of target genes-typically resulting in target proteins with altered ligand-binding specificity-through a specialized error-prone reverse transcription process. The only extensively studied DGR system is from the Bordetella phage BPP-1, although DGRs are predicted to exist in other species...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Joseph A Hakim, Hyunmin Koo, Ranjit Kumar, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Casey D Morrow, Mickie L Powell, Stephen A Watts, Asim K Bej
In this paper, we describe the microbial composition and their predictive metabolic profile in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus gut ecosystem along with samples from its habitat by using NextGen amplicon sequencing and downstream bioinformatics analyses. The microbial communities of the gut tissue revealed a near-exclusive abundance of Campylobacteraceae, whereas the pharynx tissue consisted of Tenericutes, followed by Gamma-, Alpha- and Epsilonproteobacteria at approximately equal capacities. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets exhibited a microbial profile comprised of Gammaproteobacteria, mainly Vibrio, and Bacteroidetes...
September 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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